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GB/T 40437-2021 English PDF (GBT40437-2021)

GB/T 40437-2021 English PDF (GBT40437-2021)

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GB/T 40437-2021: Electrical safety -- -- Guidelines for risk early-warning
This document provides general principles and logical processes for early-warning of electrical safety risks. It gives the information on the determination of early-warning risk elements, the monitoring of early-warning risk elements, the determination of early-warning levels, early-warning measures and early-warning assessment. This document is applicable to electrical safety risk warning for electrical equipment and systems of which the AC rated voltage is 1000V and below, the DC rated voltage is 1500V and below.
GB/T 40437-2021
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 29.020
CCS K 09
Electrical safety - Guidelines for risk early-warning
ISSUED ON. AUGUST 20, 2021
IMPLEMENTED ON. MARCH 01, 2022
Issued by. State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword... 4
Introduction... 5
1 Scope... 6
2 Normative references... 6
3 Terms and definitions... 6
4 General... 8
4.1 General principles... 8
4.2 Logical process... 8
5 Early-warning risk elements... 10
5.1 Principles for determining early-warning risk elements... 10
5.2 Sources of early-warning risk elements... 10
5.3 Influencing factors for early-warning risk elements... 11
5.4 Description of early-warning risk elements... 11
6 Monitoring of early-warning risk elements... 11
6.1 General principle... 11
6.2 Monitoring object... 12
6.3 Representation of monitoring object information... 12
6.4 Monitoring data management... 12
7 Rating of early-warning... 13
7.1 General principles... 13
7.2 Determination of risk index... 13
7.3 Determination of rating of early-warning... 14
8 Early-warning measures... 14
8.1 General principles... 14
8.2 Classification of early-warning measures... 15
8.3 Release of early-warning measures... 16
9 Early-warning assessment... 16
9.1 Overview... 16
9.2 Evaluation of early-warning risk elements... 16
9.3 Assessment of monitoring of early-warning risk elements... 16
9.4 Assessment of rating of early-warning... 17
9.5 Assessment of early-warning measures... 17
9.6 Assessment of early-warning systems... 17
Annex A (informative) Examples of hazards, hazardous situations and possible injuries due to temporality... 18
Electrical safety - Guidelines for risk early-warning
1 Scope
This document provides general principles and logical processes for early-warning of electrical safety risks. It gives the information on the determination of early-warning risk elements, the monitoring of early-warning risk elements, the determination of early-warning levels, early-warning measures and early-warning assessment. This document is applicable to electrical safety risk warning for electrical equipment and systems of which the AC rated voltage is 1000V and below, the DC rated voltage is 1500V and below.
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. GB/T 4025-2010, Basic and safety principles for man-machine interface, marking and identification - Coding principles for indicators and actuators
GB/T 4776-2017, Electrical safety terminology
GB/T 22696 (all parts), Electrical equipment safety - Risk assessment and risk reduction
GB/T 34924-2017, Guidelines for safety related risk assessment and risk reduction for low voltage equipment
3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions defined in GB/T 4776- 2017, GB/T 22696 (all parts) as well as the followings apply.
3.1 early-warning
The general term for activities that monitor and predict possible abnormal states or emergencies and issue alarms based on the regularity and experience of electrical safety risks, as well as the possible residual risks of electrical equipment and systems. 3.2 electrical safety risk early-warning system
5 Early-warning risk elements
5.1 Principles for determining early-warning risk elements
The principles for determining early-warning risk elements include but are not limited to.
- objective;
- related;
- systematic;
- traceable;
- Combination of qualitative and quantitative.
5.2 Sources of early-warning risk elements
Based on historical data (such as hazard and accident records) and electrical safety risk assessment results, according to the principles of early-warning risk elements, the sources include but are not limited to the following.
- Risk elements for electrical equipment and systems.
● Residual risks;
● Risks of failure of protective measures (for example, according to the protective measures taken by the user);
● Risks associated with using the information, such as risks not disclosed in the instructions.
- Risk elements of the environment, such as the effect of changing environmental conditions on personnel and/or equipment.
- Risk elements for personnel, such as moving within a non-moving range, not wearing or not properly wearing protective equipment, equipment that requires professional operation is operated by non-professionals without permission. - Risk elements of human-machine collaborative operation, such as the accuracy of information transmission.
5.3 Influencing factors for early-warning risk elements
Early-warning risk elements are affected by the following factors.
- Severity of the injury caused by the early-warning risk element.
- Possibility that the early-warning risk element may cause injuries.
