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TB 10035-2018 English PDF (TB10035-2018)

TB 10035-2018 English PDF (TB10035-2018)

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TB 10035-2018: Code for Design on Special Railway Earth Structure

This Code is formulated to unify the technical standards for the design of special railway earth structure, and to make the design of earth structure of special area meet the requirements of safe application, advanced technology, and reasonable economy. This Code is applicable to the design of earth structure of special area for high-speed railways, inter-city railways, mixed passenger and freight Class I and Class II railways, and heavy-haul railways.
TB 10035-2018
P TB 10035-2018
J 158-2018
Code for Design on Special Railway Earth Structure
Issued by: National Railway Administration of the PRC
Table of Contents
1 General ... 11
2 Terms and symbols ... 13
2.1 Terms ... 13
2.2 Symbols ... 17
3 Subgrade of soft soil section ... 19
3.1 General provisions ... 19
3.2 Stability analysis and settlement calculation ... 22
3.3 Embankment ... 31
3.4 Cutting ... 33
3.5 Foundation treatment ... 35
4 Earth structure of expansive rock and soil ... 39
4.1 General provisions ... 39
4.2 Embankment ... 40
4.3 Cutting ... 41
4.4 Slope protection and reinforcement ... 43
4.5 Foundation treatment ... 45
4.6 Subgrade waterproof and drainage ... 46
5 Loess subgrade ... 48
5.1 General provisions ... 48
5.2 Embankment ... 49
5.3 Cutting ... 50
5.4 Slope protection and reinforcement ... 52
5.5 Foundation treatment ... 52
5.6 Subgrade waterproof and drainage ... 56
5.7 Sinkhole treatment ... 57
6 Saline soil and salt rock subgrade ... 58
6.1 General provisions ... 58
6.2 Embankment ... 58
6.3 Side slope protection ... 61
6.4 Foundation treatment ... 62
6.5 Subgrade waterproof and drainage ... 63
7 Earth structure of permafrost area ... 65
7.1 General provisions ... 65
7.2 Embankment ... 66
7.3 Cutting ... 69
7.4 Slope protection and retaining ... 70
7.5 Transition section ... 71
7.6 Subgrade waterproof and drainage ... 73
7.7 Borrow pits and spoil banks ... 75
8 Earth structure of seasonal frozen soil area ... 76
8.1 General provisions ... 76
8.2 Embankment ... 76
8.3 Cutting ... 79
8.4 Subgrade retaining and protection ... 80
8.5 Subgrade waterproof and drainage ... 82
9 Earth structure of granite weathered residual soil ... 83
9.1 General provisions ... 83
9.2 Embankment ... 84
9.3 Cutting ... 85
9.4 Slope protection and reinforcement ... 86
9.5 Subgrade waterproof and drainage ... 88
10 Subgrade of filling site ... 90
10.1 General provisions ... 90
10.2 Embankment ... 91
10.3 Cutting ... 91
10.4 Foundation treatment ... 94
10.5 Subgrade waterproof and drainage ... 96
11 Subgrade of landslide section ... 97
11.1 General provisions ... 97
11.2 Landslide stability analysis and sliding force calculation ... 97 11.3 Prevention and control engineering ... 99
11.4 Engineering landslide prevention... 102
11.5 Landslide monitoring ... 103
12 Subgrade of dangerous rock, rockfall, collapse and talus section ... 105 12.1 General provisions ... 105
12.2 Subgrade of dangerous rock, rockfall, and collapse section ... 105 12.3 Subgrade of talus section ... 106
13 Subgrade of karst and artificial pothole section ... 108
13.1 General provisions ... 108
13.2 Subgrade of karst section ... 109
13.3 Subgrade of artificial pothole section ... 112
14 Subgrade in area of sand blown by the wind ... 115
14.1 General provisions ... 115
14.2 Embankment ... 116
14.3 Cutting ... 117
14.4 Subgrade slope protection ... 117
14.5 Plane protection of sand blown by the wind ... 118
14.6 Windproof measures in windy areas ... 122
15 Subgrade of snow-damaged area ... 124
15.1 General provisions ... 124
15.2 Subgrade section form ... 125
15.3 Protective measures ... 125
16 Submerged subgrade ... 128
16.1 General provisions ... 128
16.2 Subgrade of pond and waterlogged sections ... 131
16.3 River beach and riverside subgrade ... 131
16.4 Coastal subgrade ... 132
16.5 Subgrade of reservoir section ... 135
Appendix A Classification and relevant characteristics of special rock and soil ... 138
Appendix B Calculation of foundation settlement and thickness of insulation layer in permafrost ... 153
Appendix C Calculation of load of sand blown by the wind ... 165
Appendix D Calculation method of buried depth of sand barrier column
foundation ... 166
Descriptions for word use of this Code ... 169
2 Terms and symbols
2.1 Terms
2.1.1 Earth structure of special area
The general term for earth structure of special rock and soil area and earth structure of special condition.
