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GB/T 42356-2023 English PDF (GBT42356-2023)

GB/T 42356-2023 English PDF (GBT42356-2023)

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GB/T 42356-2023: Test methods for rolling resistance of industrial tyres

This document describes the test methods for rolling resistance of industrial tyres, including test equipment and accuracy, test conditions, test procedures, additional loss measurement, data processing and repeatability testing of rolling resistance testing machine. This document is applicable to the testing of rolling resistance of pneumatic and solid tyres for industrial vehicles.
GB/T 42356-2023
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 83.160.99
CCS G 41
Test Methods for Rolling Resistance of Industrial Tyres
ISSUED ON: MARCH 17, 2023
IMPLEMENTED ON: OCTOBER 1, 2023
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the PEOPLE Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 4
2 Normative References ... 4
3 Terms and Definitions ... 4
4 Measurement Methods ... 5
5 Test Equipment and Accuracy ... 5
6 Test Conditions ... 6
7 Test Procedures ... 8
8 Measurement of Additional Loss ... 9
9 Data Processing ... 10
10 Repeatability Testing of Rolling Resistance Testing Machine ... 14
Appendix A (normative) Test Equipment Tolerances ... 16
Bibliography ... 19
Test Methods for Rolling Resistance of Industrial Tyres
1 Scope
This document describes the test methods for rolling resistance of industrial tyres, including test equipment and accuracy, test conditions, test procedures, additional loss measurement, data processing and repeatability testing of rolling resistance testing machine. This document is applicable to the testing of rolling resistance of pneumatic and solid tyres for industrial vehicles.
2 Normative References
The contents of the following documents constitute indispensable clauses of this document through the normative references in the text. In terms of references with a specified date, only versions with a specified date are applicable to this document. In terms of references without a specified date, the latest version (including all the modifications) is applicable to this document. GB/T 2982 Designation, Dimensions, Inflation Pressure and Load Capacity of Pneumatic Tyres for Industrial Vehicles
GB/T 6326 Tyre Terms and Definitions
GB/T 10823 Size Designation, Dimensions and Load Capacity of Solid Tyres for Pneumatic Tyres Rims
GB/T 12939 Rims Series for Industrial Vehicles
GB/T 16622 Size Designation, Dimensions and Load Capacity for Pressed-on Solid Tyres GB/T 16623 Technical Specification of Pressed-on Solid Tyres
GB/T 29040 Test Methods of Rolling Resistance for Motor Vehicle Tyres - Single Point Test and Correlation of Measurement Results
3 Terms and Definitions
The terms and definitions defined in GB/T 6326 and GB/T 29040 are applicable to this document.
4 Measurement Methods
This document provides four measurement methods. The tester can choose to use any measurement method. No matter which method is chosen, the measurement results shall be converted into rolling resistance values between the tyre / drum contact surface. The four measurement methods are:
a) Tyre axonometric method: measure or convert into the counter-acting force on the axle of the tyre;
b) Drum shaft torque method: measure the input torque of the drum;
c) Power method: measure the energy input to the drum;
d) Deceleration method: measure the deceleration of the drum and the tyre rim assembly. NOTE 1: in the tyre axonometric method, the measured values include the bearing losses and aerodynamic losses of the tyre rim assembly, which are taken into account in further data processing.
NOTE 2: in the drum shaft torque method, power method and deceleration method, the measured values also include the bearing losses and aerodynamic losses of the tyre rim assembly and the drum.
5 Test Equipment and Accuracy
5.1 Technical Requirements for Test Drum
5.1.1 The diameter of the drum of the testing machine shall not be less than 1.7 m, the diameter tolerance shall be ??? 1%, and the values of rolling resistance and rolling resistance coefficient shall be expressed as the value of the 1.7 m drum. The rolling resistance results of different drum diameters are different, and the conversion of different drum diameters can be carried out in accordance with the stipulations of 9.6.
5.1.2 The surface of the drum of the testing machine shall be a smooth steel drum surface. Sometimes, in order to improve the accuracy of separated measurements, textured drum surfaces can also be used. The surface of the drum shall be kept clean. The measured rolling resistance (Fr), rolling resistance coefficient (Cr) and rolling resistance coefficient percentage (dCr) shall be expressed as the value of a smooth drum surface. When a textured drum surface is adopted, it shall comply with the stipulations of A.7. 5.1.3 The surface width of the drum of the testing machine shall be greater than the width of the tread surface of the tyre.
5.2 Test Rims
The test rims shall be steel or light alloy rims, and shall comply with A.2 and the following stipulations:
---For solid tyres with pneumatic tyre rims, the test rims shall be the allowable rims specified in GB/T 10823 or related industry technical documents;
---For pressed-on solid tyres, the test rims shall be the rims specified in GB/T 16622 and GB/T 16623, or related industry technical documents;
---For pneumatic tyres for industrial vehicles, the test rims shall be the measurement rims specified in GB/T 2982 or related industry technical documents.
NOTE: the related industry technical documents mentioned in this document are only applicable to tyre specifications beyond the scope of the corresponding national standards. 5.3 Load, Positioning, Control and Instrument Accuracy
