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QC/T 741-2014 English PDF (QCT741-2014)

QC/T 741-2014 English PDF (QCT741-2014)

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QC/T 741-2014: Ultra-capacitor for electric vehicles (including Amendment List 2017XG1)

This standard specifies the requirements, test methods, inspection rules, markings, packaging, transportation, storage of supercapacitor (electrochemical capacitor) for electric road vehicles. This standard applies to supercapacitors (hereinafter referred to as capacitors) cell and modules for electric road vehicles.
QC/T 741-2014
QC
AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY STANDARD
OF THE PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.080
T 47
Replacing QC/T 741-2006
Ultracapacitor for electric vehicles
(Including Amendment Sheet No.1 [2017XG1])
ISSUED ON: OCTOBER 14, 2014
IMPLEMENTED ON: APRIL 01, 2015
Issued by: Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of PRC
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 6
1 Scope ... 8
2 Normative references ... 8
3 Terms and definitions ... 8
4 Symbols ... 11
5 Requirements ... 12
6 Test method ... 15
7 Inspection rules ... 30
8 Marking, packaging, transportation, storage ... 32
Amendment Sheet No.1 [2017XG1] ... 34
Ultracapacitor for electric vehicles
1 Scope
This standard specifies the requirements, test methods, inspection rules, markings, packaging, transportation, storage of supercapacitor (electrochemical capacitor) for electric road vehicles.
This standard applies to supercapacitors (hereinafter referred to as capacitors) cell and modules for electric road vehicles.
2 Normative references
The following documents are essential to the application of this document. For the dated documents, only the versions with the dates indicated are applicable to this document; for the undated documents, only the latest version (including all the amendments) is applicable to this standard.
GB/T 2900.41-2008 Electrotechnical terminology - Primary and secondary cells and batteries
3 Terms and definitions
The following terms and definitions as defined in GB/T 2900.41-2008, as well as the following terms and definitions, apply to this standard.
3.1
Ultracapacitors
An electrochemical energy storage device, at least one electrode of which uses an electric double layer or pseudo-capacitor to store energy; the relationship between time and voltage, during constant current charging or discharging, is usually approximately linear.
3.2
Inorganic electrolyte ultracapacitors
A supercapacitor, which uses an aqueous solution as the electrolyte.
3.3
- The capacitance is not lower than 80% of the initial value;
- The energy is not less than 80% of initial value.
5.1.10 Low temperature characteristics.
When the capacitor is tested according to 6.2.10, its performance shall meet the following requirements:
- The capacitance is not lower than 60% of the initial value;
- The energy is not less than 50% of initial value.
5.1.11 Cycle life.
When the capacitor is tested according to 6.2.11, its performance shall meet the following requirements:
- The capacitance of energy-type supercapacitors is greater than 80% of the initial value, meanwhile the internal resistance is less than 2 times the initial value; - The capacitance of power-type supercapacitor is greater than 90% of the initial value, meanwhile the internal resistance is less than 1.5 times of the initial value; - No electrolyte leakage.
5.1.12 Safety.
5.1.12.1 After passing the overdischarge test in 6.2.12.1, the capacitor cell shall not explode, catch fire or leak.
5.1.12.2 After the capacitor cell is subjected to the overcharge test in 6.2.12.2, it shall not explode or catch fire.
5.1.12.3 After the short-circuit test in 6.2.12.3, the capacitor cell shall not explode or catch fire.
5.1.12.4 After the drop test of 6.2.12.4, the capacitor cell of the inorganic system shall not explode or catch fire; the capacitors of the organic system shall not explode, catch fire or leak.
5.1.12.5 When the capacitor cell is heated according to 6.2.12.5, it shall not explode or catch fire.
5.1.12.6 After the extrusion test in 6.2.12.6, the capacitor cell shall not explode or catch fire.
5.1.12.7 After subject to the acupuncture test specified in 6.2.12.7, the capacitor cell shall not explode or catch fire.
5.1.12.8 After the capacitor cell is subjected to the seawater immersion test in 6.2.12.8, it shall not explode or catch fire.
5.1.12.9 After the capacitor cell is subject to the temperature cycle test in 6.2.12.9, it shall not explode, catch fire or leak.
5.2 Modules
5.2.1 Appearance.
When the capacitor module is inspected according to 6.3.2, the shell shall not have deformation and cracks; the surface shall be dry; there shall be no electrolyte overflow marks; the arrangement shall be neat and the connection shall be reliable. 5.2.2 Polarity marking.
When the capacitor module is inspected according to 6.3.3, the terminal polarity mark shall be clear, complete, accurate.
5.2.3 Dimensions and mass.
When the capacitor module is inspected according to 6.3.4, its dimensions and mass meet the technical conditions, which are provided by the enterprise.
5.2.4 Capacitance.
When the capacitor module is inspected according to 6.3.5, the capacitance shall be 80% ~ 120% of the nominal capacitance.
5.2.5 Energy.
When the capacitor module is inspected according to 6.3.6, the energy shall be 80% ~ 120% of the nominal energy.