2.1.2 Earth structure of special rock and soil area
The earth structure located in special rock and soil sections such as soft soil, expansive rock and soil, loess, saline soil.
2.1.3 Earth structure of special condition
The earth structure located in bad geological sections, as well as the earth structure strongly affected by natural factors such as water and climate. 2.1.4 Soft soil
The cohesive soil deposited in still water or slow flowing water environment and characterized by large water content (w???wL), large void ratio (e???1.0), high compressibility (a0.1~0.2???0.5 MPa-1), and low strength (Ps< 0.8 MPa).
2.1.5 Loose-soft soil
The strata such as cohesive soil, silt, and sandy soil that cannot reach the soft soil index in the earth structure engineering, which are characterized by larger water content or void ratio, higher compressibility (a0.1~0.2???0.25 MPa-1), and lower strength or bearing capacity (??0???150 kPa).
2.1.6 Expansive soil
The cohesive soil in which clay minerals are mainly composed of hydrophilic minerals and which has the characteristics of water swelling, softening, disintegration, and rapid shrinkage and cracking from water loss, and can produce reciprocating deformation.
2.1.7 Loess
The soil, formed under arid and semi-arid climatic conditions since the Quaternary, whose particles are mainly composed of powder particles and contain calcium carbonate and a small amount of soluble salts, and which has the engineering geological characteristics such as macro-void and vertical joints, poor water resistance, easy disintegration and subsurface erosion, and 3 Subgrade of soft soil section
3.1 General provisions
3.1.1 Soft soil can be classified according to its physical and mechanical properties in accordance with Appendix A.0.1 of this Code. Subgrade shall consider its following engineering characteristics and effects:
1 Soft soil has the characteristics of low natural strength and high
compressibility, resulting in poor subgrade stability and large foundation settlement deformation.
2 Soft soil has the characteristics of low permeability and slow consolidation. The consolidation of the foundation lasts a long time. The consolidation time and its settlement amount vary greatly with the consolidation
conditions, which affects the post-construction settlement of subgrade and construction period control of deep thick soft soil foundation.
3 When the high-sensitivity soft soil has thixotropy, construction vibration and disturbance will cause the strength of the soft soil to be seriously reduced, affecting the stability, deformation, or safe use of existing projects around the construction period.
4 High-plasticity or over-consolidated soft soil has rheological properties. Under undrained shear conditions, it will lead to more long-term strength reduction and continuous increase of deformation of soft soil, affecting long-term stability, deformation control, and surrounding environment
safety of the subgrade.
3.1.2 Loose-soft soil can be classified according to its physical and mechanical properties in accordance with Appendix A.0.1 of this Code. Subgrade stability, post-construction settlement control shall consider its engineering
characteristics such as low strength, high compressibility or easy liquefaction and influences.
3.1.3 The subgrade of the soft soil section should be in the form of embankment. Its height should not be less than the thickness of the foundation bed. The choice of subgrade location shall meet the following requirements:
1 It is advisable to choose a section with narrow area and thin thickness of soft soil.
2 In low hilly areas, closed or semi-closed depressions should be avoided. 3 In the valley between mountains, it is advisable to avoid being located in ??i - The internal friction angle of the bottom of the ith soil strip (??); Ei-1 - Sliding force of the i-1-th soil strip transferring the ith soil strip (kN); ??i-1 - Transfer coefficient of remaining sliding force.
5 When the embankment base is reinforced with geosynthetics, the tensile force it bears shall be calculated as the slide-resisting force.
