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GB/T 42318-2023 English PDF (GBT42318-2023)

GB/T 42318-2023 English PDF (GBT42318-2023)

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GB/T 42318-2023: Guide for environmental impact assessment of electrochemical energy storage station

This document specifies the general situation, status survey and assessment, impact prediction and assessment, protection measures, management and monitoring plans, and assessment conclusions of electrochemical energy storage station. This document is applicable to the environmental impact assessment of electrochemical energy storage stations using lithium-ion cells, flow cells, lead-acid (carbon) cells, sodium-ion cells, and water-electrolysis-produced hydrogen/fuel cells as energy storage carriers.
GB/T 42318-2023
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 27.180
CCS F 19
Guide for environmental impact assessment of
electrochemical energy storage station
ISSUED ON: MARCH 17, 2023
IMPLEMENTED ON: OCTOBER 01, 2023
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation
Standardization Administration of the PEOPLE Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 4
2 Normative references ... 4
3 Terms and definitions ... 5
4 General requirements ... 5
5 Overview of the power station ... 6
6 Status survey and assessment ... 7
7 Impact prediction and assessment ... 11
8 Protection measures ... 15
9 Management and monitoring plan ... 17
10 Assessment conclusion ... 17
Appendix A (Informative) Environmental impact assessment process of
electrochemical energy storage station ... 19
Appendix B (Informative) Framework structure of environmental impact report for electrochemical energy storage station ... 20
References ... 22
Guide for environmental impact assessment of
electrochemical energy storage station
1 Scope
This document specifies the general situation, status survey and assessment, impact prediction and assessment, protection measures, management and monitoring plans, and assessment conclusions of electrochemical energy storage station.
This document is applicable to the environmental impact assessment of electrochemical energy storage stations using lithium-ion cells, flow cells, lead-acid (carbon) cells, sodium-ion cells, and water-electrolysis-produced hydrogen/fuel cells as energy storage carriers.
2 Normative references
The following documents, in whole or in part, are normatively referenced in this document and are indispensable to its application. For dated references, only the version corresponding to that date is applicable to this document; for undated references, the latest version (including all amendments) is applicable to this document. GB 3096, Environmental quality standard for noise
GB 8702, Controlling limits for electromagnetic environment
GB 12348, Emission standard for industrial enterprises noise at boundary GB 15603, Rule for storage of chemical dangers
GB 17914, Specifications for storage and preservation of combustible and explosive goods
GB 17915, Specifications for storage and preservation of corrosive goods DL/T 2528, General terminology of electrical energy storage
HJ 2.1, Technical guideline for environmental impact assessment of construction project - General programme
HJ 2.2, Guidelines for environmental impact assessment - Atmospheric environment HJ 2.3, Technical guidelines for environmental impact assessment - Surface water environment
4.3 The environmental impact factors involved in the electrochemical energy storage station include the atmosphere, surface water, groundwater, soil, sound, electromagnetic and ecological environment. The identification of environmental impact factors shall clarify the relationship between the various behaviors of the electrochemical energy storage station during the construction period, operation period and post-service period AND the possible environmental factors that may be affected, the nature of influence, the scope of influence, the degree of influence, etc. Analyze the pollution impact and ecological impact that the electrochemical energy storage station may have on various environmental elements, including favorable and unfavorable impacts, long-term and short-term impacts, reversible and irreversible impacts, direct and indirect impacts, cumulative and non-cumulative impacts, etc.
4.4 Assessment factors shall be screened and determined based on the identification of environmental impact factors and combined with regional environmental function requirements.
