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TB 10001-2016 English PDF (TB10001-2016)

TB 10001-2016 English PDF (TB10001-2016)

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TB 10001-2016: Code for design of railway earth structure

This code is formulated to unify the technical standards for railway subgrade design, make the subgrade design meets the requirements of safety, reliability, advanced technology, economic rationality.
TB 10001-2016
INDUSTRY STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
UDC
P TB 10001-2016
J 447-2017
Code for design of railway earth structure
ISSUED ON: DECEMBER 20, 2016
IMPLEMENTED ON: APRIL 01, 2017
Issued by: State Railway Administration
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 8
1 General ... 11
2 Terms and symbols ... 12
2.1 Terms ... 12
2.2 Symbols ... 16
3 Basic requirements ... 17
3.1 Elevation of subgrade shoulder ... 17
3.2 Shape and width of formation surface ... 19
3.3 Subgrade stability and settlement control criteria ... 29
3.4 Deformation observation and evaluation ... 36
3.5 Design service life ... 37
4 Design load ... 37
4.1 General provisions ... 37
4.2 Main force ... 39
4.3 Additional force ... 47
4.4 Special forces ... 48
5 Engineering materials ... 48
5.1 General provisions ... 48
5.2 Filler ... 48
5.3 Stone ... 54
5.4 Concrete ... 55
5.5 Cement mortar ... 56
5.6 Steel ... 58
5.7 Geosynthetics ... 59
6 Subgrade bed ... 62
6.1 General provisions ... 62
6.2 Subgrade bed structure ... 62
6.3 Embankment subgrade bed ... 64
6.4 Subgrade bed for cutting ... 65
6.5 Compaction criteria of subgrade bed ... 66
6.6 Treatment measures of subgrade bed ... 68
7 Embankment ... 68
7.1 General provisions ... 68
7.2 Filler and filling requirements ... 69
7.3 Compaction criteria ... 70
7.4 Slope form and slope rate ... 72
8 Cutting ... 73
8.1 General provisions ... 73
8.2 Soil cuttings ... 73
8.3 Rock cutting... 74
9 Transition section ... 75
9.1 General provision ... 75
9.2 Transition section between subgrade and abutment ... 76
9.3 Transition section between subgrade and lateral structure ... 78
9.4 Transition section between embankment and cutting ... 80
9.5 Transition section between cutting and tunnel ... 81
10 Ground treatment ... 82
10.1 General provisions ... 82
10.2 Main technical requirements ... 83
10.3 Common measures ... 85
11 Retaining structure ... 86
11.1 General provisions ... 86
11.2 Main design principles ... 87
11.3 Types of common retaining structure and scope of application ... 89 12 Subgrade protection ... 90
12.1 General provisions ... 90
12.2 Plant protection ... 90
12.3 Skeleton protection ... 91
12.4 Physical slope protection (wall) ... 92
12.5 Hole-window slope protection (wall) ... 93
12.6 Anchor framed girder slope protection ... 93
12.7 Shotcrete (mortar) slope protection ... 94
12.8 Gabion protection ... 94
12.9 Protection net ... 95
12.10 Geosynthetics protection ... 95
12.11 Subgrade plane protection in wind and sand and snow damage areas ... 96 12.12 Thermal insulation of subgrade ... 98
13 Water prevention and drainage of subgrade ... 99
13.1 General provisions ... 99
13.2 Surface water ... 100
13.3 Groundwater ... 104
14 Reconstruction of railway subgrade for existing line and addition of second line ... 108
14.1 General provisions ... 108
14.2 Reconstruction of subgrade of existing line ... 110
14.3 Addition of subgrade for a second line ... 113
14.4 Reconstruction, reinforcement, utilization of existing structures ... 114 15 Borrow (spoil) area and earthwork allocation ... 115
15.1 General provisions ... 115
15.2 Borrow area ... 116
15.3 Spoil area (heap) ... 116
15.4 Reclamation and protection of borrow (spoil) area ... 117
15.5 Earthwork allocation ... 118
16 Subgrade interface design ... 118
16.1 General provisions ... 118
16.2 Safety protection facilities ... 119
16.3 Cable trough ... 120
16.4 Others ... 120
Appendix A Grouping classification of ordinary fillers ... 121
Appendix B Design of improved soil and test requirements ... 131
Appendix C Steel model, concrete grade and strength ... 137
Appendix D Common ground treatment methods and measure application
conditions ... 140
Appendix E Green protection for subgrade slopes ... 142
Appendix F Diagrams for design of subgrade waterproof and drainage ... 144 Explanation of wording in this code ... 150
Code for design of railway earth structure
1 General
1.0.1 This code is formulated to unify the technical standards for railway subgrade design, make the subgrade design meets the requirements of safety, reliability, advanced technology, economic rationality.
