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JGJ 52-2006 English PDF (JGJ52-2006)

JGJ 52-2006 English PDF (JGJ52-2006)

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JGJ 52-2006: Standard for technical requirements and test method of sand and crushed stone (or gravel) for ordinary concrete

This Standard is established to utilize nature sand, artificial sand, crushed stone and gravel reasonably in ordinary concrete, so that quality of sand and stone for ordinary concrete can be ensured. This Standard is applicable to quality requirements and test of sand and stone for ordinary concrete used in general industrial and civil buildings and structures.
JGJ 52-2006
UDC JGJ
INDUSTRY STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
P JGJ 52-2006
Standard for technical requirements and test method of
sand and crushed stone (or gravel) for ordinary concrete
ISSUED ON: DECEMBER 19, 2006
IMPLEMENTED ON: JUNE 01, 2007
Issued by: Ministry of Construction of the PEOPLE Republic of China
Table of Content
1 General ... 8
2 Terms and symbols ... 9
2.1 Terms ... 9
2.2 Symbols ... 10
3 Quality requirements ... 12
3.1 Quality requirements on sand ... 12
3.2 Quality requirements on stone ... 15
4 Acceptance, transportation and piling ... 21
5 Sampling and division ... 22
5.1 Sampling ... 22
5.2 Division of sample ... 24
6 Test method of sand ... 26
6.1 Screen analysis test of sand ... 26
6.2 Apparent density test of sand (standard method) ... 28
6.3 Apparent density test of sand (simple method) ... 29
6.4 Water-absorbing capacity test of sand ... 31
6.5 Bulk density and tight density test of sand ... 33
6.6 Water content rate test of sand (standard method) ... 35
6.7 Water content rate test of sand (rapid method) ... 36
6.8 Dust content test of sand (standard method) ... 37
6.9 Dust content test of sand (siphon method) ... 38
6.10 Clay lump content test of sand ... 39
6.11 Crusher dust content test of artificial sand and mixed sand (methylene blue method) . 40 6.12 Crushing value index test of artificial sand ... 43
6.13 Organic material content test of sand ... 45
6.14 Mica content test of sand ... 46
6.15 Light material content test of sand ... 47
6.16 Soundness test of sand ... 49
6.17 Sulfate and sulfide content test of sand ... 52
6.18 Chloride ion content test of sand ... 53
6.19 Shell content test of sea sand (hydrochloric acid washing method) ... 54 6.20 Alkali activity test of sand (rapid method) ... 56
6.21 Alkali activity test of sand (mortar length method) ... 59
7 Test method of stone ... 63
7.1 Screen analysis test of crushed stone or gravel ... 63
7.2 Apparent density test of crushed stone or gravel (standard method) ... 64 7.3 Apparent density test of crushed stone or gravel (simple method) ... 66 7.4 Water content rate test of crushed stone or gravel ... 68
7.5 Water-absorbing capacity test of crashed stone or gravel ... 69
7.6 Bulk density and tight density test of crushed stone or gravel ... 70 7.7 Dust content test of crushed stone or gravel ... 73
7.8 Clay lump content test of crushed stone or gravel ... 74
7.9 Total content test of elongated and flaky particle of crushed stone or gravel ... 75 7.10 Organic material content test of gravel ... 78
7.11 Soundness test of crushed stone or gravel ... 79
7.12 Compressive strength test of rock ... 82
7.13 Crushing value index test of crushed stone or gravel ... 83
7.14 Sulfate and sulfide content test of crushed stone or gravel ... 85 7.15 Alkali activity test of crushed stone or gravel (petrographic method) ... 87 7.16 Alkali activity test of crushed stone or gravel (rapid method) ... 89 7.17 Alkali activity test of crushed stone or gravel (mortar length method) ... 92 7.18 Alkali activity test of carbonate aggregate (rock column method) ... 95 Annex A Test report form of sand ... 98
Annex B Test report form of stone ... 99
Descriptions for word use of this Standard ... 100
2 Terms and symbols
2.1 Terms
2.1.1 Natural sand
The rock particles with a nominal diameter of less than 5.00mm formed by natural conditions. In accordance with its resource, it can be divided into river sand, sea sand and hill sand.
2.1.2 Artificial sand
The rock particles with a nominal diameter of less than 5.00mm, formed through soil removal and mining, mechanical crushing and screening of rock.
2.1.3 Mixed sand
The sand composed of natural sand and artificial sand in a certain proportion. 2.1.4 Crushed stone
The rock particles with a nominal diameter greater than 5.00mm, obtained by crushing and screening natural rocks or gravels.