4.5 When the electrochemical energy storage station is located in an environmentally sensitive area specified in the Classification Management List for Environmental Impact Assessment of Construction Project, it shall explain the reason for building in the sensitive area, the impact of the battery on the environment, and carry out ecological planning compliance, environmental rationality, and project feasibility analysis. 4.6 The assessment grade and assessment range of atmospheric environment, surface water environment, groundwater environment, soil environment, noise environment, electromagnetic environment and ecological environment shall comply with the regulations of HJ 2.1, HJ 2.2, HJ 2.3, HJ 610, HJ 964, HJ 2.4, HJ 24 and HJ 19. 4.7 The assessment period includes three periods: construction period, operation period and post-service period. The assessment level year shall be determined according to the characteristics of the electrochemical energy storage station and its surrounding environment, and the recovery of environmental impacts. The status assessment level year can be 1 to 2 years before the start of construction; the prediction and assessment level year of the construction period can be the first year of the construction period; the predication and assessment level year of the operation period can be 1 to 2 years after operation; the prediction and assessment level year of the post-service period can be one year after the expiration of the service period.
5 Overview of the power station
5.1 Basic information
The basic information includes the electrochemical energy storage station?€?s name, construction nature, construction location, construction scale, station site, area and type, layout, type of electrochemical energy storage battery, rated charging power, rated discharging power, rated charging energy, rated discharge energy, system architecture, voltage level of power transformation and distribution facilities, electrical main wiring, and other production and living facilities within the site, etc., as well as the geographical location map of the area and the general plan that clearly defines the relative position relationship with the environmentally sensitive area.
5.2 Construction plan
The construction plan includes construction organization, construction materials, construction techniques, etc.
5.3 Main technical and economic indicators
The main technical and economic indicators include power station capacity, battery type, floor area, building area, total investment, construction period, environmental protection investment, etc.
5.4 Preliminary analysis
Preliminarily analyze the main pollution-producing links during the construction period, operation period, and post-service period of the electrochemical energy storage station; for the environmental impact factors that can be quantified, the pollution intensity shall be estimated, and if recycling is available, measures and suggestions for recycling shall be added.
6 Status survey and assessment
6.1 General provisions
6.1.1 The content and indicators of the environmental status survey shall reflect the environmental background characteristics and existing environmental problems within the scope of the assessment.
6.1.2 The environmental status survey shall focus on data collection, and the necessary on-site monitoring can be supplemented according to the collected data. 6.2 Survey method
According to the survey object, methods such as data collection, on-site investigation, monitoring, remote sensing and geographic information system analysis can be adopted for the environmental status survey.
6.3 Survey scope
6.3.1 The scope of environmental status survey shall not be smaller than the assessment scope, and shall focus on the area occupied and affected by the electrochemical energy storage station.
a) functional zoning of the atmospheric environment in the station area and its surroundings, the emission of major air pollutant sources, and the status quo of ambient air quality;
b) functional zoning of the water environment in the station area and its surroundings, discharge of major water pollution sources, and current water quality;
c) soil types in and around the station area, emissions of major soil impact sources, and soil pollution status;
d) functional zoning of acoustic environment in the station area and its surroundings, emission of main noise sources, and status quo of the acoustic environment quality;
e) electromagnetic sensitive targets in the station area and its surroundings, other surrounding electromagnetic facilities, and the status quo of the electromagnetic environment;
f) ecological function zoning of the station area and its surroundings, main ecological problems, and ecological protection status.
6.4.4 According to the special conditions of the site area and surrounding environment of the electrochemical energy storage station, supplementary monitoring can be carried out. The monitoring period, monitoring locations and monitoring methods shall comply with the regulations of HJ 2.2, HJ 2.3, HJ 610, HJ 964, HJ 2.4, HJ 24 and HJ 19. 6.4.5 The environmentally sensitive object survey shall meet the following requirements:
a) Where environmentally sensitive areas such as nature reserves, scenic spots, forest parks, geological parks, world cultural and natural heritage sites, etc. are involved, the protection level, area, functional division, relevant protection and development planning, and the positional relationship with the electrochemical energy storage station, etc. shall be investigated.
b) Where drinking water source protection areas are involved, the type, scale, division of protection areas, water quality objectives, protection requirements of surface water and groundwater sources, as well as the positional relationship with electrochemical energy storage station shall be investigated;
c) Where other environmentally sensitive areas such as rare and endangered wild animal distribution areas, natural spawning grounds of important aquatic organisms, etc., are involved, the scale and characteristics of the environmentally sensitive areas, and the positional relationship with the electrochemical energy storage station shall be investigated.
