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GB/T 36972-2018 English PDF (GBT36972-2018)

GB/T 36972-2018 English PDF (GBT36972-2018)

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GB/T 36972-2018: Lithium-ion battery for electric bicycle

This Standard specifies the terms and definitions, symbols and type designation, requirements, test methods, inspection rules, as well as marking, packaging, transportation and storage of lithium-ion battery for electric bicycle. This Standard applies to lithium-ion battery pack for electric bicycle (hereinafter referred to as battery pack).
GB/T 36972-2018
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.140
Y 14
Lithium-ion battery for electric bicycle
ISSUED ON: DECEMBER 28, 2018
IMPLEMENTED ON: JULY 01, 2019
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the PEOPLE Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 4
2 Normative references ... 4
3 Terms and definitions ... 5
4 Symbols and type designation ... 5
5 Requirements ... 5
6 Test methods ... 9
7 Inspection rules ... 18
8 Marking, packaging, transportation and storage ... 22
Lithium-ion battery for electric bicycle
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the terms and definitions, symbols and type designation, requirements, test methods, inspection rules, as well as marking, packaging, transportation and storage of lithium-ion battery for electric bicycle. This Standard applies to lithium-ion battery pack for electric bicycle (hereinafter referred to as battery pack).
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. GB/T 191, Packaging - Pictorial marking for handling of goods
GB/T 2828.1-2012, Sampling procedures for inspection by attributes - Part 1: Sampling schemes indexed by acceptance quality limit (AQL) for lot-by-lot inspection
GB/T 2829-2002, Sampling procedures and tables for periodic inspection by attributes (apply to inspection of process stability)
GB/T 5169.16-2017, Fire hazard testing for electric and electronic products - Part 16: Test flames - 50 W horizontal and vertical flame test methods
GB/T 17626.2-2006, Electromagnetic compatibility - Testing and measurement techniques - Electrostatic discharge immunity test
GB/T 36945-2018, Vocabulary of lithium-ion batteries for electric bicycle GB/T 36943-2018, Designation and marking requirements of lithium-ion batteries for electric bicycle
QB/T 4428, Specification and dimension of Lithium-ion batteries for electric bicycle Carry out the cycle life test according to the method specified in 6.2.7, where the cycle life of the battery pack shall not be less than 600 times.
5.2.8 Internal resistance
Carry out the internal resistance test according to the method specified in 6.2.8, where the internal resistance of the battery pack shall not be greater than the manufacturer?€?s specification.
5.3 Safety requirements
5.3.1 General
The safety requirements of the battery pack simulate the safety and reliability requirements of the battery pack in the cases of overcharge, over discharge and external short circuit when its electrical protective device fails, and simulate the safety and reliability requirements of the battery pack under unforeseeable mechanical accidents. 5.3.2 Overcharge
When the overcharge test is carried out according to the method specified in 6.3.2, the battery pack shall not catch fire or explode.
5.3.3 Forced discharge
When the forced discharge test is carried out according to the method specified in 6.3.3, the battery pack shall not catch fire or explode.
5.3.4 External short circuit
When the external short-circuit test is carried out according to the method specified in 6.3.4, the battery pack shall not catch fire or explode.
5.3.5 Squeeze
When the squeeze test is carried out according to the method specified in 6.3.5, the battery pack shall not catch fire or explode.
5.3.6 Mechanical impact
When the mechanical impact test is carried out according to the method specified in 6.3.6, the battery pack shall not catch fire, explode or leak.
5.3.7 Vibration
When the vibration test is carried out according to the method specified in 6.3.7, the battery pack shall not leak, catch fire or explode, and the discharge capacity shall not be lower than 95% of the initial capacity.
5.3.8 Free fall
After the free fall test is carried out according to the method specified in 6.3.8, the battery pack shall not catch fire or explode.