5.2.6 Internal resistance.
When the capacitor module is inspected according to 6.3.7, the internal resistance shall not be greater than its nominal internal resistance.
5.2.7 Cycle life.
When the capacitor module is tested according to 6.3.8, its performance shall meet the following requirements:
- The capacitance of the energy-type supercapacitor module is greater than 80% of the initial value; the internal resistance is less than 2 times the initial value; 6.1.1.1 Unless otherwise specified, the capacitor shall be discharged, at a constant current as specified by the enterprise, until its minimum operating voltage. Then it is placed under the environmental conditions specified in 6.1.2 for 24 hours. The performance of the capacitor shall be measured, as the basis for comparison after the product test (however, the test environment before and after the test shall be consistent). 6.1.1.2 Charge-discharge current.
Unless otherwise specified, this standard applies to the following charge-discharge currents:
- Energy-type capacitor: I = 5I1 (or a current not lower than 5I1 provided by the enterprise);
- Power-type capacitor: I = 40I1 (or the current not lower than 40I1 provided by the enterprise).
The type of capacitor is determined by the manufacturer.
6.1.2 Environmental conditions.
Unless otherwise specified, all measurements, tests, restorations are carried out in the following environment:
- Temperature: 25 ??C ?? 5 ??C;
- Relative humidity: 25% ~ 85%;
- Atmospheric pressure: 86 kPa ~ 106 kPa.
6.1.3 Measuring instruments and meters.
The accuracy of measuring instruments and meters shall meet the following requirements:
- Voltage measuring device: The accuracy is not lower than grade 0.5; its internal resistance is at least 1 k??/V;
- Current measuring device: The accuracy is not less than grade 0.5;
- Temperature measuring device: It has an appropriate range; its division value is not greater than 1 ??C; the calibration accuracy is not less than 0.5 ??C;
- Timer: It is graduated in hours, minutes, seconds, with an accuracy of ??0.1%; - Meters for measuring dimensions: The division value is not greater than 1 mm; - Scales for weighing mass: Accuracy is ??0.05% or more.
6.2.9 High temperature characteristics.
Follow the steps below, to test the high temperature characteristics of capacitors: a) Set the temperature of the temperature box to 55 ??C or the maximum operating temperature, which is not lower than 55 ??C as specified by the enterprise; b) Place the capacitor in a temperature box, at this temperature for 6 h; c) In this environment, test the capacitor, according to 6.2.4 and 6.2.5. 6.2.10 Low temperature characteristics.
Follow the steps below, to test the low temperature characteristics of capacitors: a) Set the temperature of the temperature box to -20 ??C or the minimum working temperature not higher than -20 ??C, as specified by the enterprise;
b) Place the capacitor in a temperature box, at this temperature for 16 h; c) In this environment, test the capacitor, according to 6.2.4 and 6.2.5. 6.2.11 Cycle life.
6.2.11.1 The test shall be carried out at an ambient temperature of 25 ??C ?? 5 ??C. 6.2.11.2 Carry out the test, according to the following steps:
a) Charge the capacitor cell to the rated voltage UR, at a constant current I; let it stand for 5 s;
b) Discharge the capacitor cell to the minimum operating voltage Umin, at a constant current I; let it stand for 5 s;
c) Repeat steps a) ~ b) 2000 times;
d) Stand still for 12 hours;
e) Detect the capacitance and internal resistance of the capacitor, according to 6.2.4 and 6.2.6; if it meets 5.1.11, go to the next step; otherwise, end the test; f) Repeat steps a) - e) n times. For energy-type supercapacitor, n = 5; for power-type supercapacitor, n = 25.
6.2.12 Safety.
All safety tests are carried out, under conditions of adequate environmental protection. 6.2.12.1 Overdischarge.
Carry out test, as follows:
a) Charge the capacitor cell to the rated voltage, at a constant current I; b) Discharge the capacitor cell, at a constant current I, until the voltage is 0 V; then continue to force discharge, until the over-discharge (after 0 V) reaches 50% of the nominal capacitance;
c) Observe for 1 h.
Note: The nominal capacitance, in the over-discharge test, is calculated according to CN x (UR - Umin)/3600.
6.2.12.2 Overcharge.
Carry out test, as follows:
a) Charge the capacitor cell to the rated voltage, at a constant current I; b) Charge the capacitor cell, until the voltage reaches 1.5 times the rated voltage or the overcharge reaches 100% of the nominal capacitance, then stop charging; c) Observe for 1 h.
6.2.12.3 Short circuit.
Carry out test, as follows:
a) Charge the capacitor cell to the rated voltage, at a constant current I; b) Short-circuit the positive and negative poles of the capacitor and the cell externally for 10 minutes; the resistance of the external circuit shall be less than 5 m??.
6.2.12.4 Drop.
Carry out test, as follows:
a) Charge the capacitor cell to the rated voltage, at a constant current I; b) The capacitor cell falls freely from a height of 1.5 m to the concrete floor, with the terminal facing down;
c) Observe for 1 h.