The load, positioning, control and instrument accuracy shall be accurate, and shall comply with the stipulations of Appendix A.
6 Test Conditions
6.1 General Rule
The inflated pneumatic tyres for industrial vehicles are subjected to a rolling resistance test, and the air pressure is allowed to be raised, that is, the ?€?capped inflation test?€?. 6.2 Ambient Temperature
The reference ambient temperature shall be 25 ???C. The measurement position shall be within the range of 150 mm ~ 1,000 mm from the sidewall of the tyre.
When the reference temperature cannot be reached, then, it shall be corrected to the value under the reference temperature conditions in accordance with the stipulations of 9.5. 6.3 Drum Surface Temperature
At the beginning of the test, the drum surface temperature shall be the same as the ambient temperature.
6.4 Test Air Pressure
After the rims are installed, the pneumatic tyres for industrial vehicles shall be inflated in accordance with the requirements. The test air pressure shall be the air pressure specified in GB/T 2982 or related industry technical documents; the inflation pressure shall be closed and shall comply with the tolerance range specified in A.4.
6.5 Test Load and Test Speed
7 Test Procedures
7.1 General Rule
Each stage of the test procedures shall be carried out in accordance with the sequence provided in 7.2 ~ 7.4.
7.2 Thermal Equilibrium
After the pneumatic tyres for industrial vehicles are inflated, after parking at ambient temperature for 24 h, the air pressure shall be adjusted to the test air pressure, and then, verified after adjustment for 10 min.
The solid tyres for industrial vehicles shall be parked for 24 h at ambient temperature. 7.3 Heating-up
Carry out heating-up driving of the test tyres in accordance with Table 1, Table 2 and the following stipulations:
a) Solid tyres for industrial vehicles: heat up for 15 min;
b) Pneumatic tyres for industrial vehicles: heat up for 3 h.
7.4 Measurement and Record
The following data shall be measured and recorded during the test:
a) Test speed (Un);
b) Tyre test load (Lm) perpendicular to the drum surface;
c) Initial test air pressure;
d) Measured rolling resistance coefficient (Cr), rolling resistance coefficient percentage (dCr), and its corrected value (dCr,corrected) under the conditions of 25 ???C and 1.7 m drum;
e) Ambient temperature (tamb);
f) Drum radius (R);
g) Tyre load perpendicular to the drum surface when the additional loss is measured by the separation method;
h) The selected test method;
i) Test rim (model and material);
j) Tyre specifications, speed symbol, load index, type, manufacturer, place of origin and production No.;
k) The distance (rL) from the centerline of the tyre axle to the outer surface of the drum when the pneumatic tyres for industrial vehicles are under steady-state conditions and the solid tyres are heated up for 15 min.
8 Measurement of Additional Loss
8.1 General Rule
In accordance with one of procedures specified in 8.2 or 8.3, determine the additional loss. 8.2 Separation Method
The separation method is carried out in accordance with the following procedures: a) Reduce the tyre load to the extent that the tyre runs at the test speed without slipping; b) Record the applicable data in the axle force (Ft), input torque (Tt) or input power; c) Record the tyre test load (Lm) perpendicular to the drum surface.
NOTE 1: in addition to the tyre axonometric method, the measured values include rim tyre assembly, drum bearing loss and aerodynamic loss.
NOTE 2: the friction force of the tyre axle and drum bearing depends on the applied load, and the value of the bearing friction force is different when measuring the axle force under load than when measuring the additional loss by the separation method. Under practical circumstances, the difference is negligible.
8.3 Deceleration Method
The deceleration method is carried out in accordance with the following procedures: a) Remove the tyre from the drum surface;
b) Record the deceleration of the drum and the deceleration of the unloaded tyre. NOTE 1: the measured values include the bearing and aerodynamic loss of the tyre rim assembly and the drum.
NOTE 2: the friction force of the tyre axle and drum bearing depends on the applied load, and the value of the bearing friction force is different when measuring the deceleration under load than when measuring by the separation method. Under practical circumstances, the difference is negligible.
Appendix A
(Normative)
Test Equipment Tolerances
A.1 Overview
In order to obtain test results with a good reproducibility and correlate the test results among laboratories, it is necessary to specify the test equipment tolerances. The tolerances described in this Appendix are not meant to represent a complete set of technical requirements for test equipment, instead, the tolerances are used as a guide for obtaining reliable test results. A.2 Test Rims
A.2.1 Width
For pneumatic tyres for industrial vehicles and solid tyres for pneumatic tyre rims, the rim width shall comply with the measured rim width specified in GB/T 12939 or related industry technical documents.
A.2.2 Runout
The jerk value of the test rim shall comply with the following stipulations: ---maximum radial runout: 0.5 mm;
---maximum lateral runout: 0.5 mm.
A.3 Positioning
A.3.1 General rule
The angular deviation is critical to the test results.
A.3.2 Load loading
The direction of tyre loading shall be kept perpendicular to the test drum surface, and shall pass through the center of the drum. The allowable deviation shall be:
---The tyre axonometric method and deceleration method: 1 mrad;
---The drum shaft torque method and power method: 5 mrad.
A.3.3 Tyre positioning
A.3.3.1 Camber angle

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