2.1.5 Gravel
The rock particles with a nominal diameter greater than 5.00mm formed by natural conditions.
2.1.6 Dust content
The content of particles with a nominal diameter of less than 80??m in sand and stone. 2.1.7 Clay lump content in sands
The content of particles with a nominal diameter greater than 1.25mm in sands and becoming less than 630??m after washing with water and kneading in hand. 2.1.8 Clay lump content in stones
The content of particles with a nominal diameter greater than 5.00mm in stones and becoming less than 2.50mm after washing with water and kneading in hand. 2.1.9 Crusher dust content
The content of particles, in the artificial sand, whose nominal diameter is less than 80??m and whose mineral composition and chemical composition are the same as the processed parent rock.
4 Acceptance, transportation and piling
4.0.1 Product certificate and quality test report of sand or stone shall be provided by supplying organization.
The use organization shall accept the sand or stone in batches according to the same origin and specifications. For transportation by large-scale tools (such as train, cargo ship or automobile), 400m3 or 600t shall be accepted as one batch. For transportation using small-scale tools (such as tractor, etc.), 200m3 or 300t shall be accepted as one batch. If the amount is less than the above-mentioned amount, it shall be accepted according to an acceptance batch.
4.0.2 At least tests on particle grading, dust content and clay lump content shall be required for the acceptance of each batch of sand or stone. About crushed stone or gravel, elongated and flaky particle content shall be tested. For sea sand or sand polluted with chloride ion, test on chloride ion content shall be required. For sea sand, test on shell content shall be required. For artificial sand or mixed sand, test on crusher dust content shall be required. For important or special engineering, additional test item shall be required in accordance with engineering requirement. When there is doubt about the eligibility of other indexes, they shall be tested.
If the quality of sand and stone is stable, and supplying quantity is large, per 1000t shall be accepted as one batch.
If sand or stone from new resource is used, the supplying organization shall conduct a comprehensive test in accordance with the quality requirements in chapter 3 of this Standard.
4.0.3 The following shall be included in quality test report of use organization: entrusting organization, number of sample, name of engineering, resource of sample, sort, represented quantity, test basis, test conditions, test item, test result, conclusion, etc. Format in Annex A and Annex B can be adopted.
4.0.4 The quantity of sand and stone can be accepted in unit of mass or volume. Mass can be determined in accordance with platform truck scale or ship water line; while volume can be determined in accordance with volume of truck or ship. It can be determined in accordance with measuring if other small-scale transportation tools are used.
4.0.5 During the transportation, loading-unloading and piling of sand or stone, it shall avoid particle segregation and mixing with inclusion; it shall be piled in accordance with resource, sort and specification, respectively. The piling height of crushed stone or gravel should not exceed 5m. For single granulometric class or continuous granulometric class whose maximum particle diameter does not exceed 20mm, piling height can be increased to 10m.
6 Test method of sand
6.1 Screen analysis test of sand
6.1.1 This method is applicable to determination of particle grading and fineness modulus of sand for ordinary concrete.
6.1.2 The following apparatus shall be used for screen analysis test of sand: 1 Test screen - One square-hole screen with a nominal diameter of 10.0mm, 5.00mm, 2.50mm, 1.25mm, 630??m, 315??m, 160??m, respectively. One bottom
tray and one cover of the screen; the diameter of the screen frame is 300mm or 200mm. Requirements in current national standard ?€?Test sieves of metal wire cloth?€? GB/T 6003.1 and ?€?Test sieves of perforated metal plate?€? GB/T 6003.2 shall be followed for product quality;
2 Balance - 1000g weighing range in precision of 1g;
3 Wrinkle screening machine;
4 Drying oven - Temperature controlled within (105??5)??C;
5 Shallow tray, hard/soft hair brush etc.
6.1.3 The following specification shall be followed for sample preparation: The particle nominal diameter of sample used for screen analysis shall not be larger than 10.0mm. Prior to test, sample shall be screened with square-hole screen of 10.0mm in nominal diameter; and, screen residual is calculated. Weigh two samples of no less than 550g after reduction and put them into two shallow trays, respectively. Dry them to constant weight at (105??5)??C and cool to room temperature for further use.
Note: Constant weight means that when the interval between two adjacent weighings is not less than 3h, the difference between the two weighings is less than the weighing accuracy required by the test (the same below).
