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GBZ 130-2020 English PDF (GBZ130-2020)

GBZ 130-2020 English PDF (GBZ130-2020)

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GBZ 130-2020: Requirements for radiological protection in diagnostic radiology

This Standard specifies requirements for protection in diagnostic radiology, including protection performance of X-ray imaging diagnosis and interventional radiology equipment, equipment room protection facilities, protection safety operation requirements and related protection testing requirements. This Standard is applicable to X-ray imaging diagnosis and interventional radiology. X-ray imaging equipment in radiotherapy and nuclear medicine shall be implemented in accordance with this Standard.
GBZ 130-2020
GBZ
NATIONAL OCCUPATIONAL HYGIENE STANDARD
OF THE PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 13.100
C 57
Replacing GBZ 130-2013, GBZ 165-2012, etc.
Requirements for radiological protection in diagnostic
radiology
ISSUED ON: APRIL 03, 2020
IMPLEMENTED ON: OCTOBER 01, 2020
Issued by: National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 6
2 Normative references ... 6
3 Terms and definitions ... 6
4 General rules ... 8
5 Technical requirements for protection performance of X-ray equipment ... 12 6 Technical requirements for protection facilities of machine room of X-ray equipment ... 16
7 Protection safety requirements for operation of X-ray equipment ... 22 8 Protection testing requirements for machine room of X-ray equipment ... 27 Annex A (informative) Examples for pediatric illegitimate imaging examinations ... 28
Annex B (normative) Protection testing of machine room of X-ray equipment ... 29
Annex C (informative) Lead equivalents of different shielding substances in medical diagnostic X-ray protection ... 33
Annex D (informative) Correction method for response time of measuring
instrument reading ... 38
Annex E (informative) Diagnostic reference level ... 41
Annex F (informative) Requirements for medical diagnostic X-ray personal protective materials and supplies ... 44
Annex G (informative) Requirements for protective glass panel of medical diagnostic X-ray ... 58
Bibliography ... 63
Requirements for radiological protection in diagnostic
radiology
1 Scope
This Standard specifies requirements for protection in diagnostic radiology, including protection performance of X-ray imaging diagnosis and interventional radiology equipment, equipment room protection facilities, protection safety operation requirements and related protection testing requirements.
This Standard is applicable to X-ray imaging diagnosis and interventional radiology.
X-ray imaging equipment in radiotherapy and nuclear medicine shall be
implemented in accordance with this Standard.
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
GB 18871, Basic Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources
GBZ 128, Specifications for individual monitoring of occupational external exposure
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply. 3.1 X-ray imaging diagnosis
a technology that uses X-ray penetration and other properties to obtain image information of human organs and tissues to diagnose diseases
3.2 C-arm X-ray equipment
the X-ray equipment for diagnosis that is composed of C-frame, X-ray tube 4 General rules
4.1 Management requirements
Medical institutions shall be responsible for the protection and safety of radiation workers, subjects and the public, mainly including:
a) Layout of the radiological diagnostic equipment workplace, design and construction of the machine room;
b) Equipped with professionals with reasonable structure suitable for
inspection work;
c) The occupational exposure of workers shall be restricted. Occupational exposure dose limit shall meet the requirements of GB 18871. Personal
dose monitoring shall meet the requirements of GBZ 128;
d) Perform health checkups for radiology staff before, during and after work. Regularly perform professional and protective knowledge training.
Respectively establish personal dosage, occupational health
management and education and training files;
e) Develop personnel training guidelines and plans. Train personnel on
professional skills, radiation protection knowledge and relevant legal
knowledge to meet the job requirements for radiation workers;
f) Configure diagnostic equipment, testing instruments and protective
facilities suitable for X-ray inspection. Take all reasonable measures to prevent equipment failure and human error;
g) Develop and implement a radiation protection management system.
Implement the program for radiological protection quality assurance. Take reasonable and effective measures. Minimize the consequences of
possible failures and errors;
h) Develop corresponding emergency plans for radiological incidents. It shall, to possible events, publicize the plan and conduct regular practical
exercises;
i) The radiation damage of the subject shall be reported to the health
administration department in time.
