GB/T 37559-2019 English PDF (GBT37559-2019)
GB/T 37559-2019 English PDF (GBT37559-2019)
GB/T 37559-2019: Normalizing and annealing of heavy steel forgings
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
Normalizing and annealing of heavy steel forgings
ISSUED ON: JUNE 04, 2019
IMPLEMENTED ON: JANUARY 01, 2020
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People’s Republic of
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 4
2 Normative references ... 4
3 Terms and definitions ... 5
4 Pending workpiece ... 5
5 Heat treatment equipment ... 6
6 Heat treatment process ... 7
7 Heat treatment quality and inspection ... 12
8 Calibration ... 14
9 Safety and health requirements ... 14
10 Energy consumption requirements ... 14
11 Product reports ... 14
Appendix A (Informative) Normalizing (annealing) and high-temperature
tempering temperatures for commonly used materials... 16
Normalizing and annealing of heavy steel forgings
This Standard specifies the requirements and methods for normalizing and annealing of heavy steel forgings, including pending workpiece, heat treatment equipment, heat treatment processes, heat treatment quality and inspection, calibration, safety and health requirements, energy consumption requirements, and product reports.
This Standard is applicable to normalizing and annealing of heavy steel forgings for heavy equipment that is used in industries such as energy, metallurgy and transportation.
2 Normative references
The following documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the dated version applies to this document. For undated references, the latest edition (including all amendments) applies to this document.
GB/T 228.1, Metallic materials. Tensile testing. Part 1: Method of test at room temperature
GB/T 229, Metallic materials. Charpy pendulum impact test method
GB/T 231.1, Metallic materials. Brinell hardness test. Part 1: Test method GB/T 6394, Determination of estimating the average grain size of metal
GB/T 7232, Terminology of metal heat treatment
GB/T 9452, Testing method for working zone of heat treatment furnace
GB/T 13298, Inspection methods of microstructure for metals
GB/T 13324, Terminology of heat treatment equipment
GB 15735, Requirements for the safety and health in production process of metal heat treatment
GB/T 16923, Normalizing and annealing of steel parts
GB/T 17358, Power consumption, measurement, and testing in heat treating production
5.1.1 For the heating of heavy steel forgings, the heat treatment furnace shall be selected according to the requirements; the heating medium is generally gas; for the workpiece which has special requirements, protective atmosphere furnace or vacuum furnace can be used.
5.1.2 Determination method of effective heating zone of the heat treatment furnace shall meet the requirements of GB/T 9452 or GB/T 30824.
5.1.3 The temperature uniformity of the effective heating zone of the heat treatment furnace for normalizing and annealing shall not exceed ±15°C; the rest shall meet the requirements of GB/T 16923 and GB/T 32541-2016.
5.1.4 The heat treatment furnace for normalizing and annealing shall be able to achieve adjustable and controllable heating rate and cooling rate.
5.2 Temperature measurement and control system
5.2.1 The type and technical requirements of the heat treatment furnace instrument system shall not be lower than the requirements of Class-D of GB/T 30825-2014.
5.2.2 The accuracy and calibration period of the instrument shall meet the requirements of Class-IV equipment in GB/T 32541-2016.
5.2.3 The selection and use of the temperature sensor shall comply with the provisions of GB/T 30825-2014.
5.2.4 The load thermocouple that is used to measure the temperature of the workpiece shall be in close contact with the workpiece; the load thermocouple shall be protected from furnace temperature radiation and furnace atmosphere. 5.3 Cooling equipment
The normalizing of heavy steel forgings is generally cooled in still air; simple cooling equipment such as fans and sprays can also be used. The cooling equipment shall uniformly cool the workpiece that is placed in the strong flowing air in all directions as far as possible; the wind speed and air volume shall meet the cooling rate that is required by the process.
6 Heat treatment process
22.214.171.124 For large medium-low carbon steel and low-alloy forged steel parts, normalizing destressing and refinement structure are generally adopted; for 126.96.36.199 The workpiece shall hold a sufficient period of time when it is heated to the normalizing temperature, so as to ensure that the structure is completely transformed into austenite. The holding time shall include two processes, namely soaking and austenitizing.
