TB 10054-2010 English PDF (TB10054-2010)
TB 10054-2010 English PDF (TB10054-2010)
TB 10054-2010: Satellites Positioning System Survey Specifications for Railway Engineering
INDUSTRY STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
P J 1088-2010
Satellites Positioning System Survey
Specifications for Railway Engineering
ISSUED ON. JULY 18, 2010
IMPLEMENTED ON. AUGUST 1, 2010
Issued by. Ministry of Railways of the PRC
Table of Contents
1 General ... 8
2 Terms ... 9
3 Coordinate system and time ... 13
4 Precision classification and technical design of control network ... 14 4.1 Precision classification of control network ... 14
4.2 Basic provisions on network layout design ... 15
4.3 Technical design of line engineering control network ... 17
4.4 Technical design of tunnel construction control network ... 17
4.5 Technical design of bridge construction control network ... 19
4.6 Technical design of aero-photogrammetric field work control survey ... 21 5 Point selection and burial of stone ... 23
5.1 Point selection ... 23
5.2 Burial of stone ... 24
6 Receiver and accessory equipment ... 25
6.1 Selection of receiver ... 25
6.2 Inspection of receiving equipment ... 25
6.3 Maintenance of receiver ... 27
7 Observation ... 29
7.1 Basic technical requirements of observation ... 29
7.2 Development of observation plan ... 30
7.3 Observation preparation ... 31
7.4 Observation ... 31
8 Data processing ... 34
8.1 Baseline solution and quality control ... 34
8.2 Supplementary survey and resurvey ... 38
8.3 Network adjustment... 38
8.4 Height conversion... 40
9 Result data ... 42
10 Real time kinematic (RTK) survey ... 44
10.1 Basic provisions ... 44
10.2 Solution of conversion parameters of coordinate system ... 46
10.3 RTK observation ... 47
10.4 Location survey pay-off and center stake survey ... 48
10.5 Digitized mapping and cross-section survey ... 51
10.6 Result data collation and submission ... 52
Appendix A Parameters of geodetic coordinate systems ... 53
Appendix B Description of control point ... 55
Appendix C Inspection of internal noise level of receiver by ultra-short baseline method ... 56
Appendix D Inspection of stability of antenna phase center ... 57
Appendix E Test of working performance of receiver and of precision indexes of different observation ranges ... 58
Appendix F Job scheduling command for satellites positioning survey ... 60 Appendix G Observation handbook for satellites positioning survey... 61 Appendix H Inspection of national triangulation points ... 63
Appendix J Calculation of construction coordinates by direct projection method ... 67
Appendix K Mathematical methods for height conversion ... 70
Appendix L RTK quality record ... 76
Descriptions for word use of this Specification ... 78
1.0.1 To unify the satellites positioning survey technical requirements for railway engineering, and to ensure that the quality of survey results meets the requirements of survey design, construction, operation and maintenance, this Specification is developed.
1.0.2 This Specification is applicable to the satellites positioning survey of new and reconstructed railway engineering.
1.0.3 Prior to the implementation of the satellites positioning survey of railway engineering, according to the project characteristics, precision requirements, survey area, and existing data, the technical design of
control network shall be carried out.
1.0.4 The satellites positioning survey receivers and accessory
equipment for railway engineering shall be checked regularly according
to the provisions, and regular maintenance and preservation shall be
carried out, to ensure the normal working condition of the instruments
1.0.5 The satellites positioning survey of railway engineering must strictly comply with the relevant confidentiality provisions and do a good job of confidentiality.
1.0.6 In addition to complying with the provisions of this Specification, the satellites positioning survey of railway engineering shall also conform to the provisions of the relevant existing compulsory national standards.
The vector between two survey points calculated from simultaneously-observed carrier phase data.
2.0.2 Observation session
The time interval between receiving and stopping receiving satellite?€?s signal at a survey station for continuous observation is called the observation session, ?€?session?€? for short.
