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TB/T 2995-2000 English PDF (TBT2995-2000)

TB/T 2995-2000 English PDF (TBT2995-2000)

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TB/T 2995-2000: Railway wheels and tires for ultrasonic inspection

This Standard specifies the ultrasonic testing methods and the acceptance standard for new railway wheels and wheel tires.
TB/T 2995-2000
TB
RAILWAY INDUSTRY STANDARD
OF THE PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
eqv ISO 5948-1994
Railway Wheels and Wheel Tires Ultrasonic Testing
ISSUED ON. OCTOBER 24, 2000
IMPLEMENTED ON. MAY 1, 2001
Issued by. Ministry of Railways of the People's Republic of China
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
ISO Foreword ... 4
1 Scope ... 5
2 Normative references ... 5
3 Qualifications of the personnel ... 5
4 Equipment, probes and couplants ... 5
5 Test block ... 6
6 Drawing of distance-amplitude curve and DAC curve of wheel tire?€?s inner surface?€?s radial detection ... 7
7 Flaw detection ... 8
8 Acceptance ... 10
Appendix A ... 11
Appendix B ... 15
Appendix C ... 17
Appendix D ... 19
Appendix E ... 20
Appendix F ... 22
Appendix G ... 26
Foreword
This Standard?€?s detection methods of internal defects in material of wheels and wheel tires equal to the ones stipulated in ISO 5948-1994 ?€?Railway rolling stock material - Ultrasonic acceptance testing?€?.
Since the date of implementation of this Standard, TB 2046-89 ?€?Locomotive New Wheel Tires Ultrasonic Flaw Testing?€? and TB/T 2882-98 ?€?Wheel Ultrasonic Testing Technical Conditions?€? shall be abolished.
Appendix A, Appendix B, Appendix C, Appendix D, Appendix E, Appendix F
and Appendix G of this Standard are normative.
This Standard was proposed by and shall be under the jurisdiction of Qishuyan Locomotive and Rolling Stock Technology Research Institute Co., Ltd.
Drafting organizations of this Standard. Qishuyan Locomotive and Rolling Stock Technology Research Institute Co., Ltd., and Metals and Chemistry Research Institute of China Academy of Railway Sciences.
Main drafters of this Standard. Huang Yongwei, Li Lianxiu, Lu Xuanguo, Yao Rongwen and Zheng Lili.
Railway Wheels and Wheel Tires Ultrasonic Testing
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the ultrasonic testing methods and the acceptance standard for new railway wheels and wheel tires.
This Standard is applicable to ultrasonic testing for internal defects of new railway wheels and wheel tires
2 Normative references
The following standards contain the provisions which, through reference in this Standard, constitute the provisions of this Standard. At the time of publication, all editions indicated were valid. All standards are subject to revision, and parties who enter into agreements based on this Standard are encouraged to investigate the possibility of applying the most recent editions of the standards indicated below.
JB/T 10061-99 General technical requirements for A-type pulse reflection ultrasonic flaw detector
JB/T 10062-99 Ultrasonic flaw detection probe performance test method
3 Qualifications of the personnel
3.1 The inspector of railway wheels and wheel tires ultrasonic testing must master the corresponding basic knowledge and be familiar with provisions of this Standard.
3.2 The inspector must have Grade II or higher level of Technical Qualification Certificate issued by Accreditation and Evaluation Commission of Ministry of Railways for Non-Destructive Testing Personnel.
4 Equipment, probes and couplants
4.1 Ultrasonic flaw detector
Ultrasonic flaw detector shall meet requirements in JB/T 10061-99.
4.2 Ultrasonic probe
4.2.1 It uses longitudinal-wave straight-probe and split longitudinal-wave probe. 4.2.2 Echo frequency of ultrasonic probe is 2~5 MHz; error is less than or equals to 15%.
4.2.3 Conduct ultrasonic probe performance test method according to JB/T 10062-99.
4.3 System combination performance
4.3.1 The sensitivity of ultrasonic flaw detector and straight-probe system shall at least have 30dB allowance when it is probing the ??2 flat bottom hole of the maximum sound-path.
4.3.2 The sensitivity of ultrasonic flaw detector and split longitudinal-wave probe system shall at least have 20dB allowance when it is probing the ??2 flat bottom hole of the maximum sound-path.
