GB/T 4146.3-2011 English PDF (GBT4146.3-2011)
GB/T 4146.3-2011 English PDF (GBT4146.3-2011)
GB/T 4146.3-2011: Textiles -- Man-made fibers -- Part 3: Terms of inspection
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
Textiles ?€? Man-Made Fibers ?€? Part 3: Terms of
ISSUED ON: JUNE 16, 2011
IMPLEMENTED ON: DECEMBER 01, 2011
Issued by: General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine;
Standardization Administration of PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 4
2 Terms of Inspection ... 4
2.1 Terms of inspection for general man-made fibers ... 4
2.2 Terms of inspection for sampling of man-made fibers ... 5
2.3 Terms of inspection for linear density of man-made fibers ... 6
2.4 Terms of inspection for the length of man-made fibers ... 6
2.5 Terms of inspection for the tensile properties of man-made fibers ... 7 2.6 Terms of inspection for the crimp/crimp contraction properties of man-made fibers ... 11
2.7 Terms of inspection for heat shrinkage of man-made fibers ... 12
2.8 Terms of inspection for filament twist level of man-made fibers ... 13 2.9 Terms of inspection for filament degree of intertwining for man-made fibers 14 2.10 Terms of inspection for elastic fibers of man-made fibers ... 14
2.11 Terns of inspection for mass difference ... 15
2.12 Terms of inspection for appearance ... 16
2.13 Terms of inspection for defect ... 18
2.14 Other terms of inspection for fibers ... 20
2.15 Terms of inspection for raw materials of man-made fibers ... 22
3 Terms of Inspection for Statistics ... 24
English Index ... 26
Textiles ?€? Man-Made Fibers ?€? Part 3: Terms of
This Part of GB/T 4146 specifies the terms of inspection for textile man-made fibers and their raw materials.
This Part is suitable for the exchange of concepts in the fields of production, use, commerce, scientific research, and teaching of man-made fibers.
2 Terms of Inspection
2.1 Terms of inspection for general man-made fibers
2.1.1 Standard atmosphere
An environment where the relative humidity and temperature are controlled, and textiles are conditioned and tested under this environmental temperature and humidity. 2.1.2 Relative humidity
Under the same temperature and pressure conditions, the ratio of the actual pressure of water vapor in the atmosphere to the pressure of saturated water vapor, which is expressed as a percentage.
A treatment in which the sample or specimen is conditioned to a rate lower than the rate of moisture regain before conditioning in the test standard atmosphere. 2.1.4 Conditioning
A treatment in which the sample or specimen is placed in the test standard atmosphere for a certain period of time to reach moisture absorption equilibrium.
2.1.5 Moisture equilibrium
The state, in which the moisture absorption and moisture release of textile fiber reach a balance, and the change of its quality tends to zero.
lot, are determined periodically or according to production conditions. 2.2.6 Laboratory sample
The product unit or part of the fiber taken from the lot sample according to the provisions that are used as the source of the test sample.
2.2.7 Test specimen
The part that is taken from the laboratory sample for testing.
2.3 Terms of inspection for linear density of man-made fibers
2.3.1 Linear density
Mass per unit length of fiber or yarn.
2.3.2 Nominal linear density
The linear density that is mentioned in the sales documents (contract, invoice, etc.). 2.3.3 Percentage of linear density deviation
The percentage of the difference between the actually-measured linear density and the nominal linear density of chemical fiber to the nominal linear density. 2.3.4 Tex
A unit that expresses linear density, which is the mass grams per kilometer of fiber. The commonly-used unit is tex or dtex, 1tex=10dtex.
2.3.5 Number of monofilaments
The number of monofilaments that is included in a multifilament formed by a porous spinneret.
2.3.6 Ratio of monofilament deviation
The percentage of the difference between the number of spinneret holes forming a multifilament and the actually-measured number of single filaments to the number of spinneret holes.
