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GB/T 4501-2023 English PDF (GBT4501-2023)

GB/T 4501-2023 English PDF (GBT4501-2023)

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GB/T 4501-2023: Laboratory test methods for truck and bus tyres capabilities

This document describes the laboratory test method for the performance verification of truck and bus tyres, including test equipment and accuracy, test conditions, test steps, judgment rules and test report. Of the test methods proposed, only certain test methods are applied depending on the type of tyre to be tested. This document includes: - Endurance performance test: evaluate the fatigue resistance performance of the tyre through the driving time under the specified load and speed; - High-speed performance test: evaluate the high-speed driving performance of the tyre according to the tyre speed symbol; - Strength performance test: evaluate the structural performance of the tyre by detecting the destructive energy of the tyre crown. The test methods listed in this document are not suitable for grading the performance or quality level of tyre products. This document applies to new pneumatic truck and bus tyres tyres and retreaded pneumatic truck and bus tyres tyres. Other tyres may be tested with reference to this document upon negotiation and agreement of relevant parties.
GB/T 4501-2023
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 83.160.10
CCS G 41
Replacing GB/T 4501-2016
Laboratory test methods for truck and bus tyres capabilities
(ISO 10454:1993, Truck and bus tyres - Verifying tyre capabilities - Laboratory test methods, MOD)
ISSUED ON: MARCH 17, 2023
IMPLEMENTED ON: OCTOBER 01, 2023
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 6
2 Normative references ... 6
3 Terms and definitions ... 6
4 Test equipment and its accuracy requirements ... 7
5 Test methods ... 8
6 Judgment rules ... 12
7 Test report ... 14
Annex A (informative) Comparisons on structure numbers between this document and ISO 10454:1993 ... 15
Annex B (informative) Technical differences between this document and ISO 10454:1993 and their reasons ... 16
Annex C (normative) Correspondence between tyre speed symbols and speeds ... 19 Bibliography ... 20
Laboratory test methods for truck and bus tyres capabilities
1 Scope
This document describes the laboratory test method for the performance verification of truck and bus tyres, including test equipment and accuracy, test conditions, test steps, judgment rules and test report. Of the test methods proposed, only certain test methods are applied depending on the type of tyre to be tested.
This document includes:
- Endurance performance test: evaluate the fatigue resistance performance of the tyre through the driving time under the specified load and speed;
- High-speed performance test: evaluate the high-speed driving performance of the tyre according to the tyre speed symbol;
- Strength performance test: evaluate the structural performance of the tyre by detecting the destructive energy of the tyre crown.
The test methods listed in this document are not suitable for grading the performance or quality level of tyre products.
This document applies to new pneumatic truck and bus tyres tyres and retreaded pneumatic truck and bus tyres tyres. Other tyres may be tested with reference to this document upon negotiation and agreement of relevant parties.
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. GB/T 6326, Tyre terms and definitions (GB/T 6326-2014, ISO 4223-1:2002, NEQ) 3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions defined in GB/T 6326 as well as the followings apply.
3.1 test speed
5.1.2.5 After completing the test according to the prescribed procedure, let the test tyre cool naturally for 15 min ~ 25 min. The tyre pressure shall be measured within this specified time period. After cooling completely, remove the tyre for visual inspection. 5.2 High-speed performance test (miniature, light truck and bus tyres)
5.2.1 Test conditions
5.2.1.1 The test rim shall comply with the regulations on measuring rims in GB/T 2977 or relevant industry technical documents. Mount the test tyre on the test rim. Fill with the air pressure corresponding to the load capacity marked on the sidewall of the tyre (when the conditions of single tyre and twin tyres are specified, the air pressure corresponding to the load capacity of the single tyre shall prevail).
NOTE: Relevant industry technical documents are only applicable to truck tyre specifications that are not within the scope of GB/T 2977.
5.2.1.2 The inflated test tyre and rim assembly shall be parked at a temperature of 38??C??3??C for at least 3 h.
5.2.1.3 The time for the test drum to start up to the initial test speed with uniform acceleration shall be within 10 min.
5.2.1.4 The test conditions shall meet the requirements in Table 4. In Table 4, except for the first test stage, the speed of each test stage is changed to a stable speed. The time required shall be within 1 min.
5.2.1.5 Throughout the test process, the ambient temperature shall be kept within the range of 38??C??3??C.
5.2.2 Test steps
5.2.2.1 Readjust the test tyre pressure after parking to the value specified in 5.2.1.1. 5.2.2.2 Install the test tyre and rim assembly prepared according to the above conditions on the testing machine. Make it perpendicular to the outer surface of the test drum to apply the test load. The test load shall be 90% of the maximum load of a single tyre. 5.2.2.3 Carry out the test according to the regulations in Table 4. The whole test process shall be carried out continuously. Tyre pressure shall not be adjusted. Tyres shall not be artificially cooled. The test load corresponding to each stage remains unchanged. 5.2.2.4 After completing the test according to the prescribed procedure, let the test tyre cool naturally for 15 min ~ 25 min. The tyre pressure shall be measured within this specified time period. After cooling completely, remove the tyre for visual inspection. that "touching the rim is not worn".
5.3.2.7 Use formula (1) to calculate the failure energy of each point (except point 5.3.2.6).
Where,
W - The destructive energy, in Joule (J);
F - The force, in Newtons (N);
P - The stroke, in millimeters (mm).
5.3.2.8 When using the device for automatically calculating the destructive energy, when the specified minimum destructive energy is reached, the indenter shall immediately stop and continue pressing into the tyre.
5.3.2.9 During the test, if the tubeless tyre cannot maintain the inflation pressure, the inner tube can be installed for the test. But it shall be indicated in the test report. 6 Judgment rules
6.1 Durability test, high-speed performance test
After testing under the conditions specified in this document, the tyre pressure shall not be lower than the specified initial pressure. If tyre appearance inspection does not have (tread, sidewall, ply, inner liner, belt, bead) delamination, ply cracks, cord peeling, cord breakage, chipping (except for PTBC caused by light truck and bus snow tyre durability test), splitting, cracking of joints and abnormal deformation of carcass, it shall "pass the test", otherwise it shall "fail the test".
NOTE: Derived tread chipping (PTBC) is a phenomenon that occurs when tyres are tested on a drum. Shedding of rubber blocks from the tyre tread or tearing without exposing the tyre frame material (such as carcass ply, belt layer, etc.) will not occur in actual road operation. It usually occurs during testing of tyres with soft tread compounds or complex tread patterns (such as many fine grooves).
6.2 Strength performance test
When the destructive energy value of each test point of the metric series tyres for trucks and buses is not less than the specified value in Table 5, it is judged as "pass the test". If the destructive energy value of a test point is less than the specified value in Table 5, it is judged as "fail the test".

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