JTG B01-2014 English PDF (JTGB01-2014)
JTG B01-2014 English PDF (JTGB01-2014)
JTG B01-2014: Technical Standard of Highway Engineering
INDUSTRIAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
Technical standard of highway engineering
ISSUED ON: SEPTEMBER 30, 2014
IMPLEMENTED ON: JANUARY 01, 2015
Issued by: Ministry of Transport of PEOPLE Republic of China
INDUSTRIAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
Technical standard of highway engineering
Main drafting organization:
Highway Administration Bureau of Ministry of Transport of PRC
CCCC FIRST HIGHWAY CONSTRUCTION CO., LTD
Ministry of Transport of PRC
Date of implementation: January 01, 2015
China Communication Press Co., Ltd.
Chief drafters: Huo Ming, Li Chunfeng
Main participating drafters: Zhou Ronggui, Liao Zhaohua, Guo Tengfeng, Meng Shutao, Zhang Jinquan, Yu Peiyu, Han Changling, Sun Fuling, Wang Meng,
Table of Contents
1 General ... 5
2 Terms and definitions ... 8
3 Basic requirements ... 9
3.1 Classification of highways ... 9
3.2 Design vehicle ... 10
3.3 Traffic ... 11
3.4 Service level ... 12
3.5 Speed ... 12
3.6 Building boundaries ... 13
3.7 Anti-seismic ... 16
4 Routes ... 16
5 Subgrade pavement ... 24
6 Bridges and culverts ... 28
7 Vehicle and crowd loads ... 33
8 Tunnel ... 37
9 Route crossing ... 41
9.1 Level crossing of highway and highway ... 41
9.2 Three-dimensional crossing of highway and highway ... 42
9.3 Crossing of highway and railway ... 44
9.4 Crossing of highway and rural roads ... 45
9.5 Crossing of highway and pipeline ... 46
9.6 Animal passage ... 47
10 Traffic engineering and facilities along route ... 47
10.1 General provisions ... 47
10.2 Traffic safety facilities ... 48
10.3 Service facilities ... 50
10.4 Management facilities ... 51
Appendix A Classification of highway service levels ... 54
Appendix B Stopping sight distance and identifying sight distance of trucks . 57 Explanation of wording in this code ... 59
Explanation of Provisions ... 60
1 General ... 61
3 Basic requirements ... 66
4 Routes ... 79
5 Subgrade and pavement ... 100
6 Bridges and culverts ... 107
7 Vehicle and crowd loads ... 116
8 Tunnel ... 123
9 Route crossing ... 133
10 Traffic engineering and facilities along route ... 143
Technical standard of highway engineering
1.0.1 This standard was formulated to regulate highway engineering
1.0.2 This standard applies to newly built, reconstructed, extended highways. 1.0.3 Highway construction shall be based on comprehensive analysis of
regional characteristics, traffic characteristics, road network structure to determine the function of the highway; the technical level and main technical indicators shall be selected based on the function in combination with traffic volume and terrain conditions.
1.0.4 The overall design of a highway construction project shall be well- performed so that the main project, traffic engineering and facilities along the route are coordinated and matched with each other, to give full play to their respective functions and the overall function of the project.
1.0.5 The construction of highways shall implement the principles of protecting cultivated land and saving land. In determining the scope of highway land, the following requirements shall be met:
1 The range of highway land is not less than 1 m beyond the outer edge of the drainage ditch on both sides of the highway embankment (the foot of the embankment or the slope when there is no drainage ditch), or the outer edge of the interception ditch on the top of the road (the top of slope when there is no intercepted ditch). In the segment with conditions, the land within the range not less 3 m for the expressway and class 1 highway or not less than 2 m for the class 2 highway is the range of the highway land. 2 When setting up protection and improvement facilities in bad geological zones such as wind and sand, snow hazards, landslides, mudslides, and
when taking treatment measures in special land zones such as swelling
soil and saline soil, the scope of land use shall be determined according to actual needs.
