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GB/T 39785-2021 English PDF (GBT39785-2021)

GB/T 39785-2021 English PDF (GBT39785-2021)

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GB/T 39785-2021: Service robot -- Mechanical safety assessment and test method

This standard specifies terms and definitions, test conditions, mechanical safety assessment and test methods, markings, instructions, document requirements related to mechanical safety of service robots. This standard applies to all types of service robots, which mainly include personal/household service robots and public service robots.
GB/T 39785-2021
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 25.040.30
J 28
Service robot - Mechanical safety assessment and test
method
ISSUED ON: MARCH 09, 2021
IMPLEMENTED ON: AUGUST 01, 2021
Issued by: National Health Commission of PRC;
State Administration for Market Regulation.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
Introduction ... 4
1 Scope ... 5
2 Normative references ... 5
3 Terms and definitions ... 6
4 Test conditions ... 7
5 Machinery safety assessment and testing methods ... 8
6 Marking and description ... 34
7 Documentation requirements ... 35
Appendix A (Normative) Determination of accessible parts ... 37
Appendix B (Normative) Risk assessment to determine the PLr of relevant safety component ... 44
Appendix C (Normative) Static and dynamic stability test of service robot ... 47 Appendix D (Normative) Ways to prevent service robots from sliding on test platform ... 49
Appendix E (Normative) Evaluation of dynamic response of service robot to test operation ... 50
Appendix F (Informative) Hazard source ... 51
References ... 53
Service robot - Mechanical safety assessment and test
method
1 Scope
This standard specifies terms and definitions, test conditions, mechanical safety assessment and test methods, markings, instructions, document requirements related to mechanical safety of service robots.
This standard applies to all types of service robots, which mainly include personal/household service robots and public service robots.
Special robots can refer to this standard.
Note: In the case of presence of relevant standards on special product's mechanical safety, the product standard takes precedence over this standard.
2 Normative references
The following documents are essential to the application of this document. For the dated documents, only the versions with the dates indicated are applicable to this document; for the undated documents, only the latest version (including all the amendments) is applicable to this standard.
GB 6675.2-2014 Safety of toys - Part 2: Mechanical and physical properties GB/T 12643-2013 Robots and robotic devices - Vocabulary
GB/T 16855.1-2018 Safety of machinery - Safety-related parts of control systems - Part 1: General principles for design
GB/T 16855.2-2015 Safety of machinery - Safety-related parts of control systems - Part 2: Validation
GB/T 18029.13-2008 Wheelchair - Part 13: Determination of friction of test surface
GB/T 23821-2009 Safety of machinery - Safety distances to prevent hazard zones being reached by upper and lower limbs
GB/T 36008-2018 Robots and robotic devices - Collaborative robots
knowledge or skills, nor requiring special training or qualifications.
[GB/T 37283-2019, definition 3.3]
3.3
Public service robot
Service robots, which are used for public or commercial tasks.
Examples: hotel service robots, banking service robots, venue service robots, catering service robots.
Note: Public service robots are usually operated by appropriately trained personnel. [GB/T 37283-2019, definition 3.4]
4 Test conditions
4.1 Test sample
Service robots mainly include personal/household service robots AND public service robots.
The service robot shall be assembled and operated, in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. All necessary preparations (such as functional tests, etc.) shall be completed before the test. Before the test, it shall record the condition information and usage history of the tested sample.
Note: Condition information may include model/name, software version, accessories (if any).
All tests shall be performed on the same service robot AND its accessories (if any). For the tests, which are performed to simulate the stress that the service robot may be subjected to, during normal use, it may cause damage to the service robot; thereby, it requires additional replaceable parts AND recording the replaced parts.
4.2 Working conditions for test
4.2.1 Operating conditions
The installed software shall not be modified or changed during a set of tests. The safety facilities on the test site shall be in normal working condition. 4.2.2 Environmental conditions
- C: Measurement (comparing the measured actual value with the required limit);
- D: Observe during operation [under normal or abnormal conditions of the service robot, use the inspection method A during operation to check (such as carrying out under rated load)];
- E: Analyze related design drawings [structural analysis or roughly browse circuit diagram design (including electrical, pneumatic, hydraulic, etc.) and related instructions].
