JTG E41-2005 English PDF (JTGE41-2005)
JTG E41-2005 English PDF (JTGE41-2005)
JTG E41-2005: Test Methods of Rocks for Highway Engineering
INDUSTRY STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
Test Methods of Rock for Highway Engineering
ISSUED ON: MARCH 03, 2005
IMPLEMENTED ON: AUGUST 01, 2005
Issued by: Ministry of Transport of the PRC
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 4
1 General Provisions ... 7
2 Terms and Symbols ... 7
2.1 Terms... 7
2.2 Symbols ... 9
3 Physical Property Tests ... 10
T0201-1994 Simple petrologic authentication ... 10
T0202-2005 Water content test ... 12
T0203-2005 Density test ... 13
T0204-2005 Gross volume density test ... 16
T0205-2005 Water absorption test ... 21
T0206-2005 Expansion test ... 24
T0207-2005 Slake durability test ... 29
4 Mechanical Property Test ... 31
T0221-2005 Uniaxial compressive strength test ... 31
T0222-2005 Uniaxial compressive deformation test ... 34
T0223-1994 Splitting strength test ... 38
T0224- 2005 Shearing strength (straight snips) test ... 40
T0225-1994 Point load strength test ... 45
T0226-1994 Folding strength test ... 53
5 Long Duration Test ... 55
T0241-1994 Frost resistance test ... 55
T0242-1994 Solidness test ... 57
Annex Density of the Uncontaminated Water (g/cm3) ... 60
1 General Provisions
1.0.1 This specification is formulated to unify the test methods of rocks for highway engineering
1.0.2 This Standard is applicable to rock test for engineering of subgrades, pavements, bridges and culverts and tunnels in highway engineering.
1.0.3 Instruments used for test in this specification shall be proved as qualified by relevant national detection mechanisms and meet requirements in this specification. 1.0.4 Test subject of rock shall have geological representatives; and test content, test methods and technical specifications shall meet basic requirements and
characteristics of exploration survey, design and construction of the highway engineering. Test for stress and deformation of rock mass shall be carried out according to relevant current national standards.
2 Terms and Symbols
Mineral assemblage that is formed in a certain mode under all kinds of geological actions; and it is main substance to make up lithosphere and mantle of the earth. 2.1.2 Water content
It is the ratio between the water of rock sample lost in baking to the constant mass at 105°C ~ 110°C and the dry mass of the specimen; and the ratio is represented by percentage.
Under specified conditions, mass of the unit volume of the dried rock minerals (excluding pore volume of the opening and closing).
2.1.4 Gross volume density
Under specified conditions, the mass of the solid materials per unit volume of dried rock including pores.
2.1.5 Percentage of porosity
3 Physical Property Tests
T0201-1994 Simple petrologic authentication
1 Purpose and application scope
This method is applicable to simple tests using general instruments and reagents; evaluating rock characteristics of rock samples for highway engineering via visual inspection to determine the name and category of rock.
(2) Hardness gauge or other instruments used for hardness inspection (such as fingernail, iron knife edge, steel knife edge, glass sheet, etc.).
(3) Magnifier or microscope.
Dilute hydrochloric acid: concentration 10%.
In order to get representative rock samples, the number of samples to be selected in the fieldwork shall be at least 3. As for irregular samples, the specification of the samples shall be cube-like with volume no less than 100cm3; and loose parts and attachments on the surface shall be removed.
5 Test Procedures
5.1 Knock the rock sample with a hammer to make a new cross-section.
5.2 Examine the rock texture and structure of the new rock cross-section with naked eye and with the help of a magnifier or a microscope; pay attention to eigenstructure, such as joint, crack, degree of crystallinity, size of ore grain and agglutinate, and make a description.
5.3 Carry out scratch test with a hardness gauge or other instruments used for hardness inspection on the new sections to determine the rock hardness. Criteria of hardness comparison (from soft to hard) consist the following 10 minerals: (1) talc (2) gypsum; (3) calcite; (4) fluorite; (5) apatite; (6) kali-feldspar; (7) quartz; (8) lite; (9) corundum; (10) diamond.
neutral solution, such as kerosene as the test solution.
(1) Density bottle: short-neck volumetric flask, capacity of 100mL.
(2) Balance: sensibility of 0.001g.