3 Land for bridges, tunnels, interchangeable three-dimensional intersections, separated three-dimensional intersections, level crossings, safety
facilities, service facilities, management facilities, greening, other off-line projects shall be determined according to actual needs.
1.0.6 Highway construction must implement national laws and regulations on environmental protection and resource conservation; meanwhile it shall meet the following requirements:
1 Highway environmental protection shall implement the principle of
?€?protection first, prevention first, supplemented by governance,
2 Highway construction shall be carried out according to natural conditions, to carry out greening and beautify road capacity, protect the environment. 3 The construction of expressways, class 1 and class 2 highways and
highways with special requirements shall be subject to environmental
impact assessment and assessment of soil and water conservation
4 Eco-environmentally fragile areas, or areas where the environment may be difficult to recover in the near future due to highway construction, shall be designed for environmental protection.
5 Highway reconstruction and expansion projects shall make full use of
highway waste materials to save engineering construction resources.
1.0.7 The construction of highways in phases must be overall designed in accordance with the principles of overall planning and implementation in phases, and shall meet the following requirements:
1 The early-phase projects shall still be fully utilized in the later phases. 2 The integral section of the expressway shall not be constructed horizontally in sections and stages.
3 Separated section segments of expressways may be constructed in
sections and stages. When the first section is opened to traffic according to two-way traffic, it shall be managed in accordance with the traffic
conditions of the class 2 highway.
1.0.8 During the reconstruction and expansion of highways, demonstration and comparison of reconstruction and expansion plans and new construction plans shall be conducted. When adopting the reconstruction and expansion plan, the following requirements shall be met:
1 The timing of highway reconstruction and expansion shall be determined based on the actual service level through demonstration. The service
levels of expressways and class 1 highways should be lowered to be in
front of the lower limit of the level 3 service; the service levels of class 2 and class 3 highways should be lowered to be in front of the lower limit of the level 4 service. The class 4 highway can be determined according to specific conditions.
2 When making use of the local segment of the current highways is limited by the terrain and features, improving the designed speed will induce
engineering geological diseases or greatly increase the construction cost, or have a great impact on environmental protection and cultural relics, the design of this local segment may maintain the original design speed; but the length should be not more than 15 km for expressway and not more
than 10 km for class 1 and class 2 highways.
3 The design of specific implementation plan for the reconstruction and expansion of the expressway shall be based on the design of the traffic organization and the evaluation of traffic safety. In the implementation of the project, it shall reduce the interference with existing roads and there shall be safety measures to ensure traffic. Maintaining the service level of the open road section can be reduced by one level; the design speed
should not be lower than 60 km/h.
4 In the reconstruction and expansion of the class 1, class 2, class 3
highways, it shall make a design scheme to ensure smooth traffic.
5 When separated sectional segment of the expressway in desert, Gobi,
grassland and other small-traffic areas uses the existing class 2 highway to be reconstructed into one section, the design flood frequency can
maintain the original standard; the design speed shall not be greater than 80 km/h.
1.0.9 In the road segments with intensive non-motorized vehicles and
pedestrian, it should consider the traffic needs of non-motorized vehicles and pedestrians. It may set the non-motorized lanes and sidewalks according to the traffic composition.
1.0.10 Arterial highways of class 2 and above shall be evaluated for traffic safety during design; other highways may also be evaluated for traffic safety when conditions permit.
1.0.11 For the highways of class 2 and below with functional requirements for disaster relief, it may improve the earthquake resistance and design flood frequency standards accordingly.
1.0.12 For highway construction projects, it shall, based on the design service life, comprehensively consider the cost-effectiveness of construction,
maintenance, management, and other social benefits such as safety,
environmental protection, and operation, to select the plan of best
2 Terms and definitions
2.0.1 Highway reconstruction and extension
On the basis of existing highways, highway construction projects to improve the technical level, capacity, or technical indicators, including highway
reconstruction and expansion.