5.2 Verification of structural design
5.2.1 Verification of edge and corner
5.2.1.1 Test procedure
If the function of the service robot requires touchable edges and corners, whether they are qualification or not, is determined through actual tests. If the function of the service robot does not require touchable edges and corners, whether they are qualification or not, is determined through the related tests in Appendix A.
For service robots that may be used by children, in addition to the above procedures, it shall also carry out the relevant tests of 5.8 and 5.9 in GB 6675.2- 2014.
Note: See A, B, D of 5.1 for inspection methods.
5.2.1.2 Qualification criteria
If the function of the service robot requires touchable edges and corners, THEN: a) They do not cause injury but may be painful; or
b) They may cause injury.
Note 1: "Do not cause injury" means that, based on experience and/or basic safety standards, it does not require emergency treatment by doctor or hospital. Note 2: "May cause injury" means that, based on experience and/or basic safety standards, a doctor or hospital may be required to provide emergency treatment. If the function of the service robot requires that, there are edges and corners that do not cause injury but may cause pain and may cause injury, THEN: a) Any possible exposure shall not be life-threatening; and
Measure the safety distance of dangerous moving parts.
Note: See A, B, C, D of 5.1 for inspection methods.
5.2.3.2 Qualification criteria
Adequate protective measures shall be provided around the gap, to ensure that external objects cannot touch the internal circuit or conductive parts. The safety distance from hazardous moving parts shall meet the requirements of GB/T 23821-2009.
5.2.4 Position limit
5.2.4.1 Test procedure
Through visual inspection and measurement, the service robot runs to the maximum or minimum stroke position, at rated load and maximum speed,
without any braking measures.
Note: For inspection methods, see A, B, D, E of 5.1.
5.2.4.2 Qualification criteria
For the use and operation of the service robot, the range of motion shall not exceed the safe range.
Mechanical limit devices (such as mechanical stops) shall not cause
unacceptable risks after a collision; meanwhile it can be restored to their original form. For the electromechanical limit device (such as proximity switch), its control circuit shall meet the electrical performance requirements. The service robot's control and task program shall not change the settings of the
electromechanical limit device.
The soft limit range shall be smaller than the hard limit range. If the soft limit can be set, THEN, the soft limit setting shall be restricted by personnel authorization, meanwhile it will always be active after the service robot system is powered on.
5.2.5 Evacuate after failure
5.2.5.1 Test procedure
Through visual inspection, actual test, observation in operation, simulate a failure of the service robot under normal working conditions.
Note 1: Evacuation from manned service robot's service space after failure: The service robot restrains people in the service space. If the manned service robot's The accessibility of moving parts is checked by visual inspection. If necessary, make verification in accordance with the test method in Appendix A.
Note 1: If function of the robot requires a level 2 mechanical energy source (MS2) moving parts, that are accessible to general personnel, or a level 3 mechanical energy source (MS3) moving parts, that are accessible to general personnel or trained personnel, THEN:
- Any exposure shall not be life-threatening; and
- When exposed, moving parts shall be obvious; and
- Take as much protection as possible for moving parts; and
- Indicative safety protection shall be used; and
- For MS3, the manually triggered stop device shall be clearly visible, AND placed in a prominent position, within 750 mm of its vicinity.
For the following MS3 moving parts:
- They are only accessible to skilled technicians; and
- MS3 moving parts are not obvious (for example, intermittent motion devices). Note 2: For the definition of MS2 and MS3, see 8.2 in IEC 62368-1:2018. Note 3: For inspection methods, see A, B, D of 5.1.
5.3.2 Qualification criteria
Instructive safety protection shall be provided, to reduce the possibility of unintentional contact with moving parts.