1.0.2 This code is applicable to the design of standard gauge subgrades for high-speed railways, intercity railways, passenger-freight level I and level II railways, heavy-duty railways.
1.0.3 The subgrade project shall be designed according to the geotechnical structure, to ensure that it meets the requirements of strength, stability and durability; meets the relevant requirements of environmental protection, soil and water conservation, cultural relic protection, etc.
1.0.4 The subgrade engineering shall, through geological mapping,
comprehensive exploration, testing and analysis, ascertain the geotechnical structure and physical and mechanical properties of the subgrade base, cutting slope, retaining structure foundation, etc., as well as the nature and distribution of the filler. Perform design based on reliable geological data.
1.0.5 The subgrade engineering design should avoid high filling, deep
excavation, long cutting; avoid areas with adverse geological conditions. In the comparison and selection of subgrade, bridge, tunnel engineering, it shall make comprehensive analysis in terms of technical conditions, construction
conditions, land occupation, possible environmental and social impacts, urban construction planning, construction investment, operation and maintenance costs, to determine the type of project.
1.0.6 The railway train?€?s load shall be determined according to railway transportation characteristics, mobile equipment, design speed, etc. High- speed railway should adopt ZK load diagram. Intercity railway should adopt ZC load diagram. Passenger-freight railways should adopt ZKH load diagram. Heavy-load railway should use ZH load diagram. When the characteristics of passenger-freight railway meet the standards of heavy-duty railways, it shall use the ZH load diagram.
1.0.7 The design of subgrade engineering shall be based on railway grade, subgrade structure, and other factors; according to local conditions, reasonably select engineering materials. Meanwhile it shall meet the application conditions and use requirements of subgrade engineering. Subgrade fillers shall be A geotechnical structure directly supporting the track structure formed by excavation or filling.
2.1.2 Embankment
Subgrade filled with soil and stone on the ground.
2.1.3 Cutting
Subgrade dug down from the ground surface.
2.1.4 Subgrade shoulder
The part at both sides of the formation surface which is not covered by the ballast bed.
2.1.5 Elevation of subgrade shoulder
The elevation of the outer edge of the shoulder.
2.1.6 Width of formation surface
The horizontal distance between the outer edges of the subgrade shoulders on both sides of the formation surface.
2.1.7 Subgrade bed
Subgrade superstructure below the elevation of subgrade that is significantly affected by train loads. The subgrade bed consists of a surface layer and a bottom layer.
2.1.8 Lateral structure
A collective term of such structures as culverts, frame bridges, rigid-frame bridges (steel-structure bridges) which cross the railway subgrade.
2.1.9 Transition section
The section at the joint between the subgrade and bridge abutments, lateral structures, tunnels, embankments and cutting, which needs special treatment. 2.1.10 Post-construction settlement of subgrade
Settlement of the subgrade after the completion of the track laying project. 2.1.11 Settlement evaluation
According to the settlement observation data, combined with the geological conditions and ground treatment measures, the process of comprehensively 2.1.20 Permeable soil
Giant grain soil and coarse grain soil (except fine sand) which has fine grain soil content of less than 10% and permeability coefficient greater than 1 x 10-5 m/s.
2.1.21 Geosynthetics
A general term for various types of materials based on synthetic polymers used in civil engineering.
2.1.22 Optimum moisture content
The moisture content corresponding to the peak point on the relationship curve between the dry density and the moisture content obtained by the compaction test.
2.1.23 Ground treatment
Technical measures taken to improve the bearing capacity of the foundation and improve its deformation or permeability.
2.1.24 Granular column composite foundation
Composite foundation which uses sand piles, sand gravel piles and gravel piles for vertical reinforcement.
2.1.25 Flexible pile composite foundation
Composite foundation which uses flexible pile for vertical reinforcement. 2.1.26 Rigid pile composite foundation
Composite foundation which uses friction-type rigid pile for vertical
reinforcement.
