TB 10106-2010 English PDF (TB10106-2010)
TB 10106-2010 English PDF (TB10106-2010)
TB 10106-2010: Technical Code for Ground Treatment of Railway Engineering
NATIONAL INDUSTRY STANDARD OF
THE PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
Technical Code for Ground
Treatment of Railway Engineering
ISSUED ON. AUGUST 3, 2010
IMPLEMENTED ON. AUGUST 3, 2010
Issued by. Ministry of Railways of the People's Republic of China
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Table of Contents
Notice on Issuing Technical Code for ... 3
Ground Treatment of Railway Engineering .. 3
Foreword ... 6
1 General .. 8
2 Terms, symbols .. 10
3 Basic rules ... 15
4 Replacement cushion ... 27
5 Impact roller (vibration) compaction .. 31
6 Dynamic compaction and dynamic replacement ... 34
7 Packed drain and plastic plate for drainage... 39
8 Crushed stone pile ... 45
9 Sand compaction pile ... 52
10 Lime-soil (soil cement) compaction pile ... 55
11 Pile thrusted-expanded in column-hammer ... 62
12 Cement-mixed pile ... 66
13 Jet grouting pile ... 71
14 Cement-fly ash-gravel pile and plain concrete pile ... 75
15 RC pile-net (pile-raft) structure ... 79
16 RC pile-plank structure ... 84
17 Grouting ... 90
Annex A Applicable Conditions for Common Ground Treatment Methods in
Railway Engineering ... 95
Annex B Single pile load test of composite ground ... 97
Annex C Composite ground load test ... 100
Annex D Calculation of ground settlement .. 103
Explanation of words in this Code ... 115
This Code was drafted based on the requirements of ?€?Notice on publishing Railway Construction Standards Preparation Plan in 2007 (Railway-
Construction  No.1112)?€?.
During the process of compiling, this Code CONDUCTED extensive and in-
depth investigations into the current domestic and international regulations for ground treatment, earnestly SUMMARIZED the experience and lessons
learned in the design, construction and operation of the railway engineering ground treatment in China, ABSORBED the ground treatment experiences,
scientific research from Zhengzhou-Xi?€?an, Wuhan-Guangzhou, Beijing-Tianjin, Shanghai-Nanjing, Jiaoji (Shandong), Zhejiang-Jiangxi, Sui Yu, Fuzhou-
Xiamen, Wenzhou-Fuzhou and other new railway construction, with reference to relevant technical specifications at home and abroad. The final draft was on the basis of extensive solicitation of opinions and repeated review.
This Code consists of 17 clauses, including. General, Terms, symbols, Basic rules, Replacement cushion, Impact roller (vibration) compaction, Dynamic compaction and dynamic replacement, Packed drain and plastic plate for
drainage, Crushed stone pile, Sand compaction pile, Lime-soil (soil cement) compaction pile , Pile thrusted-expanded in column-hammer, Cement-mixed pile , Jet grouting pile, Cement-fly ash-gravel pile and plain concrete pile, RC pile-net (pile-raft) structure, RC pile-plank structure, Grouting, together with 4 annexes.
The main technical contents of this Code are as follows.
1 It specifies the preparation purpose, application scope, principles for ground treatment of this Code.
2 Aiming at the characteristics of ground treatment of railway engineering, it specifies the design principle that shall be based on stability and settlement deformation control.
3 It specifies that the ground stability shall be checked according to the construction period and operation period. The range of safety factor of railway with different speed grade is given. It specifies the method of correcting the stability and safety factor of slope weak ground.
4 For different speed grades of railway and ground conditions, it specifies the calculation of the thickness of the ground compression layer, the calculation method for settlement of different ground.
5 Aiming at the characteristics of flexible grounds such as subgrade and yard, it provides the method of correcting the allowable bearing capacity of ground. Technical Code for Ground
Treatment of Railway Engineering
1.0.1 This Code was formulated so as to unify the technical standards of ground treatment of railway engineering, make the ground treatment of railway engineering comply with the requirements of safety, advanced technology and economic rationality.
1.0.2 This Code is applicable to the design, construction and quality
inspection of ground treatment of railway engineering.
1.0.3 The ground treatment measures shall be reasonably determined based on the railway level, settlement control standards, geological conditions, environmental and construction period and other factors.
1.0.4 The ground treatment shall strengthen geological prospecting work, use integrated exploration methods to obtain detailed information on engineering geology, hydrogeology and environmental conditions.
1.0.5 The ground treatment design shall meet the stability and settlement deformation control and other requirements.
1.0.6 The ground treatment shall pay attention to environmental protection, taking full account of the terrain, hydrological conditions and other changes in the surrounding environment, as well as the construction of temporary roads and other temporary works on the railway stability and settlement.
1.0.7 The railway engineering demarcation department, sector with large stratigraphic changes and junction of different ground treatment measures shall take transitional ground treatment measures to reduce uneven settlement. 1.0.8 The construction of ground treatment shall be given priority as a control project, according to the principle of ?€?testing first before construction?€?. And according to the construction, feedback information to optimize the construction process and parameters.
