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GB/T 4146.1-2020 English PDF (GBT4146.1-2020)

GB/T 4146.1-2020 English PDF (GBT4146.1-2020)

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GB/T 4146.1-2020: Textiles -- Man-made fibres -- Part 1: Generic names

This part of GB/T 4146 lists the generic names and main properties of various chemical fibers that are currently industrially produced for textile and other purposes and based on major polymers.
GB/T 4146.1-2020
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 59.060.20
W 04
Replacing GB/T 4146.1-2009
Textiles - Man-made fibers - Part 1: Generic names
(ISO 2076:2013, Textiles - Man-made fibers - Generic names, MOD)
ISSUED ON: OCTOBER 21, 2020
IMPLEMENTED ON: MAY 01, 2021
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 6
2 Terms and definitions ... 6
3 General ... 6
4 Generic names ... 7
5 Name of the bicomponent composite fiber ... 13
Appendix A (Informative) Rules for establishing generic names ... 15
Appendix B (Informative) Composite fiber ... 17
Appendix C (Informative) Modified fiber ... 19
Appendix D (Informative) Index of generic names in English (English, Chinese and French) ... 20
Appendix E (Informative) Index of generic name's symbols (English, French, Chinese) ... 22
Appendix F (Informative) Regional and national requirements related to generic names ... 24
References ... 26
Textiles - Man-made fibers - Part 1: Generic names
1 Scope
This part of GB/T 4146 lists the generic names and main properties of various chemical fibers that are currently industrially produced for textile and other purposes and based on major polymers.
This part gives suggestions for the establishment of generic names (see Appendix A); describes the fiber structure of multi-component fibers (see Appendix B) and modified fibers (see Appendix C); lists the English name index of the generic names (See Appendix D) and the symbol index of the generic name (See Appendix E).
This part applies to the generic names of various chemical fibers.
2 Terms and definitions
The following terms and definitions apply to this document.
2.1
Man-made fiber; chemical fiber
Except for natural fibers, the fibers artificially manufactured.
3 General
3.1 Introduction
The content in Table 1 consists of four items: generic name, symbol, main properties, chemical formula.
3.2 Generic name
The name of the fiber and its properties are described in Table 1 "Main properties". The use of this name shall be limited to fibers whose content (mass fraction) of additives used to enhance performance during fiber formation does not exceed 15% (the proportion of additives with non-enhancement
performance is not limited).
The generic name also applies to chemical fibers that are given the main properties by the production process.
3.3 Other names
Certain fiber names used in the regulations of the European Union, Japan, the United States and other countries or regions are different from the generic names specified in this part. For specific information, see Appendix F. 3.4 Symbols
Use 2 to 4 specific letters to facilitate the naming of various chemical fibers in sales and technical literature. In some cases, the symbol system for textile fibers is different from the symbol system for plastics.
3.5 Main properties
One fiber has properties different from all other fibers. Different chemical properties will lead to different fiber properties, which is the main basis for classification in this part. When necessary, other properties of the fiber will also be used to distinguish those similar chemical fibers. These main properties are not the only basis for identifying fibers or naming chemical molecules, nor are they necessarily suitable for analyzing fiber mixtures.
Note: In the following description, the concepts "group", "linkage", "unit" have been used in the following ways:
- "Group" is used to represent the chemical unit of a functional group, such as the hydroxyl group in the acetate fiber;
- "linkage" is used to represent chemical bond;
- "Unit" is used to represent repeating fragments.
3.6 Chemical formula
Represents the chemical structure of the fiber. In some cases, multiple fibers may have the same chemical formula. For example, cupro, lyocell, modal, viscose fibers are all represented by cellulose II, so an example of a chemical formula does not only represent a certain fiber.
4 Generic names
The generic names of chemical fibers are as shown in Table 1.
Appendix A
(Informative)
Rules for establishing generic names
A.1 Uniqueness
A chemical fiber has a unique generic name.
A.2 Use of known generic names
The chemical fiber's generic names as listed in Table 1 have fully considered the existing situation. Most of the generic names in the list are based on the chemical properties of polymers, only some new types of fibers with new chemical properties are considered to establish new generic names.
When selecting the fiber's generic name, it can be compared with the
existing generic name list.
A.3 Generic names based on chemical properties
As pointed out in A.1, only some fibers with new chemical properties are considered to create new generic names.
In this case, the generic name of the new fiber should consider the chemical properties of the main polymer.
The choice of fiber name should be determined by the chemical properties of the main polymer.
A.4 Exclusion of functions or properties
The functional development of fibers may increase the qualifiers for fiber generic names, which may cause confusion or difficulty in understanding. Note: Possible properties or functions include fire prevention, UV protection, microbial activity (bacteriostatic, sterilization, etc.), hydration, temperature adjustment, etc.
According to the original principles of this part, except for elastic properties (as described in A.5), the generic name of the fiber shall not consider the properties or function of the fiber.
Except for elastic properties (as described in A.5), the generic name of the fiber should not consider the properties or function of the fiber.
Appendix B
(Informative)
Composite fiber
B.1 General
Some chemical fibers are processed from two or more polymers with different chemical properties or physical structures.
When the fiber is composed of two components, it is generally called a bi- component composite fiber.
B.2 Bi-component composite fiber structure
B.2.1 Side by side (S/S)
The components in the fiber are in a "side by side" structure. Each component polymer is listed on both sides (see examples in Table B.1).
B.2.2 Shell-core type (Sh/C)
The components in the fiber have a "shell-core" structure. An inner polymer "core layer (C)" is wrapped by an outer polymer "shell layer (Sh)" (see the example in Table B.1).
B.2.3 Matrix fiber type (M/F)
The components in the fiber have a "matrix fiber" structure. The "fibril (F)" of one polymer is dispersed in the "matrix (M)" of another polymer (see the example in Table B.1).
B.2.4 Split type (Sp/Sp)
The two components in the fiber are arranged continuously along the fiber axis. The cross section of the fiber presents orange petals, strips and other shapes, which can be divided into multiple splits after post-processing.
B.3 Nomenclature of bi-component composite fiber
The name of the bicomponent composite fiber shall be based on the generic name of the two components; the structure type can be added if necessary. The symbol "/" represents a combination between polymers.
Example: Bi-component composite fiber with two polyesters arranged on both Appendix C
(Informative)
Modified fiber
C.1 General
Chemical fiber can change some of the initial properties of the fiber by adding ingredients.
Note: The components added in the spinnable material may be particles, molecules, etc., which are different from the polymer components described in Appendix B. This ingredient is considered "embedded" in the main polymer.
C.2 Name of the modified fiber
The name of the modified fiber is composed of the generic name of the fiber (as the matrix) and the suffix (containing "????"), where ???? stands for terms related to the added components.
C.3 Example
C.3.1 Modified polyvinyl alcohol fiber
Protein (molecule) has been used to be embedded in vinyl alcohol polymer; the name of the fiber is "polyvinyl alcohol fiber (containing protein)".
C.3.2 Modified polyacrylonitrile fiber
Protein (molecule) has been used to embed in acrylonitrile polymer; the name of the fiber is "polyacrylonitrile fiber (containing protein)".
C.3.3 Modified viscose fiber
Pearl powder (pulverized or ground pearl particles) or herbs are added to the viscose collagen solution; the name of the fiber is "viscose fiber (contains pearl powder or herbs)".

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