2.0.2 Highway function
The vehicle traffic capacity for unobstructed direct travel, pool evacuation and access as provided by the highway in the highway network. The main arterial highways and class 2 arterial highways have the function of unblocking and direct access; the main distribution highways and class 2 distribution highways have the function of collecting and evacuating; the branch highways have the function of entering and leaving.
2.0.3 Design speed
Design reference speeds that determine and coordinate highway design
2.0.4 Operating speed
Under the flat, wet, free-flowing conditions of the pavement, the speed corresponding to the 85% quantile on the cumulative speed distribution curve. 2.0.5 Posted speed limit
A limit on the permitted speed of a vehicle running on the highway.
2.0.6 Design vehicle
The representative model used in highway geometric design, whose outline size, load capacity and dynamic performance are the main basis for
determining highway geometric parameters.
2.0.7 Design traffic capacity
Under the corresponding designed service level, the maximum hourly flow rate of vehicles passing the highway facilities.
2.0.8 Level of service
The quality indicators of the driver's perception of the operating conditions of highway traffic flow, which are usually characterized by indicators such as average driving speed, driving time, driving freedom, traffic delay.
2.0.9 Evacuation / escape lane
A special lane added to the outside of the carriageway for vehicles with brake failure to leave, decelerate and stop, self-rescue.
2.0.10 Hard shoulder
A band-shaped part connected to the carriageway with a certain pavement strength. It is mainly used to provide lateral excess width for driving, lateral protection for pavement structure, full or partial width for emergency stopping of faulty vehicles.
2.0.11 Design working / service life
Under normal design, normal construction, normal use, and normal
maintenance conditions, the service year of pavements, bridges and culverts, tunnel structures or structural components for their intended purpose without major overhaul or replacement.
2.0.12 Electronic toll collection
The fully electronic toll collection method without requiring stopping vehicles by the use of automatic vehicle identification, referred to as ETC.
3 Basic requirements
3.1 Classification of highways
3.1.1 Highways are divided into five technical classes including expressways, class 1 highways, class 2 highways, class 3 highways, class 4 highways. 1 The expressway is a multi-lane highway that is designed for vehicles to drive in different directions and lanes, and all access is controlled. The annual average daily designed traffic volume of expressways should be
above 15000 passenger cars.
2 The class 1 highway is a multi-lane highway for vehicles to drive in different directions and lanes. The annual average daily designed traffic volume of the class 1 highway should be more than 15000 passenger cars.
3 The class 2 highway is a two-lane highway for vehicles. The annual
average daily designed traffic volume of class 2 highway should be 5000 to 15000 passenger cars.
4 The class 3 highway is a two-lane highway for mixed use of automobile and non-automobile traffic. The annual average daily designed traffic
volume of the class 3 highway should be 2000 to 6000 passenger cars.
5 Class 4 highways are two-lane or single-lane highways for mixed use of automobile and non-automobile traffic. The average daily designed traffic volume of two-lane class 4 highways should be below 2000 passenger
cars; the average daily designed traffic volume of single-lane class 4
highways should be below 400 passenger cars.
3.1.2 The selection of highway?€?s technology class shall follow the following principles:
1 The selection of highway?€?s technology class shall be determined based on road network planning, highway functions, traffic volume through
2 Main arterial highways shall be expressways.
3 Secondary arterial highways shall select class 2 and above highways.
4 Main collective highways should select class 1 and class 2 highways.
5 Secondary collective highways should select class 2 and class 3 highways. 6 Branch highways should select class 3 and class 4 highways.
3.2 Design vehicle
3.2.1 The outline dimensions of design vehicles used in highway design are as shown in Table 3.2.1.
Table 3.2.1 -- Outline dimensions of design vehicle
Note: The wheelbase of the articulated vehicle (3.3 + 11) m: 3.3 m is the distance from the first axis to the articulated joint; 11 m is the distance from the articulated joint to the rearmost axis.
Vehicle types Total length (m) Total width (m) Total height (m) Front suspension (m) Wheelbase (m) Rear suspension (m) Passenger car
Large passenger car
3.3.1 The design traffic forecast of newly constructed and reconstructed highway projects shall meet the following requirements:
1 The predicted service life at the design traffic for expressways and class 1 highway is 20 years; the predicted service life at the design traffic for class 2 and class 3 highways is 15 years; the predicted service life of the class 4 highways may be determined based on actual conditions.