188.8.131.52 The soaking time is generally estimated by half of the austenitizing holding time. If necessary, a thermocouple can be added at the thickest section of the workpiece. After the thermocouple temperature reaches the normalizing temperature, the soaking process ends. When multiple thermocouples are
added to the surface of the workpiece, the soaking process shall be completed when the temperature of all thermocouples reaches the normalizing
184.108.40.206 Under normal circumstances, for ordinary carbon steels and alloy steel forgings whose effective thickness is 100 mm, the austenitizing holding time is estimated to be 0.8 h ~ 1.8 h; for medium-high alloy steels or martensitic stainless steel forgings whose effective thickness is 100 mm, it can be estimated to be 1 h ~ 2 h.
220.127.116.11 Normalizing cooling of heavy steel forgings is generally carried out in air; for heavy steel forgings whose alloy content is low, methods such as blasting, spraying may be used to adjust the cooling rate.
18.104.22.168 During the normalizing cooling of heavy steel forgings, control the final cooling temperature. The final cooling temperature shall ensure that the austenite is fully transformed during the cooling process; however, it shall not be too low to avoid cracking and white spots on the workpiece.
22.214.171.124 After the workpiece is cooled to the final cooling temperature, it shall be tempered in time. The tempering parameters can be determined by reference to the quenching and tempering of heavy steel forgings.
The classification, process parameters, effects and applications of the common annealing processes for heavy steel forgings are shown in Table 2. For
annealing heating, refer to 6.1.2.
Table 2 -- Classification, process parameters, effects and applications of annealing
Classification Process parameters Effects Applications
Heating temperature: the
hypoeutectoid steel is Ac1 ~
It applies to
steel workpiece and
126.96.36.199 After the workpiece has been insulated at the specified temperature, it shall be cooled according to the methods that are specified in the process. When the workpiece is cooled in the air after being discharged from the furnace, the workpiece shall be padded and leveled to ensure air circulation around and up and down the workpiece. If blast or spray is required, it shall be ensured that the workpiece is evenly cooled.
188.8.131.52 Record the used production equipment, temperature record, workpiece placement position and lifting method in detail during production.
184.108.40.206 All records shall be signed and confirmed by relevant operators at the end of the operation.
220.127.116.11 All records shall be retained, so as to ensure traceability of the quality of the workpiece.
7 Heat treatment quality and inspection
7.1 Inspection items and methods
7.1.1 Surface inspection
After the heat treatment, the surface of the workpiece shall be visually inspected, so as to ensure that the surface is free from cracks and scratches. If necessary, carry out infiltration, magnetic powder or ultrasonic flaw detection according to relevant standards.
7.1.2 Surface hardness
If the purchaser has regulations, the surface hardness of the workpiece shall meet the requirements of the technical documents. The detection location, test methods and acceptance requirements of surface hardness shall be indicated in the technical documents. The surface hardness test of the workpiece shall be carried out in accordance with the requirements of GB/T 231.1 or GB/T 17394.1.
7.1.3 Size inspection
After heat treatment, use corresponding instrument and gauge to measure the workpiece size. The workpiece size must meet the final delivery size of the workpiece.
7.1.4 Non-destructive testing
18.104.22.168 If the mechanical properties are still unqualified, it is allowed to have re- heat treatment.
22.214.171.124 After re-heat treatment, the workpiece shall be resampled for
mechanical property testing.
126.96.36.199 The number of re-heat treatments is generally not more than two; if it is otherwise specified in the contract, perform as required by the contract. 8 Calibration
8.1 The workpiece should be calibrated during normalizing and cooling.
8.2 When the workpiece uses normalizing and tempering as the performance heat treatments, if it needs to be calibrated after tempering, the calibration process shall be carried out at a temperature at least 55°C lower than the final tempering temperature. After the calibration, the stress relief treatment shall be performed at a temperature 30°C ~ 55°C lower than the final tempering
8.3 The interception and performance test of the sample shall be carried out after the completion of the destressing process after the calibration.
9 Safety and health requirements
The safety and health of normalizing and annealing are carried out in
accordance with the relevant provisions of GB 15735.
10 Energy consumption requirements
The energy consumption quota of normalizing and annealing processes shall comply with the relevant provisions of GB/T 17358 and GB/T 19944.
11 Product reports
Reports can be issued on a per-batch or per-furnace basis as required. The report shall include the following:
a) heat number;
b) product name or code;
c) process type or process code;