(3) Disintegrator, ball mill, porcelain mortar, agate mortar, magnet and sieve with the hole diameter of 0.315 mm (0.3mm)
(4) Sand bath, constant temperature water tank (sensitivity ± 1°C) and vacuum pumping equipment.
(5) Oven: the temperature can be controlled at 105°C~110°C.
(6) Dryer: filled with desiccants, such as calcium chloride or silica gel, etc. (7) Tapered glass funnel, porcelain dish, dropper, metatarsal spoon and thermometer etc.
3 Sample preparation
Put representative rock samples on a small disintegrator for preliminary crushing (or stamp breaking with a steel hammer); and put on the ball mill for further grinding; comminute with a mortar to slime, which could pass the 0.315mm sieve mesh. 4 Test Procedures
4.1 Put the finished slime in a porcelain dish, which shall then be put into a dry oven at 105°C ~110°C to dry to the constant mass for 6h~12h; and then it shall be placed in the dryer to cool to the room temperature (20°C±2°C) for later-use.
4.2 Take two shares of slime by quarter dividing method; weigh 15g (m1) from each share, accurate to 0.001g (the weighing accuracy is the same in this test); use a hopper to fill the slime into a clean and dried density bottle; and inject test solution to fill half of the bottle; and shake the density bottle to disperse the slime.
4.3 If uncontaminated water is used as the test solution, gas could be eliminated by boiling or vacuum-pumping method. if kerosene is used as the test solution, gas shall be eliminated by vacuum-pumping method. if boiling is used to eliminate gas, the boiling time shall be calculated from suspension boiling and shall be no less than 1h; if vacuum-pumping is used to eliminate gas, the reading of the vacuum pressure gauge should be 100kPa; and the pumping time shall be 1h ~ 2h till no bubble appears. 4.4 Take out the gas-eliminated density bottle, dry it and make it cool to the room temperature; inject gas-eliminated test solution of the same temperature condition till w - density of the gas-eliminated uncontaminated water (refer to Annex) (g/ cm3). 5.2 The arithmetic average of the two test results shall be used as the measured value; if the difference of the two test results is larger than 0.02g/cm3, resample and test shall be carried out.
5.3 Test record
Records of the density test shall include rock name; test number; sample coding; test solution temperature; test solution density; sample mass of dried slime; mass of the bottle and test solution; and the total mass of bottle, test solution and slime; mass of the density bottle.
T0204-2005 Gross volume density test
1 Purpose and application scope
Gross volume density of rock is a parameter indirectly reflecting rock densification degree, pore abundance, and is also a necessary calculation index for assessment of project stability of rock mass and determination of the surrounding rock pressure. According to water containing state and gross volume density of rock, there are dry density, saturated density and natural density.
Gross volume density test of rock can be divided into quantity accumulating method, in-water weight method and wax sealing method.
Quantity accumulating method is applicable to all kinds of rock, which can be made into regular specimens. In-water weight method is applicable to all the rock other than the rock, which shall crumble, dissolve entering water and has a property of shrinking in dry state and swelling in wet state. Wax sealing method is applicable to the rock which could not use quantity accumulating method or direct in-water weighing for test. 2 Apparatus
(1) Stonecutter, rock drill, stone mill and other processing devices of rock specimens. (2) Balance: the sensibility is 0.01g, and the weighing is larger than 500g. (3) Oven: the temperature can be controlled at 105°C~110°C.
(4) Paraffin and wax-melting devices.
(5) in-water-weighing device.
(6) Vernier caliper.
oven and place them into a dryer to make the specimens cool to the room temperature, and weigh the mass of dried specimens. The measured specimens shall be used as specimens for uniaxial compressive strength test in the dry state.
4.6 Weighing of this test shall be accurate to 0.01g; measurement shall be accurate to 0.01mm.
5 Test procedures for in-water weighing method
5.1 If the natural density is measured, representative rock shall be used for the preparation of specimens, and be weighed. If the dry density is measured, put specimens into a dry oven at 105°C ~110°C, dry the specimens to the constant mass for generally 12h~24h. Take out specimens from the dry oven and put them into a dryer to make them cool to the room temperature; and the dried specimens shall be weighed. 5.2 Put the dried specimens into water to make them saturated; and boiling method or vacuum-pumping method can be used for saturation according to the rock property. Saturation process and weighing of specimens shall meet requirements of the relevant clauses in T 0205 of this specification.
