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GB/T 3836.28-2021 English PDF (GBT3836.28-2021)

GB/T 3836.28-2021 English PDF (GBT3836.28-2021)

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GB/T 3836.28-2021: Explosive atmospheres -- Part 28: Non-electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres -- Basic method and requirements

GB/T 3836.28-2021
ICS 29.260.20
CCS K 35
Replacing GB 25286.1-2010
Explosive atmospheres - Part 28: Non-electrical
equipment for explosive atmospheres - Basic method
and requirements
(ISO 80079-36:2016, Explosive atmospheres - Part 36: Non-electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres - Basic method and requirements, MOD)
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 4
Introduction ... 9
1 Scope ... 13
2 Normative references ... 19
3 Terms and definitions ... 20
4 EPL and equipment groups ... 24
4.1 EPL ... 24
4.2 Group I equipment... 24
4.3 Group II equipment... 25
4.4 Group III equipment... 25
4.5 Equipment for specific explosive gas atmospheres ... 26
5 Ignition hazard assessment ... 26
5.1 General requirements... 26
5.2 Procedure of ignition hazard assessment ... 27
6 Assessment of possible ignition sources and control means ... 30
6.1 General ... 31
6.2 Hot surfaces ... 31
6.3 Flames and hot gases (including hot particles) ... 35
6.4 Mechanically generated sparks and hot surfaces ... 35
6.5 Electrical ignition sources except stray current ... 39
6.6 Stray electric currents, cathodic corrosion protection ... 39
6.7 Static electricity ... 39
6.8 Adiabatic compression and shock waves ... 43
6.9 Exothermic reactions, including self-ignition of dusts ... 43
7 Additional considerations ... 44
7.1 Dust deposits and other material in the gap of moving parts ... 44 7.2 Dust deposits and other material in the flame arresters incorporated in the equipment ... 44
7.3 Opening times of enclosures ... 45
7.4 Non-metallic enclosures and non-metallic parts of the equipment ... 45 7.5 Removable parts ... 45
7.6 Materials used for cementing ... 46
7.7 Light transmitting parts ... 46
7.8 Stored energy ... 46
8 Verification and tests ... 46
8.1 General ... 46
8.2 Determination of the maximum surface temperature ... 47
8.3 Mechanical tests... 50
8.4 Additional tests of non-metallic parts of the equipment relevant for explosion protection ... 51
9 Documentation ... 54
9.1 Technical documentation ... 54
9.2 Conformity with the documentation ... 54
9.3 Certificate ... 54
9.4 Responsibility for marking ... 55
10 Instructions ... 55
11 Marking ... 56
11.1 Location ... 56
11.2 General ... 56
11.3 Warning markings ... 58
11.4 Marking on very small equipment ... 59
11.5 Examples of marking ... 59
Annex A (Normative) Protection concepts of types of protection "d", "p" and "t" acceptable for non-electrical equipment ... 61
Annex B (Informative) Explanation of the ignition hazard assessment procedure ... 62
Annex C (Informative) Relationship between Equipment protection levels (EPLs) and zones ... 68
Annex D (Informative) Methodology for confirming the EPL ... 69
Annex E (Informative) Consideration of misuse which can reasonably be
anticipated during ignition hazard assessment procedure ... 71
Annex F (Informative) Examples of ignition hazard assessment... 73
Annex G (Informative) Volume dependence of auto-ignition temperature ... 98 Annex H (Informative) Development of different types of incendive electrostatic discharges ... 100
Bibliography ... 101
This Standard was drafted in accordance with the rules given in GB/T 1.1-2020 "Directives for standardization - Part 1: Rules for the structure and drafting of standardizing documents".