6.1.4 The following steps shall be followed for screen analysis test:
1 Exactly weigh 500g of dried sample (250g for super-fine sand) and put it into the upper-most screen (5.00mm nominal diameter square-hole screen) of screen set, which is overlapped in accordance with size of screen (larger hole screen is above smaller hole screen). Put the screen set into wrinkle screening machine and screen sample for 10min. Then take out the screen set; then, according to the order of screen holes from large to small, manually screen one by one on a clean shallow tray, until the screen output per minute does not exceed 0.1% of the total sample. The passing Where
??f - Fineness modulus of sand;
??1, ??2, ??3, ??4, ??5, ??6 - Accumulated residual respectively on square-hole screens with nominal diameters of 5.00mm, 2.50mm, 1.25mm, 630??m, 315??m, 160??m;
5 Take the arithmetic mean of the two test results as the determination value, accurate to 0.1. If the difference between fineness modulus of the two tests is larger than 0.20, retest with new sample shall be required.
6.2 Apparent density test of sand (standard method)
6.2.1 This method is applicable to the determination of apparent density of sand. 6.2.2 The following apparatus shall be used for apparent density test with standard method:
1 Balance - 1000g weighing range in precision of 1g;
2 Volumetric flask - 500mL volume;
3 Drying oven - Temperature controlled within (105??5)??C;
4 Dryer, shallow tray, aluminum scooper and thermometer etc.
6.2.3 The sample preparation shall meet the following requirements:
After division, at least 650g of sample shall be put into the shallow tray and dried to constant weight in (105??5)??C drying oven; then cooled to ambient temperature in dryer. 6.2.4 The following steps shall be followed for apparent density test with standard method:
1 Weigh 300g (m0) of dried sample and put into volumetric flask with half flask of cool boiled water.
2 Shake the volumetric flask so that sample can be fully mixed in water to dispatch air bubble. Tightly close flask stopper and stand for 24h. Add water with a dropper to reach scale line on the flask neck; put on flask stopper. Wipe water on external wall of flask and weigh its mass (m1).
3 Pour out water and sample contained in the volumetric flask and clean internal/external wall of flask. Add cool boiled water whose temperature difference with that in the 2nd sub-clause of this clause does not exceed 2??C into flask to reach scale line on flask neck. Put on flask stopper; wipe water on external wall of volumetric flask and weigh its mass (m2).
1 Drying oven - Temperature controlled within (105??5)??C;
2 Balance - 1000g weighing range in precision of 1g; 100g weighing range in precision of 0.01g;
3 Test screen - Two square-hole screens with a screen hole nominal diameter of 80??m and 1.25mm respectively;
4 Vessel - It will be such that sample cannot escape during washing (deeper than 250mm);
5 Suction pipette - Each for 5mL and 2mL;
6 Three-blade or four-blade impeller mixer - Speed adjustable [up to (600??60)r/min], (75??10)mm in diameter;
7 Timing device - In precision of 1s;
8 Glass volumetric flask - 1L volume;
9 Thermometer - In precision of 1??C;
10 Glass bar - 2 pieces, 8mm in diameter, 300mm long;
11 Filter paper - Rapid;
12 Enamel pan, hair brush, 1000mL beaker etc.
6.11.3 The following specification shall be followed for preparation of solution and sample.
1 The following method shall be followed for preparation of methylene blue solution: Methylene blue powder (C16H18C1N3S ?€? 3H2O) shall be dried at (105??5)??C till constant weight. Weigh 10g of dried methylene blue powder in precision of 0.01g into a beaker with 600mL of distilled water (heated to 35~40??C) in it. Mix it with a glass bar continuously for 40min until complete dissolution of methylene blue powder. Cool it to 20??C; pour the solution into a 1L volumetric flask; wash the beaker with distilled water, so that all of methylene blue solution can be removed into the volumetric flask. The temperature of volumetric flask and solution shall be maintained at (20??1)??C. Add distilled water into volumetric flask until 1L scale line is reached; shake the flask so that methylene blue powder can be completely dissolved. Take solution in volumetric flask into a deep color bottle; mark the preparation date and expiration date (the shelf life of the methylene blue solution shall not exceed 28d); and, store it in a dark place. 2 The sample shall be reduced to 400g and dried to constant weight in a (105??5)??C drying oven. After cooling to ambient temperature, particle which is larger than 5.0mm nominal diameter shall be removed away.
use;
2 Take 2g of tannic acid powder and solve it into 98mL of 10% alcohol solution for preparing required tannic acid solution. Take 2.5mL of this solution and pour it into 97.5mL of 3% sodium hydroxide solution. After stopper is put on, shake it seriously and stay it for 24h. This is the standard solution.
6.13.4 The following steps shall be followed for organic material content test: 1 Pour sample into a 250mL volumetric cylinder to 130mL scale line; then pour into 3% sodium hydroxide solution to 200mL scale line. Seriously shake it and stay it for 24h. 2 Compare color of upper part solution of sample with that of new prepared standard solution. The volume of volumetric cylinders for standard sample and sample shall be the same.