2.0.3 Simultaneous observation
Simultaneous observation of a group of satellites by two or more receivers. 2.0.4 Simultaneous observation loop
A closed loop consisting of the baseline vectors obtained by simultaneous observation of three or more receivers.
2.0.5 Independent baseline
The baseline determined by independent observation session is called the independent baseline. When any m receivers observe simultaneously, only the m-1 baseline is an independent baseline.
2.0.6 Independent observation loop
A closed loop consisting of the independent baseline vectors obtained by non- simultaneous observation, ?€?independent observation loop?€? for short.
2.0.7 Free baseline
The baseline which does not belong to any closure condition of non-
2.0.8 Broadcast ephemeris
The radio signal transmitted by a satellite carries a message signal which forecasts the satellite orbital parameters within a certain period of time. 2.0.9 Precise ephemeris
The precise orbit information of navigation satellite determined by a network of global or regional navigation satellite tracking stations.
3 Coordinate system and time
3.0.1 When the broadcast ephemeris is used in satellites positioning survey, the World Geodetic System (WGS-84) shall be used as the coordinate system. The basic parameters of terrestrial ellipsoid and the main geometric and physical constants of the geodetic coordinate system are given in Appendix A of this Specification.
When the precise ephemeris is used in satellites positioning survey, the ITRF YY International Terrestrial Reference Frame of the corresponding epoch shall be used as the coordinate system. When converted to geodetic coordinate system, the same basic parameters of terrestrial ellipsoid and the main geometric and physical constants as those of WGS-84 can be used.
3.0.2 When the coordinates of Xi?€?an Coordinate System 1980 or Beijing
Coordinate System 1954 or National Geodetic Coordinate System 2000 are
needed, they shall be obtained through coordinate conversion. The basic parameters of reference ellipsoid of the three coordinate systems shall conform to the provisions of Appendix A.
3.0.3 When needing the coordinates of construction coordinate system or other independent coordinate systems, the following technical parameters shall be provided.
1 Reference ellipsoid and basic parameters of survey area;
2 Longitude value of central meridian of survey area;
3 Mean height anomaly in survey area;
4 The height of mean height-level of engineering or survey area;
5 Starting point coordinate and initial azimuth;
6 Vertical and horizontal coordinate addition constant.
3.0.4 When the geodetic height of survey point obtained by satellites positioning survey is converted into National Height Datum 1985, according to different precision requirements, a certain number of grade leveling points can be in connection survey, and the appropriate mathematical model can be used for calculation.
3.0.5 Satellites positioning survey shall be recorded using Coordinated Universal time (UTC). Beijing time can be used for survey handbook record. 4.3 Technical design of line engineering control network
4.3.1 The line engineering control network shall be arranged based on the principle of hierarchical layout. The density and position of control points shall be determined according to the type of control network. It shall also conform to the relevant provisions of ?€?Code for railway engineering survey?€? (TB 10101), ?€?Code for engineering survey of high speed railway?€? (TB 10601), ?€?Code for Reconstructed Railway Engineering Survey?€? (TB10105), and ?€?Photogrammetric Code for New Railway Lines?€? (TB 10050).
4.3.2 The line engineering control network shall be laid along the line plan. It shall be arranged as a ribbon network consisting of a geodetic quadrangle or quadrangle.
4.3.3 The basic horizontal control points (CP I) and horizontal control points for basic frame network (CP 0) and national high grade triangulation points shall be in connection survey. Generally, every 50 km or so, a national high grade horizontal control point is connectedly surveyed. When it is difficult, the distance between connected-survey points shall not be greater than 100 km. The total number of connected-survey national high grade horizontal control points in one network shall not be less than 3, and in special cases shall not be less than 2. The connected-survey points shall be evenly distributed in the network. 4.3.4 National high grade control points near the line plan, and the national grade control points with equal or lower level of precision as the survey network shall be incorporated into the observation network as much as possible, as check points for coordinate conversion effectiveness.