6.5 Environmental status assessment
6.5.1 Regional overview
The regional overview includes the administrative division, geographical location, traffic conditions, natural environment, social environment, etc. of the electrochemical energy storage station site area, as well as a geographical location map attached. 6.5.2 Status assessment of atmospheric environment
6.5.2.1 The assessment factors, assessment standards and assessment methods of the current atmospheric environment shall be carried out in accordance with the relevant provisions of HJ2.2.
6.5.2.2 The status assessment includes the assessment of the ambient air quality of the site area and its surroundings, and explanation of the impact of the existing pollution sources on the ambient air.
6.5.3 Status assessment of surface water
6.5.3.1 The assessment factors, assessment standards and assessment methods of the status of surface water shall be carried out in accordance with the relevant provisions of HJ 2.3.
6.5.3.2 The status assessment includes the assessment of the surface water of the site area and its surroundings, and explanation of the impact of the existing pollution sources on the surface water.
6.5.4 Status assessment of groundwater
6.5.4.1 The assessment factors, assessment standards and assessment methods of the status of groundwater shall be carried out in accordance with the relevant provisions of HJ 610.
6.5.4.2 The status assessment includes the assessment of the groundwater of the site area and its surroundings, and explanation of the impact of the existing pollution sources on the groundwater.
6.5.5 Status assessment of soil
6.5.5.1 The assessment factors, assessment standards and assessment methods of the status of soil environment shall be carried out in accordance with the relevant provisions of HJ 964.
6.5.5.2 Status assessment includes description of the soil salinization, acidification, alkalization and pollution status of the site area and its surroundings. 6.5.6 Status assessment of noise
7.2.2 Environmental impact assessment methods can be methods such as statistical analysis, landscape ecology, diagramming, overlapping maps, ecological mechanism analysis, and expert judgment.
7.3 Prediction and assessment
7.3.1 Prediction and assessment during the construction period
7.3.1.1 Prediction and assessment of atmospheric environment impact
According to the construction plan, in view of the dust generated during the construction of the electrochemical energy storage station, the dust caused by the temporary stacking of construction materials, the exhaust emission of construction machinery and vehicles, the volatile gas generated by the temporary storage of electrolyte raw materials, and the leakage generated by the temporary storage of gas raw materials, predict and assess the impact on the atmospheric environment. 7.3.1.2 Prediction and assessment of water environment impact
According to the construction plan, in view of the leachate produced by sand and gravel processing, concrete mixing, mechanical maintenance and other production waste water during construction, construction domestic sewage, spoil, construction waste and domestic waste, and electrolyte leakage caused by improper temporary storage of equipment materials, predict and assess the impact on the water environment. 7.3.1.3 Prediction and assessment of soil environment impact
According to the construction plan, aiming at leachate generated by dumping slag, construction waste and domestic waste, and electrolyte leakage caused by improper temporary storage of equipment and materials, predict and assess the impact on the soil environment.
7.3.1.4 Prediction and assessment of noise environment impact
According to the construction plan, predict and evaluate aiming at the impact of the noise generated by machinery, vehicles, and excavation and blasting on the acoustic environment during the construction process.
7.3.1.5 Prediction and assessment of ecological environment impact
According to the construction plan, aiming at the impact of water and soil loss, windbreak and sand fixation, biodiversity, etc. during the construction process, perform prediction and assessment.
