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TB 10025-2019 English PDF (TB10025-2019)

TB 10025-2019 English PDF (TB10025-2019)

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TB 10025-2019: Code for design of retaining structures of railway earthworks

This standard is formulated to unify the design technical criteria of the retaining structures of railway earthworks, so that the design of the retaining structure meets the requirements of safety, reliability, advanced technology, reasonable economy and green environmental protection. This code is applicable to the design of retaining structure of railway earthworks and related projects.
TB 10025-2019
UDC
INDUSTRY STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
P TB 10025-2019
J 127-2019
Code for design of retaining structures of railway
earthworks
ISSUED ON: JULY 31, 2019
IMPLEMENTED ON: DECEMBER 01, 2019
Issued by: State Railway Administration
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 7
1 General ... 10
2 Terms and symbols ... 10
2.1 Terms ... 10
2.2 Symbol ... 13
3 Basic provisions ... 15
3.1 General provisions ... 15
3.2 Design requirements ... 17
3.3 Selection of retaining structure form ... 19
4 Design load ... 20
4.1 General provisions ... 20
4.2 Main force ... 21
4.3 Additional force ... 24
4.4 Special force... 25
5 Materials and properties ... 25
5.1 General provisions ... 25
5.2 Concrete, mortar rubble and cement mortar ... 26
5.3 Steel ... 27
5.4 Geosynthetics ... 27
5.5 Filler and geotechnical ... 28
6 Gravity retaining wall ... 29
6.1 General provisions ... 29
6.2 Design and calculation ... 30
6.3 Construction requirements ... 38
7 Cantilever and counterfort retaining wall ... 40
7.1 General provisions ... 40
7.2 Design and calculation ... 41
7.3 Construction requirements ... 47
8 Groove retaining wall ... 48
8.1 General provisions ... 48
8.2 Design and calculation ... 49
8.3 Construction requirements ... 55
9 Reinforced soil wall ... 56
9.1 General provisions ... 56
9.2 Design and calculation ... 57
9.3 Construction requirements ... 62
10 Soil nailing retaining wall ... 64
10.1 General provisions ... 64
10.2 Design and calculation ... 64
10.3 Construction requirements ... 69
11 Anchored wall ... 70
11.1 General provisions ... 70
11.2 Design and calculation ... 72
11.3 Construction requirements ... 77
12 Prestressed anchored cable ... 79
12.1 General provisions ... 79
12.2 Design and calculation ... 80
12.3 Construction requirements ... 84
13 Slide-resistant pile ... 87
13.1 General provisions ... 87
13.2 Design and calculation ... 89
13.3 Construction requirements ... 94
14 Pile-wall structure ... 95
14.1 General provisions ... 95
14.2 Design and calculation ... 97
14.3 Construction requirements ... 100
15 Gravity retaining wall on pile foundation and beam ... 101
15.1 General provisions ... 101
15.2 Design and calculation ... 101
15.3 Construction requirements ... 104
16 Composite pile structure ... 105
16.1 General provisions ... 105
16.2 Design and calculation ... 106
16.3 Construction requirements ... 109
17 Other structures ... 110
17.1 Gravity retaining wall with short relieving slab ... 110
17.2 Anchor slab wall ... 112
Appendix A Common types and applicable conditions of retaining structure 117 Appendix B Track and train loads above the formation surface ... 118
Appendix C Material performance parameters of structural members ... 121 Appendix D Basic bearing capacity of foundation ... 124
Appendix E Resistance design of reinforced concrete members ... 130
Appendix F Calculation of maximum crack width of rectangular pile reinforced concrete flexural members ... 136
Appendix G Reference values of relevant parameters for design of groove retaining wall ... 138
Appendix H Reference values of anti-pullout design parameters for anchor rods and cables ... 139
Appendix J Anchor rod (cable) test ... 140
Appendix K Selection of prestressed anchor cable and design parameters 146 Appendix L Reference value of anchor pile?€?s foundation factor ... 149
Explanation of wording in this code ... 152
Code for design of retaining structures of railway
earthworks
1 General
1.0.1 This standard is formulated to unify the design technical criteria of the retaining structures of railway earthworks, so that the design of the retaining structure meets the requirements of safety, reliability, advanced technology, reasonable economy and green environmental protection.