This Standard is Part 28 of GB/T 3836 "Explosive atmospheres". The following parts of GB/T 3836 have been issued:
- Part 1: Equipment - General requirements;
- Part 2: Equipment protection by flameproof enclosures "d";
- Part 3: Equipment protection by increased safety "e";
- Part 4: Equipment protection by intrinsic safety "i";
- Part 5: Equipment protection by pressurized enclosure "p";
- Part 6: Equipment protection by liquid immersion "o";
- Part 7: Equipment protection by powder filling "q";
- Part 8: Equipment protection by type of protection "n";
- Part 9: Equipment protection by encapsulation "m";
- Part 11: Material characteristics for gas and vapor classification - Test methods and data;
- Part 12: Material characteristics for combustible dusts - Test methods; - Part 13: Equipment repair, overhaul, reclamation and modification;
- Part 14: Classification of hazardous areas;
- Part 15: Electrical installations design, selection and erection;
- Part 16: Inspection and maintenance of electrical installation (other than mines);
- Part 17: Construction and use of rooms or building protected by
- Part 18: Intrinsically safe system;
- Part 20: Equipment with equipment protection level (EPL) Ga;
- Part 21: Application of quality systems for equipment manufacture;
- Part 22: Protection of equipment and transmission system using optical radiation;
- Part 23: Group I, category EPL Ma equipment intended to remain functional in atmospheres endangered by firedamp and/or coal dust;
- Part 24: Equipment protection by special protection "s";
- Part 25: Requirements for process sealing between flammable process
fluids and electrical systems;
- Part 26: Electrostatic hazards - Guidance;
- Part 27: Electrostatic hazards - Test;
- Part 28: Non-electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres - Basic
method and requirements;
- Part 29: Non-electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres -
Constructional safety "c", control of ignition source "b", liquid immersion "k";
- Part 30: Equipment and components in explosive atmospheres in
underground mines;
- Part 31: Equipment dust ignition protection by enclosure "t";
- Part 32: Intrinsically safe systems with electronically controlled spark duration limitation;
- Part 33: Equipment in adverse service conditions;
- Part 34: Equipment assembly;
- Part 35: Classification of areas for explosive dust atmospheres.
This Standard replaces GB 25286.1-2010 "Non-electrical equipment for
potentially explosive atmospheres - Part 1: Basic method and requirements". Compared with GB 25286.1-2010, in addition to structural adjustments and editorial changes, the main technical changes in this Standard are as follows: - changed the supplementary standards of this Standard (see Clause 1;
Clause 1 of GB 25286.1-2010);
- added the use of explosion-proof type "d", "p", "t" (see Clause 1 and Annex A);
- added the applicability of corresponding clauses in GB/T 3836.1-2021 (see Table 1);
- added the assessment and control methods for possible ignition sources (see Clause 6);
- changed the requirements for verification and testing (see Clause 8; Clause 13 of GB 25286.1-2010);
- added the document requirements (see Clause 9);
- changed the requirements for marks (see Clause 11; Clause of GB
This Standard uses redrafting method to modify and adopt ISO 80079-36:2016 "Explosive atmospheres - Part 36: Non-electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres - Basic method and requirements".
Compared with ISO 80079-36:2016, the structural adjustments in this Standard are as follows:
- Annex A corresponds to Annex G of ISO 80079-36:2016;
- Annex C corresponds to Annex I of ISO 80079-36:2016;
- Annex D corresponds to Annex A of ISO 80079-36:2016;
- Annex F corresponds to Annex C of ISO 80079-36:2016;
- Annex G corresponds to Annex H of ISO 80079-36:2016;
- Annex H corresponds to Annex F of ISO 80079-36:2016;
- deleted Annex D of ISO 80079-36:2016.
The technical differences between this Standard and ISO 80079-36:2016 and the reasons are as follows:
- Regarding normative reference documents, this Standard has been
adjusted with technical differences to adapt to Chinese technical
conditions. The adjustments are collectively reflected in Clause 2
"Normative references", and the specific adjustments are as follows:
● Use GB/T 3836.1-2021 that adopts IEC 60079-0 to replace IEC 60079-
0 (see Clause 1);
● Use GB/T 3836.2 that adopts IEC60079-1 to replace IEC60079-1 (see
Clause 1);
● Use GB/T 3836.5 that adopts IEC 60079-2 to replace IEC 60079-2 (see
Clause 1);
● Use GB/T 3836.22 that adopts IEC 60079-28 to replace IEC 60079-28
● Use GB/T 3836.31 that adopts IEC 60079-31 to replace IEC 60079-31
(see Clause 1);
● Use GB/T 3836.29 that adopts ISO 80079-37 to replace ISO 80079-37
(see Clause 1);
● Use GB/T 3836.30 that adopts ISO/IEC 80079-38 to replace ISO/IEC
80079-38 (see;
● Delete ANSI/UL 746B and move to Bibliography.
- Modified the file version in Table 1 to be consistent with GB/T 3836.1-2021; - Deleted the electrification test in Annex D of ISO 80079-36:2016; In the text, use the test 26.17 and Table 10 of GB/T 3836.1-2021 to keep consistent
with GB/T 3836.1-2021.
