GB/T 38283-2019 English PDF (GBT38283-2019)
GB/T 38283-2019 English PDF (GBT38283-2019)
GB/T 38283-2019: Guidance for electric vehicles firefighting and emergency rescue
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
Guidance for Electric Vehicles
Fire Fighting and Emergency Rescue
ISSUED ON: DECEMBER 10, 2019
IMPLEMENTED ON: JULY 01, 2020
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 4
2 Normative References ... 4
3 Terms and Definitions ... 4
4 Basic Principles ... 5
5 Vehicle Identification ... 6
6 Vehicle Fixing ... 6
7 Turn-off the Power ... 7
8 Collision Rescue ... 7
9 Waters Accident Rescue ... 9
10 Fire Extinguishing ... 11
11 Accident Rescue under Charging ... 12
This Standard was drafted as per the rules specified in GB/T 1.1-2009.
This Standard was proposed by the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of PRC.
This Standard shall be under the jurisdiction of National Technical Committee for Standardization of Automobile (SAC/TC 114).
Drafting organizations of this Standard: Shanghai Fire Research Institute of Ministry of Public Security; China Automotive Technology and Research Center Co., Ltd.; Beijing Electric Vehicle Co., Ltd.; BYD Automobile Industry Co., Ltd.; Technical Center for SAIC Motor Corporation Limit; Contemporary Amperex Technology Ltd.; Fire Department of Ministry of Public Security; China FAW Group Co., Ltd.; Pan Asia Technical Automotive Center Co., Ltd.; and Zhengzhou Yutong Bus Co., Ltd. Chief drafting staffs of this Standard: Cai Liying, He Ning, Li Peng, Fu Hedong, Lu Chun, Liu Guibin, Xue Lin, Zhang Yongfeng, Huang Hao, Tan Yi, Zhang Lei, Liu Chaohui, Fu Jiewen, Song Fang, Wu Pei, and Huang Dongyi.
Guidance for Electric Vehicles
Fire Fighting and Emergency Rescue
This Standard gives guidance on the fire fighting and emergency rescue in the event of a fire, collision, or water bubble for an electric vehicle.
This Standard is applicable to the full-time rescue personnel for emergency rescue against the pure electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles.
This Standard is inapplicable to the emergency rescue of the fuel cell electric vehicles. 2 Normative References
The following documents are essential to the application of this document. For the dated documents, only the versions with the dates indicated are applicable to this document; for the undated documents, only the latest version (including all the amendments) are applicable to this document.
GB/T 5907 (all parts) Fire Protection Vocabulary
GB/T 19596 Terminology of Electric Vehicles
GA/T 1276 Guidelines for Extricating Trapped Persons in Road Traffic Accidents 3 Terms and Definitions
For the purpose of this document, the terms and definitions given in GB/T 5907 and GB/T 19596 and the following apply.
3.1 Offensive attack
When a person is trapped or the high-voltage battery does not catch fire, an offensive fire extinguishing tactic is adopted under the condition of good personal protection. 3.2 Defensive attack
When the high-voltage battery is ignited and no one is trapped, a defensive fire extinguishing tactic is adopted under the insufficient fire-extinguishing conditions. 4 Basic Principles
When an electric vehicle occurs a disaster accident, it is necessary to firstly evaluate the scene; and judge the damage of the accidental vehicle?€?s power battery and high- voltage electrical system and the risk factors and consequences of explosion and combustion caused by the power battery through external observation and instrument monitoring. Prepare for the accident rescue.
4.2.1 For the accident scene, first of all, it is necessary to consider the situation of the scene; determine the alert range; and set up alert signs.
4.2.2 A working area is usually set within 10m around the accidental vehicle; irrelevant vehicles, people, and vessels are prohibited from entering as far as possible. An operating area is set within 5m; and only rescue personnel directly responsible for treating or rescuing the trapped are allowed to enter.
4.2.3 It is necessary to continuously monitor flammable and toxic gases; monitor the temperature of the power battery part of the accidental vehicle; and adjust the alert range in a timely manner.