5.3 Take out the saturated and submerged specimen; and wipe off the moisture on the specimen surface by wet gauze; and weigh the mass immediately.
5.4 Put samples on the wire net of the weighing apparatus in the water; weigh the sample in the water (the mass of the wire net can be equilibrated by the counter weight in advance). In the process of weighing, the liquid level of the weighing apparatus shall be kept at the same height; and the water temperature shall be recorded. 5.5 The weighing in this test shall be accurate to 0.01g.
6 Test procedures of wax sealing method
6.1 If the natural density is measured, representative rock shall be used for the preparation of specimens, and be weighed. If the dry density is measured, put specimens into a dry oven at 105°C ~110°C, dry the specimens to the constant mass for generally 12h~24h. Take specimens out of the dry oven and put them into a dryer to make them cool to the room temperature.
6.2 Take out specimens from the dryer and place them on the balance for weighing, accurate to 0.01g (weighing accuracy of this test is the same).
6.3 Paraffin shall be put in a clean iron basin for heating and fusing to a temperature slightly higher than the fusion point (common paraffin melting point is 55°C~58°C). Rock specimens can be coated with a paraffin layer, which is about 1mm thick by roller coating or brushing; and accurately weigh the mass of the wax-sealed specimens after cooling.
(5) Boiling water tank.
3 Specimen preparation
3.1 Regular specimen: the size of specimen shall comply with provisions of 3.1 of T 0221 in this specification.
3.2 The irregular specimen should adopt perfectly round rock block with side length or diameter of 40mm~50mm.
3.3 The number of the specimens in each set shall be at least 3; for the rock with uneven texture, each set shall include at least 5 specimens.
4 Test procedures
4.1 Place the specimen in to 105°C~110°C oven and bake it till constant mass; the oven drying time is generally 12h~24h; take it out from dryer and cool to room temperature (20°C±2°C); weigh the mass and accurate to 0.01g (the same below). 4.2 Place the weighed specimen into water container; inject water to 1/4 height of specimen, and respectively inject water to 1/2 and 3/4 height of the specimen every other 2h; add water to 20mm higher than the top surface of specimen after 6h to help the air ran off the specimen. Absorb water freely for 48h after the entire specimen submerged by water.
4.3 Take out the submerged specimen; and wipe off the moisture on the specimen surface by wet gauze; and weigh the mass immediately.
4.4 Select one of the following methods for the forced saturation of specimen: Saturate specimen by boiling method: place the weighed specimen into water tank; add water to the half of the specimen height, and stand for 2h. Add water to submerse specimen; boil it for 6h above; and keep the water depth constantly. Keep the water tank still after stopping boiling; take the specimen out after it has been cooled; and wipe off the moisture on surface by wet gauze; weigh the mass immediately. Saturate the specimen by vacuum-pumping method: place the weighed specimen into vacuum drier; inject uncontaminated water and make the water surface 20mm higher than specimen top surface. Start the air pump; and the vacuum pressure during pumping shall reach to 100kPa; keep this vacuum state till no air bubble occurs (no less than 4h). The vacuum-pumped specimen shall be placed in the original container; stand for 4h at atmospheric pressure; take out the specimen; and wipe off the moisture on its surface by wet gauze; and weigh the mass immediately.
5 Results disposal
surface mudding or softening shall be described in detail.
4.2 The sidewise restraint expansion ratio test shall be carried out according to the following procedures:
(1) Place the specimen into metal ring coated with Vaseline in the inside; and place thin filter paper and porous disk on and under specimen, respectively.
(2) Place fixed metal load block on the top; and install vertical dial indicator. The mass of metal load block shall be able to produce 5kPa sustained pressure against the specimen.
(3) The examination and stabilized reference shall be in accordance with Items (3) ~ (6) in Sub-clause 4.1 in this test method.
(4) After the test, the mudding and softening phenomena on specimen surface shall be described.
4.3 The lateral expansion pressure test shall be carried out according to the following procedures:
(1) Place the specimen into metal ring coated with Vaseline in the inside; and place thin filter paper and metal porous disk on and under specimen, respectively. (2) Install pressurizing system and measuring gauge to measure the specimen deformation.