6.2.12.5 Heating test.
Carry out test, as follows:
6.3.7 Internal resistance.
At room temperature, follow the steps below, to test the internal resistance of the capacitor module:
a) The capacitor module is charged to the rated voltage UR, at a constant current I; record the moment as t0;
b) The capacitor module is discharged to the minimum working voltage Umin, at a constant current I; record the voltage Ui at t0 + 30 ms;
c) Repeat steps a) ~ b) 3 times;
d) Calculate the DC internal resistance of the third cycle, according to formula (9); use it as the internal resistance of the capacitor module.
6.3.8 Cycle life
6.3.8.1 The test shall be carried out at an ambient temperature of 25 ??C ?? 5 ??C. 6.3.8.2 Carry out the test, according to the following steps:
a) Charge the capacitor module to the rated voltage, at a constant current I; let it stand for 5 s;
b) Discharge the capacitor module to the minimum working voltage UR, at a constant current I; let it stand for 5 s;
c) Repeat steps a) ~ b) 1000 times;
d) Let it stand still for 12 hours;
e) Detect the capacitance and internal resistance of the capacitor, according to 6.3.4 and 6.3.6; if it meets 5.2.7, go to the next step; otherwise, end the test; f) Repeat steps a) - e) n times. For energy-type supercapacitor, n = 5; for power-type supercapacitor, n = 10.
6.3.9 Safety.
6.3.9.1 General.
All safety tests are carried out under the conditions of sufficient environmental protection. If there is an active protection circuit, it shall be removed. 6.3.9.2 Overdischarge.
Carry out the test, as follows:
a) Charge the capacitor module to the rated voltage, at a constant current I; b) Discharge the constant current I of the capacitor module, until the voltage of a capacitor cell reaches 0 V; continue to force discharge, until the overdischarge (after 0 V) reaches 50% of the nominal capacitance;
c) Observe for 1 h.
Note: The nominal capacitance in the over-discharge test is calculated, according to CN x (UR - Umin)/3600.
6.3.9.3 Overcharge.
Carry out the test, as follows:
a) Charge the capacitor module to the rated voltage, at a constant current I; b) Charge the capacitor module, until its voltage reaches 2 times the rated voltage, OR the overcharge reaches 100% of the actual discharge capacity; then stop charging;
c) Observe for 1 h.
6.3.9.4 Short circuit test.
Carry out the test, as follows:
a) Charge the capacitor module to the rated voltage, at a constant current I; b) Short circuit the capacitor externally for 10 minutes; the resistance of the external circuit shall be less than 5 m??.
6.3.9.5 Drop.
Carry out the test, as follows:
a) Charge the capacitor module to the rated voltage, at a constant current I; b) The capacitor module falls freely from a height of 1.2 m onto the concrete floor, with the terminal facing down;
c) Observe for 1 h.
6.3.9.6 Heating test.
Carry out the test, as follows:
7.3 Type inspection
7.3.1 The type inspection can be carried out, using a certain specification as a representative product. However, the product identification test cannot be carried out, using a certain specification as a representative product.
7.3.2 Carry out type inspection under the following conditions
a) Once every two years;
b) When new products are put into production OR old products are subject to trans- plant production;
c) When there are major changes in structure, material, process;
d) When the production is resumed after suspension for half a year;
e) Trans-plant;
f) Contract requirements.
7.3.3 In the type inspection, if one item is unqualified, it shall be judged as unqualified. 8 Marking, packaging, transportation, storage
8.1 Marking
8.1.1 The following markings shall be displayed on the capacitor product: a) The name of the manufacturer;
b) Product model or specification;
c) Rated voltage;
d) Capacitance;
e) Polarity marking;
f) Product number;
g) Date of exit-factory.
8.1.2 The outer wall of the packing box shall have the following markings: a) Product name, model specification, quantity, manufacturer name, factory address, zip code;
b) Net weight and gross weight of each box;
c) Product standard number;
d) Markings indicating moisture-proof, no upside-down, handling with care. 8.2 Packaging
8.2.1 The packaging of capacitors shall meet the requirements of moisture-proof and vibration-proof.
8.2.2 The packing box shall contain the documents accompanied with the product: a) Packing list (referring to multiple packages);
b) Product certificate;
c) Product instruction manual.
8.3 Transportation
8.3.1 The state of charge of capacitors during transportation shall be lower than 50% (or as required by the manufacturer). They must not be subject to severe mechanical impact, exposure to the sun, rain, or upside down during transportation. 8.3.2 During the loading and unloading process, it shall be handled with care; it shall be strictly prevented from throwing, rolling, heavy pressure.
8.4 Storage
8.4.1 Capacitors shall be stored in a dry, clean, naturally ventilated place between - 20 ??C and 40 ??C.
8.4.2 Capacitors shall not be exposed to direct sunlight; the distance from heat sources shall not be less than 2 m.
8.4.3 Do not allow any metal debris to fall between the positive and negative electrodes of the capacitor; avoid contact with any liquid or harmful substances.
8.4.4 Capacitors must not be placed upside down or lying down, to avoid mechanical shock or heavy pressure.
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