4.3 Leakage disposal
4.3.1 When any liquid other than the electrolyte leaks from the vehicle, it shall be disposed of in accordance with the fuel vehicle disposal method.
4.3.2 When the electrolyte leaks, there is a large amount of toxic gas overflowing. It is necessary to wear a full set of respiratory protective equipment and control the external fire source to avoid the electrolyte being ignited.
4.3.3 If possible, it is advisable to use an adsorbent material to collect the electrolyte as much as possible to prevent it from polluting the environment.
4.4 Rescue personnel capabilities and equipment
4.4.1 Technical capabilities
Rescuers need to be familiar with electric vehicles and their structures; and receive relevant training to quickly cut off power and avoid the threat of high voltage electricity at the scene of the accident.
4.4.2 Personal protective equipment
In the event of an electric vehicle accident, especially when the battery is damaged or burned, in addition to the danger of electric shock, a large amount of toxic and harmful gases shall be released. To ensure the safety of rescuers, personal protective equipment shall be worn as follows:
a) When dealing with fire accident, rescuers shall wear full sets of personal protective equipment and respiratory protective equipment as much as possible; b) When dealing with collisions and wading accidents, rescuers shall wear a full set of electrical insulation equipment as much as possible; and wear the necessary water rescue protective equipment for water rescue.
5 Vehicle Identification
5.1 Vehicle external sign identification
5.1.1 Vehicle number plate identification
If the vehicle number plate is not damaged, the national electric vehicle number plate rules can be used to identify whether the accidental vehicle is electric vehicle, such as a green number plate.
5.1.2 Electric vehicle identification
The vehicle can be determined whether it is an electric vehicle by observing the body, especially if there is an electric vehicle sign on the trunk lid at the rear, such as ?€?EV?€?, ?€?Hybrid?€?, ?€?electric vehicle?€?, and ?€?hybrid power?€?.
5.2 Vehicle internal sign identification
5.2.1 The position of high-voltage components and power-off switches can be known in advance based on vehicle information.
5.2.2 When operating the vehicle, firstly observe the conditions of the high-voltage/low- voltage cables or components; especially the orange high-voltage cables or components. At the same time, other related sings need to be checked.
6 Vehicle Fixing
6.1 Fixing wheels
It should be according to the state and location of the accidental vehicle, reasonably adopt short-feet, long-feet and other stable technologies; use supporting rods and other equipment to effectively stabilize the vehicle body; create safe operating conditions; and effectively prevent the vehicle from moving.
6.2 Vehicle braking device
According to the braking devices of different vehicles, make sure that the vehicle is parked as much as possible.
7 Turn-off the Power
7.1 Automatic power-off
Turn-off the vehicle start switch; it is better to put the key of the vehicle with automatic start function into signal shielding bag or place it 10m away from the accidental vehicle. 7.2 Manual power-off
Most vehicles are designed with a safety system that automatically powers off in the event of a collision; but in order to ensure that the power line is in a power outage to prevent secondary accidents and avoid secondary injuries to the trapped or the rescuers, it is important to ensure the accidental vehicle is manual power-off after the automatic power-off. Firstly, find out the location to cut off the low-voltage power supply, cut off the low-voltage line; and cut off the power line according to the emergency rescue instructions.
8 Collision Rescue
8.1 Disposal procedures
The rescue and disposal procedures of the electric vehicle collision accident are as follows:
a) Set up alert signs;
b) Identify the vehicle, determine the rescue plan after evaluation;
c) Prepare for the safety protection of the rescuers properly;
d) Fix the vehicle and cut off the power before operation;
e) Ensure the locations of the high-voltage battery and components;
f) Personnel research and recue; and vehicle disposal;
g) Site cleaning.
8.2 Personnel research and rescue
8.2.1 At the scene of the collision, when someone is trapped in the vehicle, it is necessary to fully consider the possible risk factors in the rescue procedures and determine the rescue plan.