3.2.3 When using composite foundation treatment, the overall sliding stability analysis of the embankment and the foundation shall be based on geological conditions, composite foundation type, and possible failure modes; adopt appropriate methods; and, shall meet the following requirements:
1 The composite foundation of discrete material piles and of reinforced soil piles in general sections can, in accordance with subclause 3.2.2 of this Code, be checked and computed by the arc method or the unbalanced
thrust transfer coefficient method. According to the stratum and range of the slip circle cutting, the composite foundation shall respectively adopt the shear strength index of the composite or natural foundation soil. When
using discrete material piles, the drainage consolidation effect on the foundation can be considered; the shear resistance of the soil between the piles, increased by consolidation under the load of the embankment, can be considered.
2 Rigid pile composite foundation, and reinforced soil pile composite
foundation in sections with complex conditions such as high embankment, soft soil characteristics, or environmental sensitivity shall be analyzed according to the possible failure modes of the composite foundation, using appropriate methods or combining numerical methods. When the arc
method is used for analysis, the influencing factors such as soft soil
characteristics and pile-soil modulus ratio shall be fully considered; the form and effect of pile-soil load sharing shall be reasonably determined; and, the sliding surface force shall be calculated. If necessary, the
horizontal bearing capacity of the pile should be calculated, to check the lateral stability of the pile.
3.2.4 When using rigid pile foundation treatment, the stability of the
embankment shall be analyzed according to the rigid pile foundation of the pile- supported embankment; and, shall meet the following requirements:
1 The vertical bearing capacity of the rigid pile foundation of the pile- supported embankment shall meet the vertical load requirements of the
embankment above the pile top. The vertical allowable bearing capacity of a single pile shall be determined according to the following formula:
3.3.4 The boundary between embankment and other structures, the section with large strata change, and the junction of different foundation treatment measures shall adopt gradual transition foundation treatment measures, to reduce uneven settlement.
3.3.5 Embankment design using drainage consolidation method for foundation treatment shall comply with the following provisions:
1 Through the stability check analysis during the construction period, the construction instructional design shall be conducted on the filling
parameters, such as the critical height of rapid filling, embankment filling loading form, stepped height and loading time (including precompression). The critical height of filling can also be determined by empirical formula calculation.
2 When constructing a new embankment and reserving the second line, it is advisable to design a double-line embankment at a time.
3 In accordance with the construction organization arrangement and the
construction period requirements, the construction shall be arranged in advance. After the embankment filling construction is completed, it shall be placed for a period of time. If necessary, the load can be increased for precompression.
3.3.6 The subgrade of ballasted track railway with design speed of 200 km/h and below shall be reserved for post-construction settlement widening of the subgrade. The widening value on each side shall be calculated and determined according to the post-construction settlement and the slope ratio of the track bed slope.
3.3.7 Embankment shoulders should be made of dry masonry stones or precast concrete blocks. When using mortar masonry stones or precast concrete blocks or cast-in-place concrete, it shall strengthen measures to prevent longitudinal uneven settlement and ensure smooth transverse drainage of foundation bed. When the post-construction settlement is large, the road camber or its
transverse drainage slope should be enlarged. If necessary, on the top or bottom surface of the foundation bed surface layer, an impermeable layer may be set.
3.3.8 When the subgrade base on the subgrade on the soft soil foundation in the earthquake area adopts sand and gravel cushion, the cushion material shall be gravel (pebble) or coarse gravel (pebble). Fine sand must not be used. It is not suitable to use medium and coarse sand for the embankment base cushion in earthquake areas of 9 degrees and above.
3.3.9 Based on conditions such as embankment filler properties, slope height, 3.4.3 According to the nature of the weak soil, thickness, bottom lateral slope, hydrogeological conditions, and types of reinforcement measures, etc., using the circular sliding method or the unbalanced thrust method, the cutting slope shall be subjected to stability analysis according to the relevant provisions of section 3.2 of this Code. Combined with factors such as slope height,
environmental conditions, construction methods, it shall comprehensively determine the slope form, slope ratio, and the load size and distribution characteristics of rock-soil pressure or sliding force acting on the retaining structure.