1.0.2 This code is applicable to the design of retaining structure of railway earthworks and related projects.
1.0.3 The retaining structure of the railway earthwork shall be designed according to track and train loads, engineering geology, hydrogeology,
environmental conditions.
1.0.4 The retaining structure design shall meet the requirements of safety, applicability, durability.
1.0.5 The retaining structure for earthwork be well designed for connection with bridge abutments, tunnel openings, catenary pillars, sound barrier foundations and other projects.
1.0.6 Retaining structure?€?s design shall promote the use of safe and reliable new technologies, new structures, new materials and new processes.
1.0.7 In addition to meeting this code, the design of the retaining structure shall also comply with the relevant national standards.
2 Terms and symbols
2.1 Terms
2.1.1 Retaining structure
Structures which are used to support and strengthen the rock-soil body and maintain its stability.
2.1.2 Gravity retaining wall
A retaining structure that resists the earth pressure and prevents the soil from slumping by the weight of the wall. When there is a counterfort platform on the back of the wall, it is called a counterfort retaining wall.
2.1.3 Cantilever retaining wall
A retaining structure which is composed of standing arm plate, a toe plate, a heel plate, etc., which resists the earth pressure by the gravity of the wall body and the soil body above the heel plate.
2.1.4 Counterfort retaining wall
A retaining structure which is composed of standing arm plate, a toe plate, a heel plate, a buttress, etc., which resists the earth pressure by the gravity of the wall body and the soil body above the heel plate.
2.1.5 Groove retaining wall
A retaining structure of U-shaped which is composed of side walls and a baseplate, that withstands earth pressure, water pressure, buoyancy,
meanwhile prevents surface water or groundwater from infiltrating.
2.1.6 Reinforced soil wall
A retaining structure which is composed of wall system, reinforcement and filling soil, which uses reinforcement and filling as a whole to resist the earth pressure. 2.1.7 Soil nailing retaining wall
A retaining structure which is composed of soil nails and wall panels, which uses soil nails and the reinforced rock-soil together to form a composite structure to resist the earth pressure.
2.1.8 Anchored wall
A retaining structure which is composed of a wall system and an anchor rod, which maintains stability and resists earth pressure by the tension of the anchor rod.
2.1.9 Prestressed anchored cables
Retaining structure by applying tension to the anchor cable to strengthen the rock-soil body to reach a stable state or improve the internal stress of the structure.
2.1.10 Slide-resistant pile
Laterally stressed piles resisting the lateral earth pressure above the anchoring section or the sliding force of the landslide by the lateral foundation resistance 2.1.20 Total safety factor
The factor used in engineering structure design to reflect the overall safety of the structure.
2.1.21 Total safety factor method
The method of engineering structure design by the use of the total safety factor. 2.1.22 Partial factor
In order to ensure that the design structure or component has the specified reliability, the partial safety factor used in the design expression of the limit state method, which is divided into the action partial factor and the resistance partial factor.
2.1.23 Partial factor method of limit states
A method of structural design using partial factors.
2.1.24 Action
The force exerted on the retaining structure (direct action, also called load), or the cause of the effect of external deformation or constrained deformation of the structure (indirect action).
2.1.25 Resistance
The ability of a structure or component to withstand actions.
2.1.26 Bearing capacity of subgrade
Under the condition of ensuring the stability of the foundation, the bearing capacity of foundation which does not make the structure produce beyond the allowable settlement or deformation.
2.2 Symbol
P0 - Track load;
Q - Train load;
q - Unit load;
??0 - Static earth pressure factor;
??a - Active earth pressure factor;
embankment?€?s stability is affected by water erosion.
6 In sections where it requires saving land, occupying less farm-land or protecting important existing buildings.
7 In sections where it requires protecting the ecological environment.
8 In sections where it has needs such as stations and scenic spots.
3.1.2 The section where the retaining structure is set up shall be identified with engineering geology, hydrogeological conditions, environmental conditions and physical and mechanical properties of rock-soil.
3.1.3 In the curved section, the plane layout of the shoulder?€?s retaining wall shall meet the requirement of widening the formation surface in the curved section. 3.1.4 When installing catenary pillars and sound barrier foundations on the structure, it shall consider the influence of its load on the retaining structure and ensure the integrity and stability of the formation surface as well as the smooth drainage.
