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GB/T 8196-2003 English PDF (GBT8196-2003)

GB/T 8196-2003 English PDF (GBT8196-2003)

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GB/T 8196-2003: Safety of machinery -- Guards -- General requirements for the design and construction of fixed and movable guards

This Standard specifies general requirements for the design and construction of guards provided primarily to protect persons from mechanical hazards. This Standard applies primarily to machines which will be manufactured after it is published.
GB/T 8196-2003
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 13.110
C 78
Replacing GB 8196-1987, GB 8197-1987
Safety of machinery - Guards - General requirements for
the design and construction of fixed and movable guards
(ISO 14120.2002, MOD)
ISSUED ON. MARCH 13, 2003
IMPLEMENTED ON. SEPTEMBER 1, 2003
Issued by. General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of China
Table of Contents
Foreword . 4
Introduction .. 6
1 Scope .. 7
2 Normative references . 7
3 Terms and definitions . 8
3.1 guard .. 8
3.2 fixed guard . 9
3.3 movable guard . 10
3.4 adjustable guard . 11
3.5 inter locking guard . 12
3.6 interlocking guard with guard locking . 12
3.7 guard closed position .. 12
3.8 guard open .. 12
3.9 tool . 12
3.10 use of a tool .. 13
3.11 frequency of access .. 13
4 Risk assessment . 15
5 Principal requirements for the design and construction of guards . 15 5.1 Machine aspects . 15
5.2 Human aspects .. 17
5.3 Guard design aspects . 19
5.4 Guard construction aspects . 19
5.5 Selection of materials . 21
5.6 Containment . 22
5.7 Resistance to corrosion . 22
5.8 Resistance to micro-organisms . 22
5.9 Non-toxicity .. 22
5.10 Machine viewing . 22
5.11 Transparency . 22
5.12 Stroboscopic effects . 23
5.13 Electrostatic properties .. 23
5.14 Thermal stability.. 23
5.15 Flammability.. 23
5.16 Noise and vibration reduction . 23
5.17 Radiation protection .. 24
6 Selection of types of guards . 24
6.1 General . 24
6.2 Combination of different guards or of guards with other devices . 24 6.3 Selection of guards according to the number and location of the hazards . 25 6.4 Selection of guards according to the nature and frequency of access required . 25
7 Additional design and construction considerations . 28
7.1 Climbing .. 28
7.2 Retained fastenings . 28
7.3 Vibration resistance . 28
7.4 Warning signs . 28
7.5 Color . 28
7.6 Aesthetics . 29
8 Verification of the safety requirements for guards . 29
8.1 General . 29
8.2 Impact strength .. 29
8.3 Safety distances . 29
8.4 Containment . 29
8.5 Noise . 30
8.6 Guard operating forces . 30
8.7 Visibility . 30
9 Information for use . 30
9.1 General . 30
9.2 Guard hazards . 30
9.3 Installation . 30
9.4 Operation . 30
9.5 Removal of guards. 30
9.6 Inspection and maintenance .. 31
Annex A (Informative) Technical differences and reasons between this Standard and ISO 14120.2002 . 32
Annex B (Normative) Guidelines to assist in the selection of guards against hazards generated by moving parts . 35
Annex C (Normative) Guidelines for the selection of guards according to the number and location of hazards . 37
Bibliography . 38
Foreword
The modification of this Standard uses the International standard ISO
14120.2002 "Safety of machinery - Guards - General requirements for the design and construction of fixed and movable guards" (English version). This Standard was redrafted based on ISO 14120.2002. Due to the legal
requirements of China and the special needs of industry, this Standard made a modification to ISO 14120.2002 when adopting it. These technical differences are identified by vertical single lines in the margins of the clauses to which they relate. A list of technical differences and reasons is given in the informative Annex A for reference. The text structures of this Standard and ISO 14120.2002 are consistent. However, due to the addition of Annex A, the numbers of the original two appendices in ISO 14120.2002 were changed to Annex B and
Annex C in this Standard in order.
For easy use, this Standard made the following editorial modifications to ISO 14120.2002.
a) modified "this International Standard" to "this Standard";
b) deleted the foreword of ISO 14120.2002, modified the introduction of ISO 14120.2002;
c) added the informative Annex A for guidance of use.
This Standard replaces GB 8196-1987 "Safety requirement of guard on
machinery" and GB 8197-1987 "Safety requirement of shield".
Compared with GB 8196-1987 and GB 8197-1987, the main technical changes in this Standard are as follows.
-- the scope of application was expanded to include not only guards and shields but also various types of fixed and movable guards; due to
different structures, it can be shells, covers, screens, doors, enclosed guards, etc. (the introductions of GB 8196-1987 and GB 8197-1987; 1 of
this Edition);
-- all terms and definitions were newly added to harmonize with other existing national standards concerning mechanical safety that adopt ISO
standards (1 of GB 8196-1987 and GB 8197-1987; 3 of this Edition);