4.2 Legitimacy requirements
4.2.1 Medical exposure shall have sufficient net benefits. In the case of obtaining the same net benefit, alternative methods of non-medical exposure shall be used whenever possible. It shall weigh the pros and cons when there to be sent to a fixed device for examination, and after taking strict corresponding protective measures, can mobile or portable X-ray equipment be used to
operate at the bedside. Perform medical imaging examination.
4.2.10 X-ray diagnostic equipment installed on vehicle shall generally be used during roving physical examinations or medical emergencies. It shall not be used as conventional X-ray diagnostic equipment in fixed places.
4.3 Protection optimization requirements
4.3.1 The basic goal of optimizing the protection of subjects in X-ray diagnostic and interventional radiology procedures is to maximize the benefits beyond the hazards.
4.3.2 The optimization process of medical exposure shall include the selection of equipment. In addition to considering economic and social factors, it shall examine the aspects such as ease of use, quality assurance (including quality control), evaluation and estimation of subject dose, so that it can get enough diagnostic information and treatment effect.
4.3.3 Examine the medical X-ray diagnosis that is indeed necessary for
legitimate reasons. Follow the principle for optimization of radiation protection. Apply relevant diagnostic reference level. In the case of ensuring that sufficient diagnostic information is obtained, the dose received by the subject shall be as low as possible.
4.3.4 When performing X-ray diagnostic examination, it shall strictly control the exposure field range to avoid the sensitive organs or tissues (such as gonads, eye lens, breast and thyroid) adjacent to the exposure field from being directly exposed to useful beams.
4.3.5 Medical institutions shall equip the subject with necessary radiation protection equipment. Take necessary shielding and protective measures for sensitive organs or tissues adjacent to the exposure field. It is recommended to use wrapped shielding protection measures for the subject in the CT scan. 4.3.6 Pay special attention to the exposure to the embryo or fetus, especially the optimal treatment when the pregnant woman's abdomen or pelvis is
irradiated with useful beams or may receive large doses in other ways.
4.3.7 When performing X-ray diagnostic examination, people other than the subject shall not stay in the machine room. When the subject needs personnel assistance, the necessary protective measures shall be taken for the escort. 4.3.8 For diagnostic radiology procedures and image-guided intervention procedures, it shall ensure to use:
time, total number of images, fluoroscopy dose rate, reference point dose and dose area product.
4.5 Others
4.5.1 See Annex B for X-ray equipment room protection testing.
4.5.2 See Annex C for lead equivalent of different shielding substances in medical diagnostic X-ray protection.
4.5.3 See Annex D for correction method for reading response time of
measuring instrument.
4.5.4 See Annex E for diagnostic reference level.
4.5.5 See Annex F for requirements for medical diagnostic X-ray personal protective materials and supplies.
4.5.6 See Annex G for requirements for medical diagnostic X-ray protective glass panel.
5 Technical requirements for protection performance of
X-ray equipment
5.1 General requirements
5.1.1 On the outlet of X-ray equipment, a beam limiting system shall be installed (such as beam limiter, diaphragm).
5.1.2 On the X-ray tube components, there shall be a clear focus position mark. 5.1.3 On the X-ray tube components, inherent filtration shall be indicated. All additional filters shall be marked with their material and thickness.
5.1.4 Accompanying documents shall describe the following protection-related properties:
a) Inherent filtration of X-ray tube components;
b) Filtration of X-ray source components;
c) Characteristics of filtration tablets;
d) At 100 cm away from the focal point on the spherical surface, air kerma rate of leaked radiation;
e) Ways to limit useful harnesses;
e) For X-ray equipment for mammography of which the nominal X-ray tube
voltage does not exceed 50kV, its total filtration shall not be less than 0.03mmMo.
5.2 Special requirements for protective performance of X-ray equipment
for fluoroscopy
5.2.1 The minimum focal distance of the C-arm X-ray equipment shall not be less than 20cm. The minimum focal distance of another X-ray equipment for fluoroscopy shall not be less than 30cm.
5.2.2 The fluoroscopic exposure switch shall be a normally-off switch, equipped with fluoroscopic timing and time-limited alarm device.