2 The start year of the predicted service life at the design traffic volume is the planned opening year in the project feasibility study report.
3.3.2 The traffic volume is converted using a passenger car as the standard vehicle. The representative models of vehicles and the conversion factor of vehicles are as shown in Table 3.3.2. The conversion of traffic volume such as tractors and non-motor vehicles shall meet the following requirements:
Table 3.3.2 -- Representative models of vehicles and vehicle conversion coefficients
models of vehicles
conversion factor Descriptions
Passenger car 1.0 Passenger car with seats???19 and truck with a loading mass???2t Middle-sized vehicle 1.5 Passenger car with seats>19 and truck with a loading mass >2t and ???7t Large-sized vehicle 2.5 Truck with a loading mass >7t and ???20t
Combination vehicle 4.0 Truck with a loading mass >20t
1 Non-motor vehicles such as animal-powered vehicles, rickshaws, and
bicycles are calculated as to roadside interference factors.
2 Each tractor driving on the highway is converted into 4 passenger cars. 3 The vehicle conversion factor required for highway capacity analysis shall be used accordingly based on road sections, intersections, etc., and
according to different terrain conditions and traffic needs.
3.3.3 The hourly traffic volume of highway design should use the 30-th hourly traffic volume of the year; it may also be selected between the 20-th and 40-th hourly traffic volume of the local year according to the project characteristics and requirements.
3.4 Service level
3.4.1 Highway service levels are divided into six levels, as shown in Appendix A.
3.4.2 The design service level of highways at all levels shall not be lower than those specified in Table 3.4.2 and shall meet the following requirements: Table 3.4.2 -- Design service levels of highways at all levels
highway Expressway Class 1 highway Class 2 highway Class 3 highway
Service level Level 3 Level 3 Level 4 Level 4 -
1 When a class 1 highway is used as a collective highway, the design service level can be reduced by one level.
2 For the long tunnel and extra-long tunnel sections, the non-motorized vehicles and pedestrian-intensive sections, the converging and
distribution section and interweaving sections of interchangeable three- dimensional intersections, the design service level can be reduced by one level.
3.5.1 The design speed of highways at all levels shall meet the requirements in Table 3.5.1. The selection of design speed shall be based on the function and technical grade of the highway, combined with factors such as terrain,
engineering economy, expected operating speed, the nature of land use along the route, through comprehensive demonstration. Meanwhile it shall be in accordance with the following requirements:
Table 3.5.1 -- Design speed
1 The design speed of the expressway should not be lower than 100 km/h. When it is restricted by terrain and geological conditions, it may select 80 km/h.
2 For the class 1 highway which is used as the arterial highway, the design speed should be 100 km/h; when it is restricted by terrain and geological conditions, it may select 80 km/h. For the class 1 highway for collective Class of highway Expressway Class 1 highway Class 2 highway Class 3 highway Class 4 highway Design speed
purposes, the design speed should be 80 km/h; when it is restricted by
terrain and geological conditions, it may select 60 km/h.
3 For the specially difficult local sections of expressways and class 1 highways that are used as arterial class 1 highways, when the newly
constructed projects may cause engineering geological diseases, it has
been demonstrated that the design speed of this local section can be 60 km/h, but the length shall not be greater than 15 km, or it is limited only to the section between two adjacent interchanges.
4 For the class 2 highways which are used as the arterial highways, the design speed should be 80 km/h; when it is restricted by terrain and
geological conditions, it may select 60 km/h. For the class 2 highway for collective purposes, the design speed should be 60 km/h; when it is
restricted by terrain and geological conditions, it may select 40 km/h. 5 The design speed of the class 3 highway shall be 40 km/h; when it is
restricted by terrain and geological conditions, it may select 30 km/h. 6 The design speed of the class 4 highway shall be 30 km/h; when it is...