2.1.27 Retaining structure
Structures which support the lateral earth pressure or resistance to soil sliding. 2.1.2 Stability factor of slope
In slope stability analysis, the ratio of the sliding force (moment) of the soil along a sliding surface to the sliding force (moment).
2.1.29 Revetment, slope protection
Protective engineering for preventing weathering, peeling, slipping, scouring of the roadbed slope (gentle than 1:1.0).
addition of the second line shall be determined at the feasibility study stage based on years of operation and water disaster.
3.1.2 The elevation of the shoulders of riverbanks and bench land
embankments shall be greater than the sum of the designed flood level, the height of the backwater (including backwater caused by the opening of the river or the building, the super-high water level of the river bay), the high wave invasion or the partial flush of the oblique flow, the height due to riverbed deposition, the safe height. Among them, it shall take the larger of the wave invasion height and the oblique current partial upsurge.
3.1.3 The height of the shoulder of the reservoir subgrade shall be greater than the sum of the design water level, wave invasion height, backwater height (including the backwater of the reservoir and the backwater on the shore), the safe height. When the design water level calculated according to the prescribed flood frequency is lower than the normal high-water level of the reservoir, use the normal high-water level of the reservoir as the design water level. 3.1.4 For coastal embankments, when no wave barrier wall is provided on the top, the elevation of shoulder shall be greater than the sum of the designed tidal water level, wave invasion height (wave climbing height), safe height, etc.; when a wave barrier wall is provided, the elevation of shoulder shall be greater than sum of design high tidal level and safe height.
3.1.5 For the subgrade of the higher groundwater level or groundwater area, the elevation of shoulder shall be greater than the sum of the highest
groundwater level or the highest ground area water level, the strong rise of capillary water, the safe height.
3.1.6 The elevation of the shoulder of the subgrade in the seasonal frozen soil area shall be greater than the sum of the groundwater level before freezing or the surface water level before freezing, the strong rise of capillary water, the depth of harmful frost heave, the safe height.
3.1.7 The elevation of the shoulder of the saline soil subgrade shall be greater than the sum of the highest groundwater level or the highest surface area water level, the strong rise of capillary water, the depth of strong influence of evaporation, the safe height. When there is seasonal freezing damage to the saline soil subgrade, the elevation of shoulder shall be calculated separately according to the provisions of clause 3.1.6 of this code and this clause, whichever is greater.
3.1.8 When the subgrade adopts measures such as lowering the water level and setting capillary water partitions, the elevation of the shoulder may not be subject to the restrictions specified in clause 3.1.5 to 3.1.7 of this code. 3.1.9 The safe height in clauses 3.1.2 ~ 3.1.7 of this code should be 0.5 m. mXs - The empirical correction factor for the settlement of the underlying layer, which is related to the foundation conditions, load strength, loading rate, etc.; S2 - Calculated value of the settlement of the underlying layer (m).
3.3.9 The calculation of foundation settlement shall meet the following requirements:
1 The calculated depth of the compression layer of the high-speed railway and ballast-less track?€?s foundation is determined by the additional stress which is 0.1 times the self-weight stress; the calculated depth of the
compression layer of the other railway?€?s foundations is determined by the additional stress which is 0.2 times the self-weight.
2 If there is still a soft soil layer below the calculated depth, it shall continuously increase the calculated depth.
3 In the calculation of the settlement of the double track foundation, the track load can be designed as a double line; the train load should be designed as a single line.
3.4 Deformation observation and evaluation
3.4.1 Subgrade of high-speed railway and ballast-less track railway shall be subjected to settlement evaluation. The heavy-load railway, ballasted track railway with design speed of 200 km/h and in such sections as in soft soil and collapsible loess should be subject to foundation settlement evaluation. 3.4.2 Subgrade deformation observation shall focus on the observation of formation surface settlement and foundation settlement. During the filling period of the embankment of the soft soil section, it shall also observe the horizontal displacement of the slope foot of the subgrade, control the filling rate, ensure the subgrade stability.
3.4.3 The layout of deformation observation sections and observation facilities shall be comprehensively determined based on topographic and geological conditions, ground treatment methods, subgrade types, embankment heights and other factors in combination with the construction period. The distance between observation sections should be 50 m ~ 100 m.