The elements of indicative safety protection shall include the following: - For moving fan blades, or for other moving parts;
- As applicable, "moving parts" or "moving fan blades" or similar words; - As applicable, "body parts are kept away from moving parts" or "body parts are kept away from fan blades" or "body parts are away from motion path" or similar words.
Under normal maintenance conditions, if the safety protection against contact with the MS2 moving parts needs to be disabled or bypassed, an indicative safety protection shall be provided, to remind the following:
- Disconnect the power supply before failing or bypassing the safety
- Verification of anti-drop function (5.4.7);
- Verification of singularity restriction (5.4.8);
- Verification of wireless control (5.4.9).
The safety functions, which are involved in this article, are common safety functions of the service robot. If the control function of the service robot is not within the scope, it shall follow the GB/T 16855.1-2018 and Appendix A, to judge the performance requirements of the safety-related control system, meanwhile meet the corresponding performance criteria.
5.4.1.2 The required performance level (PLr) of the safety-related
components of the control system of typical service robot
For the safety-related components of the control system of a typical service robot, the minimum required performance level (PLr) is as shown in Table 1. Mobile service robots (wheeled, footed, crawler, etc.):
- Type 1.1: Light-weighed AND slow type AND is expected to be used in non- crowded places;
- Type 1.2: Medium-weighted AND slow type AND is expected to be used in non-crowded places;
- Type 1.3: Heavy-weighted OR fast type OR is expected to be used in
crowded places.
Stationary service robot:
Type 2.1: For the quasi-static contact and/or transient contact BETWEEN the moving part AND the person, the force and pressure value is less than or equal to the threshold;
- Type 2.2: For the quasi-static contact and/or transient contact BETWEEN the moving part AND the person, the force and pressure value exceed the threshold.
Note 1: "Light-weighted" refers to product mass ??? 7 kg; "Medium-weighted" refers to product mass > 7 kg and ??? 25 kg; "Heavy-weighted" refers to product mass > 25 kg.
Note 2: "Slow type" refers that, the product's maximum moving speed is lower than or equal to the normal walking speed of the predetermined user group, which is determined through the risk assessment; "fast type" refers that, the product's maximum moving speed is higher than the normal walking speed of the
predetermined user group, which is determined through the risk assessment. shall meet the requirements of 6.5.2.2 in GB/T 36530-2018. After the collision between the human and the service robot, the service robot shall not have the risk, which is caused by insufficient stability.
5.4.3 Verification of stop function
5.4.3.1 Verification of emergency stop
5.4.3.1.1 Test procedure
Through visual inspection, actual test, observation in operation, under normal working conditions of the service robot, press the emergency stop button OR runs the software with stop function. Based on the results of the risk
assessment, determine the emergency stop category of the service robot
product (category 0 stop or category 1 stop).
Note: See A, B, D of 5.1 for inspection methods.
5.4.3.1.2 Qualification criteria
The service robot shall not cause secondary injury to the personnel, after the emergency stop, meanwhile there are measures to make the personnel out of the dangerous state.
The emergency stop device shall comply with IEC 60204-1:2016 or ISO 13850. If the emergency stop function of the service robot is realized by a safety-related control system, the safety-related components of the control system shall meet the level requirements in 5.4.1.
If the service robot has an emergency stop function, every instruction device, that can trigger the service robot to move or other dangerous conditions, shall have a function to manually trigger emergency stop:
- Take priority over other controlled execution of service robot; and
- Stop all controlled risks; and
- If the service robot is in a safe state, remove the driving source of the service robot's actuator; and
- Able to control the danger of the system manipulation of service robot; and - It can only be reset manually, meanwhile it will not cause the service robot to restart after resetting.
If the command device does not have an emergency stop button (such as a voice interface, a computer screen based on remote applications), it shall be 5.4.4.3.1 Body restrictions
It shall meet the requirements of 6.3 of GB/T 36530-2018 on the restrictions of operating space.
Note 1: For the service robots, that do not have the ability to move or motion, this requirement does not apply.