(3) All parts of instrument shall be kept at the same axes with specimen; and no eccentric load is allowed.
(4) Impose 0.01MPa load on specimen; measure and read the measuring gauge display for the specimen deformation once every other 10 min, till the 3 times readings are constant.
(5) Inject uncontaminated water into water container slowly till the top porous disk is immerged. Observe the change of deformation measuring gauge; where the amount of deformation is larger than 0.001 mm, adjust the applied load; and maintain the specimen height constant during the test.
(6) Read once every other 10 min in the beginning. When the reading difference of 3 continuous displays is less than 0.001 mm, the frequency is changed to once every 1h. When the reading difference of 3 continuous displays every 1h is less than 0.001 mm, it is considered to be stable and record the test load. After water soaking, the overall testing time shall be no less than 48h.
(7) During the test, the water level shall be kept constant. And the change of water temperature shall be no larger than 2°C.
The compressive strength of rock cube (or cylinder) specimen under saturated state is adopted in this method to assess the rock strength (including the original rock strength of crushed stone or pebble).
In certain cases, the water containing state of specimen may be adopted with natural state, drying state or state after freezing-thawing cycle according to requirements. The water containing state of specimen shall be indicated in test report.
(1) Compression testing machine or universal testing machine.
(2) Rock drill, stonecutter, stone mill and other rock specimen processing devices. (3) Oven, dryer, Vernier caliper, L-square and water tank, etc.
3 Specimen preparation
3.1 The cylinder is adopted as the standard specimen for rock test of building foundation; diameter is 50mm±2mm, and the ratio of height and diameter is 2:1. There are 6 specimens in each set.
3.2 The cube specimens are adopted for the test of building stone for bridge engineering; side length is 70mm±2mm. There are 6 specimens in each set. 3.3 The cylinder or cube specimens are adopted for the test of building stone for pavement engineering; the diameter or side length and height are 50mm±2mm. There are 6 specimens in each set.
For the rock with notable stratification, take 6 specimens along the parallel and vertical stratification directions, respectively. The upper and lower end surfaces of specimen shall be parallel and be worn flat. The flatness tolerance of specimen end surface shall be less than 0.05 mm; and the verticality deviation of end face to specimen axes shall not exceed 0.25°. For the nonstandard cylinder specimen, the compressive strength test value after test shall be conversed according to Formula (T0221-3) in the article description of this Clause.
4 Test procedures
4.1 Measure the specimen size by Vernier caliper (accurate to 0.1mm). For the cube specimen, measure the side length on the top surface and bottom surface; and calculate the carrying area according to the arithmetic average of two parallel side lengths. For the cylinder specimen, measure two orthogonal diameters on the top surface and bottom surface; calculate the areas of bottom surface and top surface according to respective arithmetic average; and take the arithmetic average of top surface and bottom surface areas as the sectional area to calculate the compressive be listed simultaneously; for the rock with notable stratification, the average specimen strength in the vertical and parallel stratification directions shall be reported, respectively. The calculated value is accurate to 0.1 MPa.
The calculated value of softening coefficient is accurate to 0.01; test 3 specimens parallelly, and take the arithmetic average. The difference between the maximum and minimum value of the 3 values shall not exceed 20% of the average value; otherwise, test the fourth specimen; and take the average value of 3 specimens (the proximal 3 specimens of the 4) as the test result; meanwhile provide the 4 values in the report. 5.3 Test record
Records of uniaxial compressive strength test shall include rock name, test number, specimen coding, specimen description, specimen size, breaking load and failure form. T0222-2005 Uniaxial compressive deformation test
1 Purpose and application scope
The rock uniaxial compressive deformation test is used to determine the axial and radial strain of rock specimens under uniaxial compression stress condition, hereby to calculate the modulus of elasticity and Poisson's ratio of rock.
The modulus of elasticity is the ratio of axial stress and axial strain; Poisson's ratio is the ratio of radial strain and axial strain at the corresponding condition of modulus of elasticity.
This test is divided into resistance strain gage method and dial indicator method; and it is applicable to every kind of rocks that can be made into regular specimens. Hard and comparable hard rocks shall be adopted with resistance strain gage method; while comparable soft rock shall be adopted with dial indicator method.