8.2.2 It should be according to the relevant requirements of GA/T 1276, and develop the rescue channels.
8.2.3 If necessary, use fire-fighting filtering integrated gas masks or air respirators to provide respiratory protection for the trapped personnel and rescue personnel. When the battery has electrolyte leakage, fire, smoke or bubble, etc., open the windows and the trunk to ventilate; prevent a large accumulation of smoke. If the scene ventilation conditions are poor, adopt the artificial blasting and use exhaust air from the exhaust machine to disperse the toxic gas on the scene.
8.2.4 When using equipment of demolition, lifting, support, traction and other equipment for rescue, it is necessary to avoid high-voltage electrical cables and power batteries, and adopt reasonable rescue methods to rescue the distressed people from the predicament.
8.2.5 For passenger cars that collided or tipped over, the manual emergency switch on the side of the door can be opened manually to open the escape channel; when the door can?€?t be opened, the door and window shall be quickly dismantled to rescue the trapped person.
8.2.6 According to the trapped state, injured part, etc. of the trapped person, cooperate with the medical emergency personnel to take corresponding rescue measures; maintain vital signs and eliminate the risks of electric shock and leakage in a timely manner. The rescued personnel must be rescued by medical emergency personnel. 8.3 Vehicle disposal
8.3.1 In order to avoid injury to the trapped personnel and rescue personnel caused by splashing of electrolyte of power battery; use fire blanket to cover from outside the batter box as far as possible.
8.3.2 In order to avoid the possible danger of electric shock, do not touch the damaged battery system during the dismantling process; and do not use tools to cut the high- voltage power supply lines or penetrate the high-voltage power supply system components.
8.3.3 For the vehicles that are powered off, use the following demolition tools such as toothless saws, expanders, tractors, pneumatic cutters, two-wheel special cutters, hydraulic shears, hydraulic ejectors, etc. to dismantle the deformed vehicle shell and rescue the trapped person.
8.3.4 When performing the operations such as dismantling the accidental vehicle, it is necessary to dynamically observe the state of the power battery. For vehicles with damaged batteries, rescuers need to observe the damaged battery throughout the process and use thermal imaging cameras, thermometers and other equipment to monitor the battery temperature in real time. Once it is found that the internal temperature of the battery rises sharply or there is smoke release; there is a danger of burning or exploding. It is necessary to stop the operation immediately and cover it with a spray water gun to prevent sudden accidents from threatening the safety of the trapped and rescuers.
8.3.5 For fuel leakage caused by the accident, foam shall be sprayed to cover the leakage area during demolition period; prevent the fuel vapor from exploding due to metal collision or spark generated during demolition.
8.4 Site cleaning
8.4.1 After the disaster accident disposal is over, it is advisable to inspect and clean the site comprehensively and carefully; hand it over to the owner of the vehicle and the relevant department. Count the personnel and arrange the equipment when evacuating the site.
8.4.2 Remind the owner and relevant department to properly handle the damaged battery; reasonably ado the transferring method to prevent the accidental vehicle from catching fire during the transferring period and later standing.
8.4.3 Before fully discharging the high-voltage battery, place the vehicle 15m away from the building and other vehicles as far as possible. When the conditions can?€?t be satisfied, the vehicle should be placed in a relatively closed and safe area to avoid the damage to the surrounding buildings and vehicles.
8.4.4 When transferring the vehicle, it can?€?t be towed directly. It should be transferred according to the transferring requirements of electric vehicle; otherwise, forcible towing the drive wheels shall cause a fire in the high-voltage battery system. 9 Waters Accident Rescue
9.1 Disposal procedures
The disposal and rescue procedures for electric vehicle water accidents are as follows: a) Identify the vehicles, investigate environmental conditions, and determine the rescue plans after evaluation;
b) Prepare for protecting the safety of the rescuers properly;
c) Determine the locations of the high-voltage battery and components;
d) Rescue the trapped persons;
e) If no one is trapped, directly dispose the vehicle;
f) Clean up the site.