3.1.5 Subgrade?€?s retaining structures located in soft soil, slopes and other sections shall be checked for overall stability.
3.1.6 At certain intervals in the longitudinal direction of the retaining structure and at the junction with other buildings, it shall provide expansion joints. Where the base stratum changes, it shall provide settlement joints; the expansion joints can be combined with the settlement joints. The joint width should be 20 mm ~ 30 mm. The stuffing material in the joint may be asphalt hemp, asphalt wood board, glue or rubber strip, etc. The plug depth shall not be less than 0.2 m. 3.1.7 The retaining wall shall be provided with a drain hole from the back of the wall; the drainage slope shall not be less than 4%.
3.1.8 Reverse filter layer shall be set at the back of the water inlet side wall of the drainage hole. The reverse filter layer should be made of bagged sand with gravel (pebble), geosynthetic material, sand-free concrete block or other new materials. The thickness of the reverse filter layer made of sand-free concrete block or sand-containing pebble shall not be less than 0.3 m. When the back of the wall is swelling soil, the thickness of the reverse filter layer shall not be less than 0.5 m. The top of the reverse filter layer and the lower part of the water inlet of the lowest row of drain holes shall be provided with a water barrier. 3.1.9 When excavating the foundation pit, it shall take temporary support measures for the slope with poor stability. The materials for temporary support may be shaped steel or scrap steel rails. After the pouring of the retaining structure is completed, the foundation pit shall be backfilled and tamped in time. 4.3.2 The design load of the retaining structure in the frozen soil area shall consider the frost heaving force acting on the foundation and the back of the wall. The earth pressure and frost heave force shall be calculated separately based on the warm season and the cold season. The earth pressure and frost heave force shall not be superimposed.
4.4 Special force
4.4.1 The calculation of earthquake action shall comply with the provisions of the current "Code for seismic design of railway engineering" GB 50111. The static method can be used to calculate the seismic force on the rigid structure and the fractured prism of the soil.
4.4.2 The earth pressure on the wall back of the retaining structure shall include the horizontal seismic force. Gravity retaining structure or the non-gravity retaining structures with large self-weight shall consider the horizontal seismic forces on the structure.
4.4.3 In the case of flood level, the earth pressure on the wall back of the retaining structure shall consider of the flood action; but it shall not be considered at the same time as the seismic force.
4.4.4 The verification of the retaining structure of the embankment section shall consider the temporary loads such as the transportation and erection equipment and its load weight. The unit load of the wheel-rail type transportation-erection load track acting on the formation surface may be calculated according to formula (4.2.5). The unit load of the erector may be calculated according to formula (4.2.6), where Q is the axle load of the erector divided by the longitudinal axis spacing of the erector. The load of the wheel-tire type erector shall be calculated according to the vehicle model and the beam?€?s carrying method.
5 Materials and properties
5.1 General provisions
5.1.1 The concrete, steel bar, geosynthetic material, filler, stone and cement mortar used in the retaining structure shall be determined according to the structure type, function, scope of application, application environment, etc. 5.1.2 The physical and mechanical properties of the retaining structure?€?s materials shall be determined according to the standards of corresponding test method. When using the test results of the standard test pieces to determine the actual performance of the material, it shall also consider the difference C.0.1 of Appendix C of this code; the elastic modulus in compression and tension shall be adopted in accordance with clause C.0.2 of Appendix C of this code.
5.2.4 The retaining structure of cement mortar masonry shall be designed based on the environment type, structure type and railway grade, construction and maintenance conditions, etc. according to the requirements of durability and service life. The strength grade and application scope of masonry mortar can be determined in accordance with clause C.0.3 of Appendix C of this code. 5.2.5 The strength of the stone material used for the retaining structure shall not be lower than MU30. The performance of materials such as cement mortar shall comply with the relevant provisions of the current "Code for design on subgrade of railway" TB 10001.
5.3 Steel
5.3.1 The steel bars, prestressed steel wires and steel strands used in the retaining structure shall meet the following requirements:
1 Ordinary steel bars and prestressed steel bars shall be selected in
accordance with the provisions of clause C.0.4 of Appendix C of this code. 2 The strength of ordinary steel bars, pre-stressed steel wires and steel strands shall be determined based on the model in accordance with
clause C.0.5 of Appendix of this code.