6.13.5 The following method shall be followed for result assessing:
1 If the color of upper part solution of sample is lighter than that of standard solution, the organic material content of sample is judged to be qualified;
2 If colors of two solutions are nearer each other, the sample (include upper part solution) shall be poured into a beaker and heated for 2~3h in a 60~70??C water bath, then compared with standard solution;
3 If the color of the solution is deeper than the standard color, the following method shall be followed for further test:
Take one part of sample and wash out organic impurity with 3% sodium hydroxide solution; then wash with clean water, until color of upper solution of sample is lighter than that of standard solution. Then, in accordance with current national standard ?€?Method of testing cements - Determination of strength?€? GB/T 17671, both washed and un-washed samples shall be respectively used to prepare two kinds of cement mortar, to determinate the 28d compressive strength. If the ratio between strengths of cement mortar prepared with un-washed and washed sand is not less than 0.95, this sand is acceptable. Otherwise it cannot be used.
6.14 Mica content test of sand
6.14.1 This method is suitable for determining the approximate percentage of mica in sand.
6.14.2 The following apparatus shall be used for mica content test:
1 Loupe (5 times);
2 Steel pin;
6.17 Sulfate and sulfide content test of sand
6.17.1 This method is applicable to determination of sulfate and sulfide content (accounted with percentage of SO3) in sand.
6.17.2 The following apparatus and reagents shall be used for sulfate and sulfide test: 1 Balance and analytical balance - Balance, 1000g weighing range in precision of 1g; analytical balance, 100g weighing range in precision of 0.0001g;
2 High temperature furnace - The maximum temperature is 1000??C;
3 Test screen - A square-hole screen whose screen hole nominal diameter is 80??m; 4 Porcelain crucible;
5 Other apparatus - Flask and beaker etc.;
6 10% (W/V) barium chloride solution - 10g of barium chloride in 100mL of distilled water;
7 Hydrochloric add (1+1) - Concentrated hydrochloric acid dissolved in the same volume of distilled water;
8 1% (W/V) silver nitrate solution - 1g of silver nitrate dissolved in 100mL of distilled water; add 5~10mL of nitric acid and store in a brown bottle.
6.17.3 The following specification shall be followed for preparation of sample: After the sample is reduced to no less than 10g, it is dried at a temperature of (105??5)??C to a constant weight. After cooling to ambient temperature, it is crushed so that all of sample can pass square-hole screen whose nominal diameter of screen hole is 80??m for further use.
6.17.4 The following steps shall be followed for sulfate and sulfide content test: 1 Exactly take 1g (m) of sand powder sample with analytical balance and put it into a 300mL beaker. Add 30~40mL of distilled water and 10mL of hydrochloric acid (1+1). Heat it for slightly boiling and maintain it for 5min. After sample is fully separated, take it away and filter it with intermediate speed filter paper, then washed with warm water for 10~12 times;
2 Adjust the volume of filtered solution to 200mL and heat to boiling. Drip 10mL of 10% barium chloride solution during mixing; boil the solution for a few minutes; then move it to a warm place and stay for at least 4h (solution volume shall be maintained at 200mL at this time). Filter it with a piece of slow speed filter paper and wash it with warm water until chloride reaction cannot be observed (tested with silver nitrate solution);
wb - Shell content in sand (%);
m1 - Total mass of sample (g);
m2 - Mass of the sample after removing the shell (g);
wc - Dust content (%).
Use the arithmetic mean of two test results as the determination value. If the difference between two results is larger than 0.5%, test with new sample shall be required. 6.20 Alkali activity test of sand (rapid method)
6.20.1 This method is applicable to determining harmfulness of potential reaction between siliceous aggregate and alkali in concrete by means of immersing sample in 1mol/L sodium hydroxide solution for 14d; is unsuitable for test of alkali-carbonate reactive aggregate.
6.20.2 The following apparatus shall be used for alkali activity test (rapid method): 1 Drying oven - Temperature controlled within (105??5)??C;
2 Balance - 1000g weighing range in precision of 1g;
3 Test screen - Square-hole screens with screen hole nominal diameters of 5.00mm, 2.50mm, 1.25mm, 630??m, 315??m, 160??m respectively;
4 Length measuring gauge - 280~300mm weighing range in precision of 0.01mm; 5 Cement mortar mixer - Specification in current industry standard ?€?Mixer for mixing mortars?€? JC/T 681 shall be followed;
6 Constant temperature curing box or water bath - Temperature controlled within (80??2)??C;
7 Curing cylinder...

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