5.2.3 See 5.8 for special requirements for protection performance of X-ray fluoroscopy equipment used for interventional radiology, near-stage co- operation (non-common fluoroscopy).
5.3 Special requirements for protection performance of X-ray equipment
for photography
5.3.1 X-ray equipment for photography of 200 mA and above shall have a
device that can install additional filter plates, equipped with additional filter plates of different specifications.
5.3.2 X-ray equipment shall have a beam limiting device that can adjust the useful beam exposure field. It shall provide a light field indicating device that can mark the exposure field.
5.4 Special requirements for protection performance of CT equipment
5.4.1 Before the scanning process starts, it shall specify CT operating conditions used during a scan procedure.
5.4.2 For any CT scan procedure, it shall display dose information on the operator console.
5.4.3 Emergency stop button shall be set, so that the beam can be stopped in time when an accident occurs during the CT scan.
5.5 Special requirements for protection performance of X-ray equipment
for dental photography
5.5.1 The nominal value of the tube voltage when using dental X-ray equipment shall not be less than 60kV.
5.5.2 X-ray equipment for dental panoramic tomography shall have beam
limiting device to prevent X-ray from going beyond the plane of X-ray image 5.8.1 X-ray equipment for interventional radiology, near-stage co-operation (non-common fluoroscopy) shall meet special requirements for protection performance of corresponding equipment types.
5.8.2 In the machine room, there shall be control keys for the staff to successfully switch between fluoroscopy and photography functions without changing the operating position.
5.8.3 X-ray equipment shall be equipped with devices that can prevent the use of focal distances less than 20cm.
5.8.4 In intervention operation, the equipment console and the monitor in the machine room shall be able to display the radiation dosimetry instructions and multiple exposure dose records of the current subject.
5.9 Special requirements for protection performance of X-ray diagnostic equipment installed on vehicle
5.9.1 X-ray diagnostic equipment installed on vehicle shall meet special requirements for protection performance of its corresponding device type. 5.9.2 X-ray diagnostic equipment installed on vehicle shall be equipped with beam limiting device to ensure that the X-ray does not exceed the plane of the image receiver.
6 Technical requirements for protection facilities of
machine room of X-ray equipment
6.1 Layout of machine room of X-ray equipment
6.1.1 X-ray equipment, doors, windows and pipeline ports of the machine room shall be set up reasonably. Try to avoid direct exposure to doors, windows, pipeline openings and staff operating positions with useful harnesses.
6.1.2 The setting of the machine room (exposure room) of X-ray equipment shall fully consider the protection and safety of people in adjacent rooms (including upstairs and downstairs) and surrounding places.
6.1.3 Each fixed X-ray equipment shall have a separate machine room. The machine room shall meet the layout requirements of the equipment used. If each dental chair is independently set up in the consulting room, fixed intraoral dental film machine can be installed in the consulting room for the use of this equipment. The shielding and layout of the consulting room shall meet the protection requirements of the intraoral dental film machine room.
machine, mammography, mammary CBCT, intraoral dental radiography,
dental panoramic photography, dental panoramic head photography, oral
CBCT and whole-body bone densitometer shall not exceed 2.5??Sv/h;
c) The surrounding dose equivalent rate outside the machine room of
photography programs with short-term, high-dose rate exposure (such as
DR, CR, screen photography) shall not exceed 25??Sv/h. When exceeding,
the annual effective dose assessment of personnel outside the machine
room shall be conducted. It shall not be greater than 0.25mSv;
d) When X-ray diagnostic equipment installed on vehicle is working, a
temporary control zone shall be established 3m around the vehicle. The
dose equivalent rate around the boundary of the control area shall meet the requirements of a) to c) in 6.3.1.
6.3.2 The testing method and testing conditions for radiation shielding protection of the machine room are in accordance with the requirements of Clause 8 and Annex B.
6.3.3 It is advisable to use equipment capable of measuring short-time beam and pulsed radiation fields for measurement. If the measuring instrument does not meet the response time requirements, it shall conduct response time correction to its readings. See Annex D for the correction methods.