2.4 Terms of inspection for the length of man-made fibers
2.4.1 Nominal staple length
The fiber length that is mentioned in the sales documents (contract, invoice, etc.). 2.4.2 Percentage of length deviation
2.5.5 Knot breaking force
The tensile breaking strength of a fiber or yarn with a knot of a predetermined shape, and that is clamped between the two clamps of the tensile tester.
2.5.6 loop breaking force
The tensile breaking strength of two fibers or yarns that are clamped between the two clamps of the tensile tester, and that are taken from the same yarn package and hooked together in a prescribed manner.
2.5.7 Single fiber breaking force
The maximum force that is measured when a single fiber sample is stretched to break, which is generally expressed in centinewtons (cN).
2.5.8 Single strand breaking force
The maximum force that is measured when a single yarn (multifilament) sample is stretched to break, which is generally expressed in centinewtons (cN).
2.5.9 Breaking point
On the force-elongation curve or stress-strain curve, the point that is corresponding to the breaking force or breaking stress.
2.5.10 Yield point
The turning point from the initial straight part to the bent part on the force-elongation curve or stress-strain curve, that is the point where the fiber begins to undergo permanent deformation.
2.5.11 Time to break
The time, that the tensile test is carried out under specified conditions, is required from the time the specimen is stressed to the maximum force.
The strength of the unit linear density or unit section (before stretching) of the specimen, which is expressed in Newtons per tex (N/tex) and centinewtons per tex (cN/dtex). 2.5.13 Tenacity at specified elongation
The corresponding strength when the specimen is stretched to the specified elongation. 2.5.14 Breaking tenacity
The breaking strength per unit linear density or unit section (before stretching) of the under pressure, shear, tensile or torsion force.
2.5.25 Stress-strain curve
A graph that characterizes the relationship between stress and strain of a fiber under pressure, shear, tensile or torsion force.
2.5.26 Force-extension curve
Load elongation curve
The graph that characterizes the relationship between force and elongation of the fiber under tensile force (load).
2.5.27 Constant rate of extension (CRE) dynamometer
The tester that stretches the specimen at a constant speed.
The parameters that is used to characterize fiber deformation characteristics. On the stress-strain curve, the ratio of stress increment to strain increment. 2.5.29 Initial modulus
The slope of the initial straight line on the stress-strain curve of fiber. 2.5.30 Young?€?s modulus
On the stress-strain curve of elastic fiber, the ratio of stress increment to strain increment in the elastic region of the fiber.
2.5.31 Chord modulus
The ratio of the stress difference to the strain difference between two points specified on the stress-strain curve of the fiber.
2.5.32 Elastic modulus; modulus of elasticity
The ratio of stress to strain of an elastic medium within the proportional limit. 2.5.33 Secant modulus
The special case of chord modulus, it is the ratio of the stress difference to the strain difference between the zero point and any point on the stress-strain curve. 2.5.34 Tangent modulus
2.6.8 Crimp modulus
After the textured yarn undergoes crimp development, the ratio of the difference between the straightened length measured under the specified load and the elastic length in the elastic range to the straightened length.
2.6.9 Crimp development
The potential crimp is re-developed.
2.6.10 Crimp development medium
The substances that can make the tested textured yarn form temporary crimp and permanent deformation, such as dry hot air, water vapor, hot water, etc. 2.6.11 Crimp elasticity
The performance that the fiber is straightened by applying external force, and after the external force is removed, the crimp can obtain the recovery.
2.6.12 Percentage of crimp elasticity elongation
An index that indicates the degree of elasticity and crimping of textured yarn (filament). It is the percentage of the difference between the length of the textured yarn (filament) under the heavy load and the initial length under the light load to the initial length. 2.6.13 Percentage of crimp elastic recovery
An index that indicates the elasticity and crimp stability of textured yarn (filament). It is the percentage OF the difference between the length of the textured yarn (filament) under heavier load and the recovery length under light load after removing the heavy load and the difference between the length under heavier load and the initial length TO the initial length.