4.3.5 Common point pairs shall be arranged at the survey boundary. The nearby high grade control points shall be incorporated into the adjacent control network. 4.3.6 Prior to constrained adjustment for control network, it shall analyze the precision of the national network points to be used as constrained conditions. When the precision meets the requirements of the control network reference, it shall be used directly or after the conversion. When the precision fails to meet the requirements, the coordinates of one point and the azimuth of one side of national network can be selected as the initial data for control network. 4.3.7 When a railway engineering construction project is divided into sections for multiple organizations to carry out satellites positioning survey, the overall adjustment for control network shall be performed.
4.4 Technical design of tunnel construction control network
4.4.1 The reference design of tunnel construction control network shall meet the following requirements.
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4.4.3 In addition to implementing the provisions of Section 4.2 of this Specification, the network layout design of outside tunnel control network shall also meet the following requirements.
1 The control network shall consist of entrance and exit subnetworks,
auxiliary pilot tunnel subnetwork, and a contact network between the
subnetworks. The control points of each subnetwork shall not be less than 4. The straight tunnel shall set more than 1 portal horizontal point on the center line outside the tunnel. The curve tunnel shall set 2 control points on the tangent (or common tangent).
2 The laying of portal control points shall consider the need to detect, encrypt, restore control points and transfer survey inside tunnel by using
conventional survey methods. The control points in all subnetworks shall be intervisible with each other.
3 The control points at the two ends of the connected-survey side of inside- outside tunnel survey shall be arranged at the roughly equal height. The length of connected-survey side shall be greater than 500 m. When it is difficult, it shall not be less than 300 m. When the length of connected- survey side is less than 400 m, the whole network shall be improved by
one grade for observation.
4 The control network shall be arranged as a hybrid network consisting of triangles and geodetic quadrangles. The contact network between
subnetworks shall be arranged into a geodetic quadrangle. The connection line between portal horizontal points of entrance and exit shall be a direct observation side.
5 The control network shall use static survey mode to observe.
6 Bridge-tunnel connected area shall be laid as a whole. The control length shall be calculated according to the distance between the first and last 2 control points on the center line.
4.5 Technical design of bridge construction control network
4.5.1 The reference design of bridge construction control network shall meet the following requirements.
1 The position reference of the network shall be determined by the assumed coordinates of starting end control point of bridge axis. It shall take the location survey range of the starting end control point (When the starting endpoint is not the center line stake, it can be transmitted and obtained by 3 According to the topographic conditions near the bridge site, the control points shall be arranged on both sides of the bridge and on both sides of the bridge axis; and shall meet the requirements for intersection survey of bridge pier.
4 Adjacent control points shall be intervisible with each other. In case of difficulty, each point shall be intervisible with at least 2 control points. 5 The control network shall be arranged as a complex network consisting of a plurality of geodetic quadrangles and triangles with the bridge axis as the common side.
4.5.4 The control network of special bridge engineering shall de designed for survey separately. The survey precision shall meet the requirements of the project.
4.6 Technical design of aero-photogrammetric field work control survey
4.6.1 The position reference, azimuth reference, and scale reference of aero- photogrammetric field work control network shall be based on the national high grade control point, and shall be consistent with the line engineering control network.
4.6.2 The field work horizontal control survey shall adopt two-level network of basic control network and photo-control point.
4.6.3 In addition to implementing the provisions of Section 4.2 of this Specification, the design of basic control network shall also meet the relevant provisions of ?€?Photogrammetric Code for New Railway Lines?€? (TB 10050).
4.6.4 Photo-control point survey shall meet the following technical requirements. 1 The photo-control point survey shall set network based on the basic control network points. The position and height of photo-control point can be
surveyed in rapid static or real time kinematic (RTK) mode.
2 The distance from photo-control point to the reference station is less than 10 km. Rapid static reference stations shall preferentially select basic control network points. When the point position is not suitable for
observation, an appropriate photo-control point can also be selected as the reference station. Adjacent reference stations shall be in connection survey.