6.4 Workplace protection of X-ray equipment
6.4.1 The machine room shall be equipped with observation windows or camera monitoring devices. The location set shall be convenient to observe the state of the subject as well as the opening and closing of the protective door.
6.4.2 No debris unrelated to the diagnosis of the equipment shall be stacked in the machine room.
6.4.3 Power ventilation device shall be installed in the machine room. Maintain good ventilation.
6.4.4 There shall be an ionizing radiation warning sign outside the door of the machine room. There shall be a conspicuous working state indicator above the door of the machine room. The light box shall be set up with visual warning statements such as "harmful rays, do not enter the light". The waiting area shall be provided with a notice board for radiation protection precautions.
6.4.5 There shall be an automatic door closing device for side hung door of machine room. The sliding door of machine room shall be equipped with
management measures to close the machine room door during exposure. The working state indicator can be effectively associated with the machine room door.
equipment
7.1 General requirements
7.1.1 Radiology staff shall be proficient in business technology, receive radiation protection and relevant legal knowledge training to meet the job requirements of radiological staff.
7.1.2 According to different inspection types and needs, choose to use
appropriate equipment, exposure conditions, exposure fields and
corresponding productive equipment.
7.1.3 Reasonably choose various operating parameters. Under the condition of ensuring that the expected diagnostic target is achieved, minimize the exposure dose received by the subject.
7.1.4 If the equipment has a child check mode option, this mode shall be used when examining children. If there is no child check mode, the irradiation parameters shall be adjusted appropriately (such as tube voltage, tube current, irradiation time). And strictly limit the exposure field.
7.1.5 When X-ray equipment is exposed, doors and windows connected to the machine room shall be closed.
7.1.6 Radiation workers shall receive personal dose monitoring according to GBZ 128.
7.1.7 During case teaching, the exposure time and number of exposures shall not be arbitrarily increased.
7.1.8 The method of improving the exposure conditions of photography shall not be used. Improve the development effect of expired film.
7.1.9 Staff shall carry out exposure operations in shielded protective facilities and shall closely observe the state of the subject through the observation window.
7.2 Protection safety requirements for operation of X-ray equipment for fluoroscopy
7.2.1 It shall try to avoid the use of ordinary fluoroscopy. Avoid lying fluoroscopy during use. Staff who use ordinary fluorescent screen fluoroscopy shall do adequate dark adaptation before fluoroscopy.
7.2.2 When performing gastrointestinal angiography, the exposure conditions shall be strictly controlled and repeated exposure shall be avoided. Effective protective measures shall be taken for staff and subjects.
7.6.1 The thyroid area of the mammography subject shall be protected.
7.6.2 According to breast type and compression thickness, choose the right target/filter material combination. It is advisable to use the automatic exposure control function of photographic equipment. Obtain stable collection effect to meet protection optimization requirements.
7.7 Protection safety requirements for operation of mobile and portable X-ray equipment
7.7.1 Mobile and portable X-ray equipment shall meet the protection and safe operation requirements of their corresponding equipment.
7.7.2 When using mobile X-ray equipment for X-ray inspection in the ward, it shall take protective measures for the subject of adjacent bed (within 2m range). The useful harness shall not be directed towards other subjects.
7.7.3 When exposed, staffs shall protect themselves. Choose a reasonable standing position. Ensure that the subject's posture can be observed during exposure.
7.7.4 Those who need to operate the inspection system at close range shall wear a lead rubber apron or perform the operation after moving the lead protective screen. The configuration of productive equipment and protective facilities shall meet the requirements of 6.5.
7.7.5 Around temporary outdoor operation sites, guardrails or warning signs shall be set up to prevent unrelated persons from entering.
7.7.6 When performing bedside operations on non-emergency, critical, and severe subjects, reasonable operating time shall be determined. For example, avoid the time period when doctor?€?s intensive rounds and family visits are concentrated.
7.7.7 Whenever mobile X-ray equipment is used for bedside operations, the staff operating the X-ray equipment shall perform the obligation to inform all the personnel on site in advance. And ensure that no unrelated persons are present in the control area.
7.7.8 Those who assist the subject in X-ray examination sh...

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