3.4.4 Deformation observation methods and accuracy shall meet the
requirements of relevant railway standards of different grades. Subgrade shall be continuously observed after the start of construction. After finishing the subgrade filling or applying the preload, the settlement observation time should be not less than 6 months. If the observation data is insufficient to evaluate or the post-construction settlement assessment cannot meet the requirements, it 4 When the slope surface is protected by mortar spray, the strength grade of cement mortar should not be lower than M10.
5.6 Steel
5.6.1 The steel for subgrade work any use the reinforcing steel bars,
prestressed steel wire, steel strand, steel plate and section steel. The strength of reinforcing steel bars, prestressed steel wires, strands shall be determined according to their models in accordance with Appendix C.
5.6.2 Ordinary steel bars and prestressed steel bars shall be selected according to the following requirements:
1 The longitudinally stressed steel bars for the retaining and bearing
reinforced concrete structure should use HRB400 and HRB500 steel bars;
it may also use HPB300 steel bars. The stirrups should use the HPB 300, HRB400, HRB500 steel bars.
2 Tensioned anchors for anchor retaining wall and soil nailed wall structures should use ribbed steel bars, prestressed threaded steel bars; it should not use galvanized steel and the diameter should not be less than 16 mm. The vertically prestressed anchor retaining walls and other structural
prestressed anchors should use cold-drawn steel bars.
3 Structurally tensioned anchors such as slope hanging net protection or framed girder slope protection should use HRB400 and HRB500 steel
bars, the diameter of which should not be less than 16 mm.
5.6.3 Prestressed anchor rods should use prestressed threaded rebar;
prestressed anchor cables should use high-strength low-relaxation prestressed steel strands; the diameter of steel strands may use ??12.7 mm or ??15.2 mm. 5.6.4 Steels such as steel plates, sections, bolts and anchors shall meet the following requirements:
1 Steel plates are divided into U-shaped, Z-shaped, S-shaped, linear and other types; section steel is divided into I-shaped steel, channel steel, angle steel, round steel and other types.
2 The temporary supporting for small-scale foundation pits and slope
excavation may use steel plates, I-beams or channel steels, or waste steel rails.
3 The dimensions of anchor plate?€?s tie rods, anchor retaining wall?€?s anchor rods, pre-stressed anchor rod?€?s end fixed steel backing plates shall meet the requirements for calculation of local bearing strength.
1 The water isolation anti-seepage layer of the Newly built railway subgrade bed water-proof and anti-seepage layer, and embankment base capillary
water insulation cushion layer, it is advisable to use water-tight
geomembrane, composite geomembrane, capillary or composite water-
proof drainage board, etc. The frost-resistant area should meet the frost resistance requirements; when used for capillary water partition, it shall have long-term corrosion resistance and aging resistance to sulfate,
chloride, carbonate.
2 When the existing subgrade bed?€?s strength is insufficient, or such defects as subsidence, sinking, water accumulation and so on are treated, it may use the geotechnical cells for reinforcement and seepage pipes or
drainage boards to lead and drain water.
3 The subgrade bed in the freezing disaster area may adopt polystyrene or polyurethane foam insulation layer; its performance indicators such as
apparent density, compressive strength, thermal conductivity, water
absorption shall meet the design requirements.
4 The lateral drainage cushion layer on the embankment base, slope
protection, protection wall, retaining wall or anti-filtration layer after intercepting drainage ditch, seepage ditch, blind drain of intercepting ditch, back anti-filtration layer of blind drain, anti-filtration layer between fillers of different grain sizes may use non-woven geotextile or its wrap of gravel and macadam as the anti-filtration material. The soil retention, water
permeability, anti-blocking index, puncture strength of the non-woven
geotextile shall meet the design requirements.
5 For drainage of groundwater, it may use seepage pipes or geotextiles and wrap of gravel and macadam for filtration and drainage.
6 The water seepage pipe shall have good water permeability, filtration, longitudinal drainage performance; it shall have the characteristics of high ring stiffness, chemical resistance, long life and so on.
5.7.5 When geosynthetics are used for subgrade slope protection, it shall meet the following requirements:
1 For soil slopes, it may use grass, bush and plant such as geonets, geonet mats or three-dimensional vegetation slope protection nets for greening. 2 For subgrade slopes such as sandy soil, gravelly soil, or rocky soil, which are not suitable for plant growth, it may use geonets to plant grass, plant belts, plant bags or ecological bags to plant grass...

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