This Standard made the following editorial modifications:
- To be consistent with the existing standard series, the name of this Standard is revised to "Explosive atmospheres - Part 28: Non-electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres - Basic method and requirements";
- In Clause 1, added the description of the scope of application of this Standard;
- Deleted the note on the standard version information in Table 1;
- In 4.1, added the note about Annex C;
- In 4.4, added the note about the reclassification of Class III equipment; - Deleted the note about replacing the separator "." in 11.2;
- In, the footnote on hard steel and non-sparking metal is replaced by a note;
- Included the technical errata content of ISO 80079-36:2016/COR1:2019; The position of the outer margin of the involved clause is marked with a vertical double line (ǁ);
- modified the Bibliography.
Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this Standard may be the subject of patent rights. The issuing authority shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
Explosive atmospheres - Part 28: Non-electrical
equipment for explosive atmospheres - Basic method
and requirements
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the basic methods and requirements for the design, structure, testing and marking of non-electrical equipment used in explosive atmospheres.
This Standard applies to non-electrical Ex equipment, Ex components,
protective systems, devices and assemblies of these products that have their own potential ignition sources used in explosive atmospheres.
Hand tools and manually operated equipment without energy storage are
excluded from the scope of this Standard. This Standard does not address the safety of static autonomous process equipment when it is not part of equipment referred to in this Standard.
NOTE 1: Static autonomous process equipment includes items such as tanks, vessels, fixed pipework and hand operated valves which do not have their own source of energy that could create a potential ignition source during operation.
This Standard does not specify requirements for safety, other than those directly related to the risk of ignition which may then lead to an explosion.
The standard atmospheric conditions (relating to the explosion characteristics of the atmosphere) under which it may be assumed that Ex equipment can be operated are:
- temperature: -20°C ~ +60°C;
- pressure: 80 kPa~110 kPa;
- air with normal oxygen content, typically 21% (volume fraction).
Such atmospheres can also exist inside the equipment. In addition, the external atmosphere can be drawn inside the equipment by natural breathing produced as a result of fluctuations in the equipment’s internal operating pressure, and/or temperature.
NOTE 2: Although the standard atmospheric conditions above give a temperature range for the atmosphere of -20°C ~ +60°C, the normal ambient temperature range for Ex equipment is -20°C ~ +40°C, unless otherwise specified and marked. It is considered that -20°C ~ +40°C is appropriate for most Ex equipment and that to manufacture all equipment to be suitable for a standard atmosphere upper ambient temperature of +60°C would place unnecessary design constraints.
NOTE 3: The requirements of this Standard can also be helpful for the design, construction, testing and marking of equipment intended for use in atmospheres outside the validity range stated above. In this case however, the ignition hazard assessment, ignition protection provided, additional testing (if necessary), manufacturer’s technical documentation and instructions to the user, clearly demonstrate and indicate the equipment’s suitability for the conditions it may encounter. It is also recognized that changes in temperature and pressure can have a significant influence on characteristics of the explosive atmosphere, such as ignitability.
This Standard specifies the requirements for the design and construction of equipment, intended for explosive atmospheres in conformity with all
Equipment Protection Levels (all EPLs) of Group I, II and III.
NOTE 4: It is not unusual for equipment designed and constructed in accordance with this Standard for a particular EPL to be used in areas requiring an EPL with a higher level of safety by including the application of additional measures. Such measures include for example inerting, suppression, venting or containment or for example by dilution, drainage, monitoring and shut-down. Such measures are outside the scope of this Standard. This Standard supplements and modifies the general requirements of GB/T 3836.1-2021, as shown in Table 1. Where a requirement of this Standard
conflicts with a requirement of GB/T 3836.1-2021, as far as applicable for non- electrical equipment, the requirement of this Standard takes precedence. This Standard is supplemented or modified by the following standards
concerning specific types of protection:
- GB/T 3836.29, Explosive atmospheres - Part 29: Non-electrical equipment for explosive atmospheres - Constructional safety "c", control of ignition source "b", liquid immersion "k";
- GB/T 3836.2, Explosive atmospheres - Part 2: Equipment protection by
flameproof enclosures "d";
- GB/T 3836.5, Explosive atmospheres - Part 5: Equipment protection by
pressurized enclosure "p";
- GB/T 3836.31, Explosive atmospheres - Part 31: Equipment dust ignition protection by enclosure "t".
The nature and ignition sources of non-electrical equipment shall be considered

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