● Potential for exposure of personnel and/or electrical equipment and systems to hazardous situations;
● Probability of occurrence of a hazard;
● Possibility of technology and personnel to avoid or limit injury is affected by factors such as personnel skill level, safety knowledge, experience, and the speed at which injury occurs.
5.4 Description of early-warning risk elements
The description of early-warning risk elements includes the description of basic information, trigger information and injury information, including.
- Basic information is the information description of the normal state of electrical equipment and systems, environment, and personnel related to electrical safety. It may include. classification, use, mobility, operation of electrical equipment; environmental information such as altitude, temperature and humidity,
atmospheric pressure, rain and snow; personnel attributes such as professionals, trained personnel (electrical) or non-professionals;
- Trigger information is the information description of the trigger factors for the development of early-warning risk elements into electrical safety hazards. It may include. unsafe state of electrical equipment and systems, unsafe state of the environment, unsafe behavior and state of personnel;
- Injury information is the description of the electrical safety hazards that may be caused by early-warning risk elements. It may include. injury type, injury outcome, injury nature, injury severity.
6 Monitoring of early-warning risk elements
6.1 General principle
The monitoring of early-warning risk elements shall be subject to the overall arrangement of the early-warning system.
- Facilities and environment;
- Choice of monitoring method;
- Data identification rules;
- Quality control.
The factors affecting the stability of monitoring data include, but are not limited to. - Monitoring data error deviation;
- Monitoring data identification deviation;
- Discreteness of monitoring data.
7 Rating of early-warning
7.1 General principles
According to the risk index determination method specified in GB/T 34924-2017, according to the following priority principles, determine the rating of early-warning. a) People-oriented. The rating of early-warning risk elements causing personal injury is the highest;
b) The rating of early-warning risk elements causing property damage is the second; c) The third is the early-warning risk elements for process failures;
d) The last is equipment failures.
7.2 Determination of risk index
7.2.1 Analyze the influencing factors for risk index, including.
a) Degree of damage (indicated by S).
1) Slight (normally reversible or repairable in a short period of time), represented by S1;
2) High (normally reversible or repairable in the long term), represented by S2; 3) Severe (normally irreversible or irreparable) or dead, represented by S3. b) Severity of damage (denoted by F).
- Being targeted;
- Being timely;
- Being safe;
- Being stable;
- Being reliable;
- Being economic and reasonable.
8.2 Classification of early-warning measures
According to the law and experience of electrical safety risk occurrence, prevention (permanent) measures shall be taken for predictable situations. Emergency measures shall be taken for emergencies.
Prevention (permanent) measures include, but are not limited to.
- The auditory, visual and tactile measures set on electrical equipment and systems can be coded in accordance with the provisions of GB/T 4025-2010.
- The auditory and visual measures at the application site may include. indicator lights, graphic symbols, safety signs, safety slogans;
- Personnel protection measures, personnel training;
- Monitoring measures for environmental factors;
- Emergency plans.
Emergency measures include but are not limited to.
- Intervention measures.
● Manual intervention, such as eliminating the danger of the equipment through operation, actively leaving the dangerous area, reducing the time of exposure to the dangerous area;
● Device intervention, such as automatically stopping work.
- Information dissemination measures.
● Audible signaling measures, such as voice warnings, alarm warnings;
● Visual signal measures, which may include visual warning measures, visual hazard measures, visual emergency measures, such as text warning, light warning.
- Evacuation measures.
8.3 Release of early-warning measures
When the early-warning risk elements cannot form a closed loop, such as the evacuation of personnel, the removal of dangerous conditions of equipment and other dangerous situations, or the danger does not reach the early-warning level, the early-warning measures can be released in time.
9 Early-warning assessment
9.1 Overview
According to the electrical safety risk assessment method specified in GB/T 34924- 2017, conduct whole-process risk assessment for electrical safety risk early-warning, including early-warning risk elements, monitoring of early-warning risk elements, rating of early-warning, and early-warning measures.
This document only proposes the methods and contents covered by the risk assessment of the whole process of the early-warning system. Specific evaluation details may be specified in the product standard.
9.2 Evaluation of early-warning risk elements
The assessment contents of early-warning risk elements include but are not limited to. - Objectivity, relevance, systematicness and traceability of early-warning risk elements;
- Safety of determination process of early-warning risk elements;
- Risk assessment of the early-warning risk elements that need to be re-selected will not generate new risk elements.
9.3 Assessment of monitoring of early-warning risk elements
The assessment contents of monitoring of early-warning risk elements include but are not limited to.
- Completeness of the information of the monitoring object;
- Security of the information data conversion process of the monitoring object; - Accuracy and stability of monitoring data;
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