3 The elastic modulus of ordinary steel bars and prestressed steel bars shall be used in accordance with clause C.0.6 of the Appendix C of this code. 5.3.2 The steel material?€?s specifications and performances of steel plates, section steels, bolts, anchors used in the retaining structure shall comply with the provisions of the current "Technical specification for steel reinforced concrete composite structures" JGJ 138 and related standards.
5.4 Geosynthetics
5.4.1 The geosynthetics in the retaining structure can be geogrid,
geomembrane, geo-composite and geotechnical special materials. When used for anti-seepage, reinforcement, reverse filtration, drainage in the retaining structure, the properties of the geosynthetics adopted shall meet the
corresponding functional design requirements.
5.4.2 The mechanical properties, hydraulic properties, durability and friction factor of geosynthetics with soil should be determined through tests. When the 4 When the longitudinal slope of the base is greater than 5%, the base shall be designed in the form of steps.
5 When the retaining wall is controlled by sliding stability, the inclined base of not more than 0.2:1 can be used in the lateral direction. Retaining walls in soaking areas should not be set with inclined bases.
6 When the retaining wall is controlled by the eccentricity of the base or the bearing capacity of the base, the wall toe steps can be set; the angle
between the connecting line of the steps and the vertical line shall not exceed 45??.
7 Lime soil and other cushions should be set at the bottom of the clay
foundation wall. For special soil foundations such as collapsible loess or swelling soil, it shall take measures to eliminate collapse or prevent
downward seepage of water.
6.3.2 The structural design of the retaining wall shall meet the following requirements:
1 The thickness of the cap stone on the top of the retaining wall of the mortar rubble shoulder shall not be less than 0.4 m; the width shall not be less than 0.6 m; the width of the cornice shall be 0.1 m.
2 Every 10 m ~15 m along the longitudinal length of the wall, it shall provide expansion joints or settlement joints, which shall comply with the
provisions of clause 3.1.6 of this code.
3 For the portion of the retaining wall that is above the ground surface, it shall be provided with drain holes every 2 m ~ 3 m alternatively. Behind the wall of broken line shape where it is prone to water cumulation, it must provide drain hole, at a longitudinal spacing preferably of 2 m. The design of drain hole shall comply with the provisions of clause 3.1.7 of this code.
4 Between the upper part and lower part of counterbalanced retaining wall, it should use short steel bars for connection.
5 The concrete pouring of the retaining wall shall be carried out continuously; the wall shall not form horizontal through joints. When one-time pouring is not possible, it shall take measures to ensure that the strength of the two pouring locations meets the design requirements.
6 The wall surface of the embankment?€?s retaining wall in the soaking area should be smooth and straight, which can be achieved by adjusting the
width of the platform on the top of the wall.
6.3.3 Behind the wall at the inlet side of the drain hole, it shall provide reverse subjected to normal service limit state checking in accordance with clause 3.2.6 of this code. The calculation of the action effect shall comply with the provisions of clause 7.2.6 of this code. The normal use limit value shall comply with the provisions of clause 8.2.14 of this code.
8.2.13 The foundation soil layer of the groove retaining wall shall be checked for bearing capacity and deformation. When the requirements are not met, it shall take measures such as replacement or foundation reinforcement.
8.2.14 The limit value of the crack width of the groove retaining wall structure shall comply with the provisions of the current "Code for durability design on concrete structure of railway" TB 10005. The horizontal deformation of the top of the wall shall not be greater than 1/150 of the height of the cantilever section. When the horizontal deformation of the top of the wall is strictly limited, it shall not be greater than 1/200 of the height of the cantilever section. When the surrounding environment has special requirements for the deformation of the groove retaining wall, it shall also meet the requirements of relevant industry standards.
8.2.15 The groove retaining wall shall be designed for interception and drainage according to the surface water catchment conditions.
8.2.16 When the groove retaining wall is constructed in seasonal frozen soil or swelling soil area, it shall consider the adverse effects of frost heave force or swelling force on the structure, take anti-frost heave or anti-swelling measures. 8.3 Construction requirements
8.3.1 The ...

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