2.7 Terms of inspection for heat shrinkage of man-made fibers
The percentage of the difference between the length of the fiber or filament yarn before and after treatment according to the specified conditions to the length before treatment. 2.7.2 Heat shrinkage
The percentage of the difference between the length of the fiber or filament yarn before and after heat treatment (such as dry heat treatment, boiling water treatment, steaming treatment, etc.) to the length before treatment.
2.7.3 Shrinkage in hot air
The inclination direction of the monofilament in the multifilament is consistent with the middle of the letter "Z", which is called "Z" twist.
2.8.8 Twist liveliness
The tendency of twisting the textured filament yarn to return to its shape before twisting. 2.8.9 Residual torsion
The torsional stress remains in the textured filament yarn. When one end of the yarn is fixed and the other end is free, it is expressed by the number of revolutions per unit length.
2.8.10 Residual twist
The twist remains on the strand silk after heat setting.
2.9 Terms of inspection for filament degree of intertwining for man-made fibers 2.9.1 Degree of intertwining
The number of intertwining points in the unit length of the strand silk, which is expressed in (pieces/m) per meter.
2.9.2 Interlacing distance
The distance between two adjacent interweaving points.
2.9.3 Intertwining stability
The index that is used to measure of the stability (fastness) of the intertwining points. 2.9.4 Extrication force
The setting minimum load value that can meet the requirements of network stability when measuring the degree of intertwining, which is expressed in centinewtons (cN). 2.10 Terms of inspection for elastic fibers of man-made fibers
2.10.1 Tensile recovery circulation
A repeated process, in the tensile test of elastic fibers, that the specimen is stretched to the selected length at the specified initial length and tensile speed without interruption, and after cyclic elongation, it returns to the initial length. 2.10.2 Elasticity
The performance of the fiber, after the force that causes the fiber to deform is removed, that tends to immediately return to its original size and state of the fiber. The agreed moisture regain for calculating the commercial mass of textile fibers. 2.11.6 Commercial allowance
In order to calculate the commercial mass, etc., the agreed value of the amount of moisture and the amount of extract to be added to the dry mass of textile fibers. It is expressed by the percentage of the extraction amount to the dry mass of the extracted fiber and the mass percentage of the dry fiber.
2.11.7 Gross mass
The total mass of the lot, or part of the lot, including the mass of the fiber and tare mass.
The sum of the quality of all the bedding, packaging, strapping, spool, bobbin, etc. related to the lot and packaging.
2.11.9 Net mass
The difference between gross mass and corresponding tare mass.
2.11.10 Conventional mass
The mass of the fiber at a given moisture regain.
2.11.11 Commercial mass
The mass of the fiber under the commercial moisture regain or the mass of fiber with dry mass of the fiber after extraction plus the mass of the corresponding commercial allowance.
2.12 Terms of inspection for appearance
The broken filament ends of the monofilament that protrudes from the surface of the multifilament, or the hairy phenomenon of the multifilament that is scratched. 2.12.2 Lousiness lump
The single or multiple filaments that protrude on the surface of the multifilament are broken and twisted into clumps.
2.12.3 Pearl string
A monofilament with continuous minute particles in a multifilament.
Filament that is yellow due to high setting temperature or improper process. 2.12.15 Brittle rupture filament
Brittle and breakable filaments that are formed by improper production process. 2.12.16 Tail filament
The filament head with the bottom of the filament tube wounding around one end of the bobbin.
2.12.17 Milky filament
The strand silk that appears the semi-finished filament in lustrous silk or matt strand silk.
2.12.18 White spatted filament
The strand silk that appears the white dots.
2.12.19 White knopped filament
The strand silk that appears in segments.
2.12.20 White specked filament
The filament with white misty spots on the surface.
2.12.21 Stained filament
Fiber that is stained with oil stains such as in yellow or black, etc. colors. 2.12.22 Leap filament
On the end face of the filament tube, the strand silk is deviated from the normal winding track and turns into a chord from an arc.
The connection after the strand silk breaks.
Oily filament, rusty filament and stains that cannot be washed by water. 2.13 Terms of inspection for defect
which fibers may be attached.