1.0.9 The ground treatment construction methods and processes selected
shall consider the effects that the vibration, noise, dust and mud may have on the environment.
2 Terms, symbols
2.1.1 ground treatment
a method of manual treatment of ground that is used to improve the ground bearing capacity, and improve its deformation or permeability of nature 2.1.2 natural ground, natural foundation
a ground without manual treatment
2.1.3 composite ground, composite foundation
a ground treatment of which part of the soil is enhanced or replaced by the formation of reinforcement, the load is born by the reinforcement and the surrounding soil jointly
2.1.4 granular media material pile, granular column
a solid pile that is made of gravel, grit and other non-bonded bulk materials in natural ground; it forms a composite ground with pile surrounding soil, such as crushed stone pile, sand compaction pile, etc.
2.1.5 flexible pile
a pile body with certain bonding strength that is made of cement, lime and other bonding materials mixing with soil in natural ground; it forms a composite ground with pile surrounding soil, such as lime-soil (cement soil) pile, cement- mixed pile and jet grouting pile
2.1.6 rigid pile
cement-fly-ash-gravel pile, plain concrete pile and RC pile with high bond strength that are set in natural ground
2.1.7 ground allowable beating capacity
the maximum load that ensures that the ground does not produce shear failure and instability, while ensuring that the building settlement does not exceed the allowable value
2.1.8 ground basic bearing capacity
ground allowable bearing capacity when the width of the short side of the building ground does not exceed 2.0 m and the depth of embedding does not exceed 3.0 m
2.1.18 crushed stone pile, gravel pile
use vibration, impact or vibroflotation and other means to form a hole in the ground; then crush the gravels into the hole that has been formed, so as to build a dense pile of gravel, and a composite ground with pile surrounding soil 2.1.19 sand compaction pile
use vibration extrusion and other means to form a hole in the ground, so as to make loose sands between piles crowded; extrude the sandstones into the finished hole; build a composite ground with pile surrounding soil
2.1.20 lime-soil compaction pile
form a hole by using horizontal extrusion hole forming equipment so as to make the soils between piles crowded; fill lime into the hole, tiered tamping; build a composite ground with pile surrounding soil
2.1.21 soil cement compaction pile
form a hole by using horizontal extrusion hole forming equipment so as to make the soils between piles crowded; fill lime into the hole, tiered tamping so as to form a cement soil pile; build a composite ground with pile surrounding soil 2.1.22 pile thrusted-expanded in column-hammer
lift a column hammer to a high place to make it fall freely; impact it to form a hole; then perform the tiered filling tamping to form an expanded pile body; build a composite ground with pile surrounding soil
2.1.23 cement-mixed pile
use cement as the main agent of curing agent; through a deep mixing machine, forcedly mix the curing agent and the ground soil so as to make soft soil hard to form a monolithic, water-stable columnar reinforcement pile with a certain degree of strength; build a composite ground with pile surrounding soil 2.1.24 jet grouting pile
high-pressure grout is sprayed from the horizontal nozzle through the drill pipe to form a jet flow; the drill pipe is rotating while spraying; the ejected slurry cuts the soil body; mix with soil to form a cement soil reinforcement pile
2.1.25 cement-flyash-gravel pile
mix cement, fly ash, gravel, stone chips, sand and other mixture with water so as to form a high bond strength pile; build a composite ground with pile, soil between piles and reinforced cushion
3 Basic rules
3.1.1 Ground treatment programs shall be based on site geological conditions, railway level, track type, load size, environment and construction period and other factors reasonably determined so as to be economic and reasonable, safe and reliable.
3.1.2 The selection of the ground treatment program shall complete the
1 Collect the topography, geomorphology, engineering geology, hydrogeology, weather and other information along the line; take a comprehensive exploration, testing and comprehensive analysis method; identify the causes, distribution and engineering properties of foundation soil; obtain detailed and reliable information on engineering geology, hydrogeology and environmental
2 Combining with the project, investigate the local foundation treatment experience and construction conditions; for projects with special requirements, the experience and use of foundation treatment of similar projects in similar areas in other areas shall also be investigated.
3 Collect information on the construction of new railway projects within the venue that may be affected by the underground structures, pipelines and adjacent buildings (structures).
3.1.3 The ground treatment method shall be in accordance with Annex A and the following requirements. It shall be determined reasonably after multi- program comparison.
1 Fully consider the foundation soil characteristics, thickness and depth, the formation structure, groundwater characteristics, load, environmental
conditions and other factors. Make preliminary selection of feasible foundation treatment programs (including combination of treatment programs).
2 The preliminarily selected ground treatment program, from the expected treatment effect, materials, construction machinery, construction requirements and environmental impact of technical and economic comparative analysis, select the best treatment.
3.1.4 For the selected ground treatment method,...