3 The height of photo-control point can be obtained by using fitting method to convert the geodetic height information surveyed by satellites
5 Point selection and burial of stone
5.1 Point selection
5.1.1 The point selection preparation shall conform to the following provisions. 1 COLLECT and STUDY the topographic maps of a scale of 1.50000 or
larger, existing survey control points, network layout plan, route plan, profile diagram, and other data of the survey area.
2 UNDERSTAND traffic, communications, power supply, meteorological data, etc. of the survey area.
5.1.2 Point position selection shall conform to the following provisions. 1 The point position shall be suitable for placement of receiving equipment and be easy to operate. The point position shall be surrounded by a wide field of vision and a good intervisibility to the sky. Above an elevating angle of 15??, there shall be no obstructions blocking satellite signals.
2 The distance from point position to high-power radio transmitting stations (e.g., TV tower, microwave station, etc.) shall not be less than 200 m; and the distance to high-voltage transmission lines shall not be less than 50 m. When the distance requirement cannot be satisfied under special
circumstances, the receiver with strong anti-jamming performance shall be used for observation.
3 The foundation of point position shall be solid and stable. The point position shall be easy to save; and be convenient for extension and connection
survey by conventional survey methods.
4 There shall be no object which strongly interferes with satellite signal reception near the point position.
5 Traffic shall be convenient around the point position. The point position shall be easy to find and reach.
5.1.3 The point selection operations shall conform to the following provisions. 1 According to the requirements, SELECT and MARK the point position in
2 The description of points drawn in the field shall comply with the provisions of Appendix B.
3 When it is difficult for point-to-sky intervisibility, and obstructions block simultaneously. The method and requirement for the observation of
meteorological elements, and the verification of meteorological instruments shall conform to the provisions of the current national standard ?€?Specifications for global positioning system (GPS) surveys?€? (GB/T 18314-2009).
7.1.3 Each observation session of horizontal control points for basic frame network shall be evenly distributed day and night. The number of night
observation sessions shall not be less than 1. Every observation session shall not cross 8 a.m. Beijing time (0 o?€?clock GPS time).
7.2 Development of observation plan
7.2.1 Before the observation, satellite visibility forecast table shall be prepared. The forecast table shall include visible satellite No., satellite elevation and azimuth, best observation star groups, best observation sessions, geometric intensity factors of point position, and other contents.
7.2.2 The longitude and latitude of the central position of survey area shall be used as the approximate position coordinates for the preparation of the forecast table. The forecast time shall select the middle time of operational period. The ephemeris data shall be collected in the survey area. The ephemeris age shall not exceed 20 days, otherwise a new set of ephemeris data shall be reacquired. For the long grand trunk line, when the operational period lasts for more than 30 days, according to the different time and locations, separate forecast tables shall be prepared.
7.2.3 The observational program should be designed based on the satellite visibility forecast table, number of receivers, point position traffic conditions, and control network shape. The main contents include.
1 SELECT survey mode.
2 SELECT the best star groups.
3 DETERMINE the start and end time of simultaneous observation session; SELECT observation window.
4 DETERMINE simultaneous loop and independent loop.
5 DEVELOP an observation plan; FILL in and RELEASE job scheduling
command, which shall conform to the provisions of Appendix F.
6 In accordance with actual job progress, timely ADJUST the observation plan and scheduling command.
handling suggestions shall be proposed. The height of the antenna shall be measured according to the type of the instrument; and shall be measured to the antenna height position specified by the manufacturer. The type of antenna height (slope distance, vertical distance) shall be indicated.
7.4.6 The receiver shall start up and begin to observe after the power cable, antenna cable, etc. are connected correctly and the preset state of the receiver is normal.
7.4.7 After the receiver (except for the single-key receiver) starts to record data, the survey station name, survey station No., session No., antenna heig...