4.3.3 When it uses longitudinal-wave straight-probe, the probing blind zone shall be less than 30 mm. When it uses split longitudinal-wave probe, the probing blind zone shall be less than 10 mm.
4.4 Couplants. engine oil, glycerin or water.
5 Test block
5.1 Overall test block for wheel tire and wheel flaw detection is shown in Appendix A.
5.2 Single test block for wheel tire flaw detection is shown in Appendix B. 5.3 Single test block for wheel flaw detection is shown in Appendix C.
5.4 Calibration test block for wheel tire concave radial detection is shown in Appendix D.
5.5 LG-6 test block and LG-9 test block are shown in Appendix E.
5.6 Distance-amplitude curve schematic diagram is shown in Appendix F.
5.7 DAC curve of wheel tire?€?s inner surface?€?s radial detection is shown in Appendix G.
Then increase gain 6~8dB, take it as the flaw detection scanning sensitivity. 7.4.2 Wheel rim flaw detection sensitivity
7.4.2.1 Axial flaw detection sensitivity
Use longitudinal-wave straight-probe to adjust ??d flat-bottomed hole?€?s
reflection echo of wheel rim No. 2 reference block to 50% height of screen?€?s full scale, take it as the reference. Then obtain the decibel difference BETWEEN the gain AND ??d equivalent flat-bottomed hole at the maximum detection
sound-path. On this basis, compensate the coupling difference between test block and real-object (usually it is 4dB and above), and take it as the flaw detection sensitivity.
7.4.2.2 Radial flaw detection sensitivity
Use split longitudinal-wave probe to adjust ??d flat-bottomed hole?€?s reflection echo of wheel rim No. 6 reference block to 50% height of screen?€?s full scale, take it as the reference. Then obtain the decibel difference BETWEEN the gain AND ??d equivalent flat-bottomed hole at the maximum detection sound-path. On this basis, compensate the coupling difference between test block and real- object (usually it is 4dB and above), and take it as the flaw detection sensitivity. 7.4.3 Axial acoustically-transparent flaw detection sensitivity
7.4.3.1 Wheel tire?€?s acoustically-transparent flaw detection sensitivity Use ??20 longitudinal-wave straight-probe to adjust 120?? cone-bottomed hole?€?s reflection echo of wheel rim No. 4 reference block to 50% height of screen?€?s full scale, take it as the reference. Then compensate the coupling difference between test block and real-object (usually it is 4dB and above), and take it as the flaw detection sensitivity.
7.4.3.2 Wheel rim acoustically-transparent flaw detection sensitivity
Use ??20 longitudinal-wave straight-probe to adjust 120?? cone-bottomed hole?€?s reflection echo of wheel rim No. 4 reference block to 50% height of screen?€?s full scale, take it as the reference. Then compensate the coupling difference between test block and real-object (usually it is 4dB and above), and take it as the flaw detection sensitivity.
7.5 Quality evaluation method
7.5.1 Evaluation of defects
After defects are found by flaw detection, detect the decibel difference between defects and detection reference points. Compare on the corresponding curve and determine the defect equivalence.
7.5.2 Since internal defect quantification between tread and rim junction is affected by surface state, if there is dispute, it shall use split longitudinal-wave straight-probe, of which the front end is ground to corresponding arc, under the condition that ensuring a good coupling, to determine the defect equivalence and make the right judgement.
7.5.3 Result evaluation of acoustically-transparent flaw detection
Conduct acoustically-transparent inspection on the basis of flaw detection sensitivity in 7.4.3.
8 Acceptance
8.1 In wheel or wheel tire inspection, if the defect is greater than ??3 mm equivalence, then this wheel or wheel tire shall be regarded as unqualified. 8.2 In special needs, if the defect is greater than ??2 mm equivalence, then this wheel or wheel tire shall be regarded as unqualified.
8.3 When strip-shaped defects are discovered, use 6dB method to measure the defect length and make record in details, such as length, depth, maximum reflection amplitude, so as to track and monitor.
8.4 The reflection amplitude of strip-shaped defects at any position must not be greater than ??3 mm equivalence or ??2 mm equivalence [Translator note. ?€?must not be greater than ??3 mm equival...

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