Note 2: For the service robots, which have special operating capabilities, such as window cleaning service robots, cooking service robots, etc., during the normal operation of the service robot, it shall use protective measures or auxiliary facilities, or in conjunction with the service robot's safe use manual, to ensure the safe use of service robot.
5.4.4.3.2 Space restrictions
Service robots are not allowed to be used in unforeseen spaces and
environments.
In the service robot's use information, the operating space and use environment of the service robot shall be clearly defined, including: the size of the operating space, the use object, the temperature and humidity of the use environment, etc.
5.4.5 Safety-related speed control test
5.4.5.1 Test procedure
Use the risk assessment to determine the safety-related speed limit of the service robot. Operate the service robot in the most unfavorable situation, to verify whether its safety-related speed control is qualified.
Note 1: The most unfavorable situation is determined through consultation with the supplier.
Note 2: For inspection methods, see A, B, C, D in 5.1.
5.4.5.2 Qualification criteria
The overall speed of the service robot shall be controlled within a certain range, to ensure that the moving parts do not exceed the safety-related speed limit. The design and manufacture of safety-related speed control shall ensure that, when an error occurs, the speed of the end effector and other parts of the operating machine, will not exceed the safety-related speed limit; meanwhile when an error occurs, it shall activate a safe state.
If the function of the service robot is realized through a safety-related control system, the safety category of the safety parts of the control device shall autonomous motion mode, which is specified in the manual.
Note: See A, B, D of 5.1 for inspection methods.
5.4.7.2 Qualification criteria
During the test, the service robot shall meet the following requirements: - The service robot shall not fall outside the test area;
- The service robot can detect this height difference, take some evasive measures (such as braking, backing up, detouring, etc.).
5.4.8 Verification of singularity limitation
5.4.8.1 Test procedure
For service robots with singularities in the process of movement, estimate the state of singularities according to the structural characteristics of the service robot, that is, the position of each axis of the service robot's operating arm. The end effector of the service robot moves along a straight line; the straight-line movement shall include the estimated state. Observe the movement of the service robot.
Note 1: For the movement of the service robot through the singularities, it may take one or more of the following measures:
a) Control the movement through the singularity to avoid danger;
b) Service robots shall avoid singularities, for example, achieved by adjusting path planning;
c) Stop the movement of the service robot and issue a warning before the service robot passes the singularity OR avoid it during coordinated movement.
Note 2: For inspection methods, see A, B, D of 5.1.
5.4.8.2 Qualification criteria
The service robot shall not have unforeseen movement conditions (including irregular shaking, sudden stop of movement, etc.). It is necessary to deal with the singularity problem, during the operation of the service robot, through the essential design of the control program, including the processing of the Jacobian matrix, speed limit, etc., to ensure that the service robot shall not cause unpredictable movement speed and direction, due to the singularity. 5.4.9 Verification of wireless control
structure.
Example: If it needs to use casters and support devices during the normal operation of a service robot, it shall place the casters and support devices in the most unfavorable position, so that the wheels and similar devices are locked or blocked. However, if the casters are only used to carry the service robot AND the installation instructions require the support device to be lowered after installation, THEN, during the test, use the support device (not the casters) AND place the support service robot in the most unfavorable position, which is consistent with the natural level of service robot. Note 1: After evaluation, if the service robot does not have the wheels locked during the expected use, it is not necessary to lock the wheels in the subsequent test. Note 2: This article only applies to service robots, that are expected to be used on the ground.
Where applicable, the following tests are used to check whether it is qualified; each test shall be carried out separately:
1) Slope stability
Place the service robot on the slope, which is specified by the
manufacturer, in the most unfavorable direction; arrange it in the above manner; visually inspect it.
2) Horizontal stability
- For a service robot, which has a mass equal to or greater than 25 kg, at a height of no more than 2 m from the ground, apply a force, which is
equal to 20% of the service robot's weight, but not more than 250 N, in any direction (except the upward direction), to the service robot. At the same time, all doors and drawers, which are scheduled to be opened
by the operator or maintenance personnel, shall be placed in the most
unfavorable position, according to the installation instr...

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