The investigation shall include the following contents:
a) Water temperature, depth, water surface width, water flow direction, shore topography, etc.; understand the situation of the accident site and surrounding roads, traffic, water sources, etc.;
b) The location, quantity and casualties of the persons in distress;
c) Through external observation, judge the damage of the accidental vehicle power battery and high-voltage electric system;
d) Assess the manpower, equipment and other resources required for on-site rescue and disposal;
e) Prepare for protecting the safety of the rescuers; conduct personnel search and rescue;
f) Find out the traction site and traction path of the vehicle; and clarify the safe area of the vehicle parking;
g) Transfer a large crane to the site and lift the falling vehicle onto the road. 9.3 Personnel search and rescue
9.3.1 On the scene of a water accident, when a person is trapped in the vehicle, it is necessary to analyze the situation on the scene; fully consider the possible risk factors in the rescue process, and determine the rescue plan.
9.3.2 Break the vehicle window or open the vehicle door, rescue the person in the vehicle; the rescued personnel shall be delivered to the medical emergency personnel for rescue.
9.4 Vehicle disposal
9.4.1 During the disposal of the vehicle, it is necessary to avoid contact with high- voltage components, cables, or power-off switches, etc. to prevent possible electric shock hazards.
9.4.2 It should be handed over to a qualified agency to carry out vehicle salvage according to the vehicle waters rescue requirements.
9.4.3 After the vehicle is salvaged to the road, the vehicle shall be disposed of in accordance with the requirements of 8.3.
9.5 Site cleaning
Clean up the site in accordance with the requirements of 8.4.
10 Fire Extinguishing
10.1 Disposal procedures
The rescue and disposal procedures of fire accident are as follows:
a) Set up alert signs;
b) Identify the vehicle; determine the fire extinguishing plan after the assessment; c) Prepare for protecting the rescuers;
d) Fix the vehicle after the fire is extinguished;
e) If necessary, power off;
f) Site cleanup.
10.2 Fire extinguishing agent
10.2.1 When no open flame occurs to the high-voltage battery, the fire can be extinguished in accordance with traditional vehicle fire disposal methods. 10.2.2 When a high-voltage battery catches fire, the use of a large amount of fire- fighting water can reduce the temperature of the battery and its inside, which can effectively prevent combustion and prevent re-ignition. Therefore, it is necessary to use a large amount of continuous fire-fighting water, for instance, when extinguishing the fire of the battery equipped in the passenger car, more than 10t shall be ensured for the fire-fighting water.
10.3 Fire-extinguishing tactics
10.3.1 Offensive attack
10.3.1.1 When someone is trapped or the high-voltage battery does not catch fire, an offensive attack must be selected.
10.3.1.2 Do not pierce, cut, pry, or dismantle the structure of the vehicle in order to spray the fire extinguishing agent into the battery smoothly.
10.3.1.3 Do not use tools to pierce the hood to avoid severe electric shock from penetrating high-voltage components in the engine area.
10.3.1.4 If the high-voltage battery area catches fire, a thermal camera should be used to monitor the battery area temperature to prevent re-ignition.
10.3.2 Defensive attack
10.3.2.1 When the high-voltage batter is burning, no one is trapped and there is no- enough water, defensive attack may be used.
10.3.2.2 When it is difficult for the fire extinguishing agent to reach the combustion unit of the battery, it is possible to control the scene and stabilize the combustion. 10.3.2.3 Any person who is not wearing a self-contained air respirator should be placed in the upstream direction of the fire as far as possible to avoid inhaling the toxic substances in the smoke.
10.3.3 Operation without open flame
When there is no open flame in the battery accident, and a large amount of white smoke comes out, after ensuring that other intact batteries are unloaded from the vehicle, it is necessary to adopt a large amount of continuous water to spray on the smoking areas to reduce the impact of the toxic and harmful gas on the surrounding environment.
10.4 Site cleanup
After the fire is extinguished, fix and power off the vehicle; clean up the site in accordance with the requirements of 8.4.
11 Accident Rescue under Charging
11.1 In order to avoid secondary disasters, the location of the power supply to the charging station must first be determined and switched off.
11.2 On the premise of ensuring the personal safety, firstly, disconnect the charging device from the vehicle. Use the measures such as unplugging the charging gun of the electric vehicle or cutting the charging cable; then perform the fire extinguishing and emergency rescue in accordance with the above procedures.
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