3.4.4 Slope reinforcement protection and retaining measures shall be
determined according to the engineering geological and hydrogeological
conditions of the slope, the height of the slope, the external environmental conditions and other factors, combined with the stability analysis of the slope, and according to the following provisions:
1 When the weak layer of the slope is thick, composite foundation treatment measures such as cement-soil mixing piles and rotary jet piles can be used, to reinforce the slope. The slope surface can be protected by ecological bag flexible protection, mortar masonry stone or skeleton slope protection. 2 When the slope is not high, the slope toe should be reinforced by a low retaining wall or a rubble stack. When the slope is high or the weak layer is thick, the slope toe should be retained using reinforced concrete row piles, L-shaped retaining wall, U-shaped groove structure, or
comprehensive measures, etc.
3 According to the safety and stability needs of the construction excavation process, combined with the construction conditions, necessary water stop, precipitation, and temporary reinforcement protection measures may be
3.4.5 The cutting shall be set with side ditch platform. The width should not be less than 2.0 m. When the height of the cutting slope is large, or for the interface between the soft and hard layers, the slope platform should be set. The width should not be less than 3.0 m.
3.4.6 The cutting slope shall, in accordance with factors such as topography, hydrological characteristics, and surrounding environment, take reasonable waterproof and drainage measures. If necessary, support seepage ditches or upward inclined drainage holes may be provided, to strengthen the removal of groundwater in the slope.
3.4.7 When the back of the retaining structure wall adopts sand-pebble inverted layer, its thickness must not be less than 0.5 m.
3.5.9 When adopting rigid pile foundation treatment measures, the following requirements shall be met:
1 It shall comprehensively consider factors such as the embankment height, the nature of foundation soil, the topography, and the environmental
conditions; and, combine the suitability of the pile board, pile raft, and pile- net structure, to reasonably determine the appropriate structural form. 2 For low embankment, slope or non-crusted silt, muddy soil foundation, and when settlement deformation is strictly controlled, pile board or pile raft structure should be adopted. When using a pile-net structure, appropriate treatment measures shall be taken to ensure lateral stability.
3 Driven and pressed prefabricated reinforced concrete piles should be used. When the foundation soil is sandwiched with stones, boulders or is uneven in hardness, reinforced concrete cast-in-situ bored piles may be used.
4 When the top of rigid pile is above the ground and buried in the filling embankment, the filling embankment under the pile top shall be stable.
After its settlement is basically completed, a rigid pile foundation shall be set.
3.5.10 Grouting, micro piles, etc. can be used for soft soil and loose-soft soil foundation treatment under special conditions or reinforcement of existing subgrade foundation. The design shall comply with the relevant provisions of the current "Technical code for improvement of soil and foundation of existing buildings" JGJ 123.
3.5.11 When there is a soft layer beneath the composite foundation and the bearing layer at the bottom of the rigid pile, the bearing capacity of the foundation shall be verified; and, shall meet the corresponding requirements. 3.5.12 For composite foundations and rigid pile pile-net (pile raft) structures, a reinforced cushion of sand gravel or rubble with a thickness of not less than 0.4 m shall be placed on the top of the pile (cap). The reinforcement should be a geogrid. The ultimate tensile strength shall not be less than 50 kN/m.
3.5.13 For sections reinforced using composite foundation or rigid piles, before construction, according to the design, technical test piles shall be carried out, to confirm that the design and construction related parameters are technically feasible.
3.5.14 The upper subgrade project can be constructed only after the foundation reinforcement quality test is passed.
top of the cutting should not be less than 5 m.
4.6.2 For medium and strong expansive rock and soil cutting slopes, slope seepage ditches or upward inclined drainage holes should be set, to strengthen the drainage of groundwater.
4.6.3 The sealing and water isolation treatment OF the top surface of the bottom layer of foundation bed or the bottom surface of the replacement SHALL be strengthened. The embankment and the cutting foundation bed with developed groundwater should adopt waterproof materials, which can be laid continuously on site. When geosynthetics are used for sealing and water isolation, they should not be overlapped along the cross-sectional direction; and, along the line direction, the overlapping shall be reduced. For the cutting foundation bed with developed groundwater, it shall take measures for prevention and drainage of groundwater, such as lowering or deepening the side ditch, setting necessary vertical and horizontal drainage seepage ditches and seepage pipes, etc. 4.6.4 For the cutting where groundwater is developed, underground drainage measures such as upward inclined drainage holes, slope seepage ditches, and longitudinal blind ditches should be adopted.
4.6.5 The slope toe of embankment shall be provided with measures such as drainage ditches, elevated berms,...

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