2.14 Other terms of inspection for fibers
2.14.1 Compression elasticity
The performance of fiber, after the textile fiber is subjected to pressure, its volume is reduced, and after the pressure is released, it can return to its original state to a certain degree.
2.14.2 Degree of bulkiness
An index that indicates the bulkiness of textured [bulked] yarn (filament). It is generally expressed by the volume of the textured yarn (filament) per unit mass under a certain pressure. Its unit is cubic centimeter per gram (cm3/g).
2.14.3 Degree of hollowness
An index that indicates the degree of hollowness of the hollow fiber. It is generally expressed by the ratio of the hollow part of the fiber cross-sectional area to the cross- sectional area.
2.14.4 Hole number
The number of cavities on the fiber cross-sectional area.
2.14.5 Degree of profile
An index that indicates the degree to which the abnormal fiber conforms to the abnormal specifications, which is expressed by the degree of difference between the fiber cross-sectional shape and the round shape.
2.14.6 Degree of acetalization
When polyvinyl alcohol fiber undergoes acetalization treatment, the percentage of the number of hydroxyl groups that are combined with aldehyde accounts for the total number of hydroxyl groups.
2.14.7 Monomer content
The percentage of the remaining unpolymerized monomers and oligomers in the synthetic fiber to the drying mass of the fiber.
The degree of unevenness in the thickness of the filament along the length direction. 2.14.9 Water retention
2.14.18 Residual sulfur content
The mass of residual sulfur in viscose fiber. It is expressed by milligrams of sulfur mass that is converted by the sulfur or sulfide remains in the 100g of absolutely dry fiber. 2.14.19 Sodium thiocyanate content
In orlon that is made by sodium thiocyanate method, the percentage of the mass of residual sodium thiocyanate accounts for the drying mass of the fiber.
2.14.20 Pulp content
The percentage of the mass of the oil agent and pulp in the textile fiber that is measured by the prescribed method accounts for the drying mass of the fiber.
2.15 Terms of inspection for raw materials of man-made fibers
The part of cellulose with higher degree of polymerization that cannot be dissolved after cellulose is treated with 17.5% sodium hydroxide solution (20??C) for 45 minutes. 2.15.2 Hemi-cellulose
The part of cellulose that can be dissolved after being treated with 17.5% sodium hydroxide solution (20??C) for 45 minutes.
The part of the cellulose that can be precipitated by the action between acid and hemicellulose that can dissolve after being treated with 17.5% sodium hydroxide solution.
The part of the cellulose with low degree of polymerization and can?€?t be precipitated by the action between acid and cellulose that can dissolve after being treated with 17.5% sodium hydroxide solution.
2.15.5 Degree of retardation; clogging value
An index that indicates the degree of clogging of viscose through the filter pores. Generally, it is the difference in the time required for the viscose to flow out of the same volume through the filter hole under the specified conditions, which is expressed in seconds (s).
2.15.16 Inherent viscosity
The ratio of the natural logarithm of the viscosity ratio to the concentration of the polymer in the solution.
2.15.17 Intrinsic viscosity; ??
Under infinite dilution conditions, the limit value of inherent viscosity or reduced viscosity.
2.15.18 Ash content
After the specimen is ashed, the percentage of the mass of solid residues of non-active ingredients accounts for the absolute dry mass of the original specimen. 2.15.19 Agglomerate particle
Particles with size larger than or equal to 10??m in polyester chips.
2.15.20 Irregular chip
Polyester chips whose length is longer than or equal to 4 times the specified size, and whose thickness, width or diameter is greater than or equal to 2 times the specified size.
2.15.21 Powder dust
Crumbs that pass through a 833??m standard sieve.
3 Terms of Inspection for Statistics
3.1 Individual value
The result of any one observation (breaking strength, linear density, etc.) in a series of tests is called an individual value. The identification of individual value for the ith observation in a series of n observations is taken as xi.
3.2 Arithmetic mean
The sum of n individual values is divided by the number of individual values, n. 3.3 Variance
The sum of the squares of the difference between each individual value and the arithmetic mean in the n individual values, which is divided by (n-1).
3.4 Standard deviation