7.3.2 Prediction and assessment during the operation period
7.3.2.1 Prediction and assessment of atmospheric environment impact shall include the following:
a) The impact of gas volatilization in the battery on the atmospheric environment during normal operation;
b) The impact of gas leakage in the battery and smoke from equipment on the atmospheric environment during abnormalities and failures;
c) The impact of gas leakage on the atmospheric environment during maintenance and replacement of batteries;
d) The impact of the volatile gas produced by the long-term storage of electrolyte raw materials in spare parts on the atmospheric environment;
e) The impact of long-term storage of gaseous raw materials in spare parts on the atmospheric environment.
7.3.2.2 Prediction and assessment of water environment impact shall include the following:
a) The impact of oily wastewater, domestic sewage, and domestic garbage leachate generated during normal operation on the surface water and groundwater
environment;
b) The impact of electrolyte leakage on the surface water and groundwater environment during abnormalities and failures;
c) The impact of electrolyte leakage on the surface water and groundwater environment during maintenance and replacement of batteries;
d) The impact of leakage caused by long-term storage of electrolyte in spare parts on surface water and groundwater environment.
7.3.2.3 Prediction and assessment of soil environment impact shall include the following:
a) The impact of oily wastewater, domestic sewage, and domestic garbage leachate generated during normal operation on the soil environment;
b) The impact of electrolyte leakage on the soil environment during abnormalities and failures;
c) The impact of electrolyte leakage on the soil environment during maintenance and replacement of batteries;
d) The impact of leakage caused by long-term storage of electrolyte in spare parts on soi environment.
7.3.2.4 Prediction and assessment of noise environment impact shall include the following:
Predict and assess the impact of the noise generated during the dismantling and recycling of the electrochemical energy storage station on the acoustic environment in the post-service period.
7.3.3.5 Prediction and assessment of ecological environment impact
Predict and evaluate the impact on the ecological environment during the dismantling and recycling of the electrochemical energy storage station after the analysis service period expires.
7.4 Environmental risk analysis
7.4.1 Environmental risk analysis shall focus on analyzing its own environmental risk substances and their impacts based on the environmental characteristics of the electrochemical energy storage station.
7.4.2 The source item analysis can use the fault tree and analogy method to determine the maximum credible accident and its probability; the risk assessment of meteorological and geological disasters can be analyzed according to the approved disaster assessment report.
7.4.3 For the impact caused by the maximum credible accident, its scope and degree of impact shall be analyzed.
7.4.4 Environmental risk analysis shall propose effective prevention and response measures and emergency plans.
8 Protection measures
8.1 Aiming at the object, scope and degree of adverse impacts caused by the electrochemical energy storage station, according to the requirements of environmental protection objectives, put forward measures for prevention, reduction, restoration, compensation and management.
8.2 Environmental protection measures are divided into general measures and special measures, which shall comply with the relevant provisions of GB 3096, GB 8702, GB 12348, GB 15603, GB 17914, and GB 17915.
8.3 General measures shall include:
a) Put forward construction dust control measures during the construction period and the post-service period;
b) Propose corresponding measures such as optimizing construction and operation schemes, setting up sound insulation barriers, and strengthening noise control management;
c) Put forward sewage treatment measures and management requirements during the construction period and operation period;
d) Propose treatment measures for waste slag, construction waste, domestic waste, solid waste, and used batteries;
e) Propose measures for monitoring the concentration of gaseous pollutants in forced ventilation exhaust;
f) Formulate corresponding plans to control the impact on the ecology;
g) Formulate corresponding plans to control the impact of electromagnetic radiation. 8.4 Special measures shall include:
a) Put forward requirements for temperature, humidity, air pressure and light in storage places of battery modules, electrolytes and spare parts;
b) Put forward prevention, monitoring and emergency treatment measures for electrolyte leakage;
c) Put forward the prevention, monitoring and emergency treatment measures for leakage of gas raw materials during long-term storage;
d) Propose prevention, monitoring and emergency treatment measures for volatile gas leakage during long-term storage of electrolyte raw materials;
e) Put forward the pollution discharge measures after th...

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