-- added risk assessment content (4 of this Edition);
-- in the design and construction requirements, added sealing, resistance to corrosion, resistance to micro-organisms, non-toxicity, machine viewing, transparency, stroboscopic effects, electrostatic properties, thermal
stability, flammability, noise and vibration reduction, radiation protection and other requirements (2 of GB 8196-1987 and 2 of GB 8197-1987; 5 of
this Edition);
-- added the provisions for selection of guard types (2.4 of GB 8196-1987; 6 of this Edition);
-- added additional design and construction provisions for guards. climbing, retaining fasteners, anti-vibration, warning signals, color, aesthetics, etc. (7 of this Edition);
-- added inspection requirements for safety requirements of guards (8 of this Edition);
-- added requirements for use of guard information (9 of this Edition). Annex A of this Standard is informative. Annex B and Annex C are normative. This Standard was proposed by National Bureau of Safety Production
Supervision.
This Standard shall be under the jurisdiction of National Technical Committee on Machinery Safety of Standardization Administration of China.
Main drafting organizations of this Standard. Jilin Provincial Institute of Safety Science and Technology.
The drafting organizations of this Standard. Institute of Mechanical Science. Main drafters of this Standard. Xiao Jianmin, Zheng Fanying, Shi Huawen, Shi Junwei, Wang Yaru.
Versions of standard substituted by this Standard are.
-- GB 8196-1987;
-- GB 8197-1987.
Safety of machinery - Guards - General requirements for
the design and construction of fixed and movable guards
1 Scope
This Standard specifies general requirements for the design and construction of guards provided primarily to protect persons from mechanical hazards. This Standard applies primarily to machines which will be manufactured after it is published.
Attention is drawn to the use of guards to minimize exposure to non-mechanical hazards.
The requirements are applicable if fixed and movable guards are used. This Standard does not cover those parts of guards which actuate interlocking devices. These are covered in GB/T 18831.
This Standard does not provide requirements for special systems relating specifically to mobility or to the ability to lift loads such as rollover protective structures (ROPS) and falling-object protective structures (FOPS).
2 Normative references
The provisions in following documents become the provisions of this Standard through reference in this Standard. For dated references, the subsequent amendments (excluding corrigendum) or revisions do not apply to this Standard, however, parties who reach an agreement based on this Standard are
encouraged to study if the latest versions of these documents are applicable. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document applies. GB/T 5226.1, Electrical equipment of industrial machines. Part 1. General requirements (eqv IEC 204-1.1992)
GB 12265.1, Safety of machinery - Safety distances to prevent danger zones being reached by the upper limbs
GB 12265.2, Safety of machinery - Safety distances to prevent danger zones being reached by the lower limbs
GB 12265.3, Safety of machinery - Minimum gaps to avoid crushing of parts of the human body
GB/T 15706.1-1995, Safety of machinery - Basic concept, general principles for design - Part 1. Basic terminology, methodology (eqv ISO/TR 12100-
1.1992)
GB/T 15706.2-1995, Safety of machinery - Basic concepts, general
principles for design Part 2. Technical principles and specifications (eqv ISO/TR 12100-2.1992)
GB/T 16856, Safety of machinery - Principles for risk assessment
GB/T 18831-2002, Safety of machinery - Interlocking devices associated
with guards - Principles for design and selection (ISO 14119, MOD)
ISO 14123-1, Safety of machinery - Reduction of risks to health resulting from hazardous substances emitted by machinery - Part 1. Principles and specifications for machinery manufacturers
EN 292-2.1991/A1.1995, Safety of machinery - Basic concepts, general
principles for design - Part 2. Technical principles and specifications EN 1127-1, Explosive atmospheres - Explosion prevention and protection - Part 1. Basic concepts and methodology
EN 1672-2, Food processing machinery - Basic concepts - Part 2. Hygiene requirements
NOTE. Other information is given in Bibliography.
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the following terms and definitions apply of which some are defined in GB/T 15706.1.
3.1 guard
part of a machine specifically used to provide protection by means of a physical barrier; depending on its construction, a guard may be called casing, cover, screen, door, enclosing guard, etc.
NOTE 1. A guard may act.
-- alone, in which case it is only effective when it is closed;
-- in conjunction with an interlocking device with or without guard locking, in which case protection is ensured whatever the position of the guard (see also 3.5). NOTE 2. ?€?Closed?€? means ?€?kept in...

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