5.3.9 Low air pressure
When the low pressure test is carried out according to the method specified in 6.3.9, the battery pack shall not leak, catch fire or explode.
5.3.10 High and low temperature impact
When the high and low temperature impact test is carried out according to the method specified in 6.3.10, the battery pack shall not leak, catch fire or explode. 5.3.11 Soaking
After the soaking test is carried out according to the method specified in 6.3.11, the battery pack shall not leak, rupture, catch fire or explode.
5.4 Requirements for protection capability
5.4.1 General
The battery pack shall have the protection capability under abnormal working or abnormal use conditions.
5.4.2 Overcharge protection
When the overcharge protection test is carried out according to the method specified in 6.4.2, the battery pack shall work normally without leakage, fire or explosion. 5.4.3 Over discharge protection
Carry out the over-discharge protection test according to the method specified in 6.4.3, where the battery pack shall work normally without leakage, fire or explosion. 5.4.4 Short circuit protection
When the short-circuit protection test is carried out according to the method specified in 6.4.4, the battery pack shall work normally without leakage, fire or explosion; after instantaneous charging, the voltage of the battery pack shall not be less than the nominal voltage.
5.4.5 Discharge overcurrent protection
When the discharge overcurrent protection test is carried out according to the method specified in 6.4.5, the battery pack shall not leak, catch fire or explode; after recovery, the battery pack shall work normally.
6.1.1 Environmental requirements
Unless otherwise specified, the test shall be carried out in the following environment: -- temperature: 20 ??C ?? 5 ??C;
-- relative humidity: up to 85%;
-- atmospheric pressure: 86 kPa ~ 106 kPa.
6.1.2 Requirements for measuring instruments and equipment
The accuracy of measuring instruments and equipment shall meet the following requirements:
a) The accuracy of instruments for measuring voltage, current and temperature shall not be less than ??0.5%;
b) The accuracy of instruments for measuring time shall not be less than ??0.1%; c) The accuracy of weighing instruments shall not be less than ??0.5%;
d) The division value of the measuring tool for measuring external dimensions shall not be greater than 1 mm;
e) The current of the constant flow source shall be adjustable, and the current change shall be within ??0.5% during constant current charging or discharging;
f) The voltage of the constant flow source shall be adjustable, and the voltage variation shall be within ??0.5% during the constant voltage charging process. 6.2 Electrical performance test
6.2.1 I2 (A) discharge
6.2.1.1 Charge
If the enterprise does not provide a charging method, the battery pack shall be charged using the following methods.
Before charging, discharge the battery pack to the cut-off voltage at a constant current of I2 (A). In an environment where the temperature is 23 ??C ?? 2 ??C, charge at 0.4I2 (A). When the terminal voltage of the battery pack reaches the limited charging voltage, change to constant voltage charging until the charging current is less than or equal to 0.04I2 (A), and stop changing before 8 hours.
6.2.1.2 Discharge
In an environment with a temperature of 23 ??C ?? 2 ??C, leave the battery pack ?€? which has been charged according to the method specified in 6.2.1.1 ?€? for 0.5 h ~ 1 h; then, discharge to the cut-off voltage at a constant current of I2 (A); record the discharge time; calculate the discharge capacity. Repeat the above test 3 times; calculate the average value of the 3 test results as the initial capacity Ca.
6.2.2 2I2 (A) discharge
In an environment with a temperature of 23 ??C ?? 2 ??C, leave the battery pack ?€? which has been charged according to the method specified in 6.2.1.1 ?€? for 0.5 h ~ 1 h; then, discharge to the cut-off voltage at a constant current of 2I2 (A); record the discharge time; calculate the discharge capacity.
6.2.3 Low temperature discharge
In an environment with a temperature of 23 ??C ?? 2 ??C, after the battery pack is charged according to the method specified in 6.2.1.1, place it in a low-temperature box with a temperature of -20 ??C ?? 2 ??C for 16 hours at a constant temperature; then, in this temperature environment, discharge at a constant current of 2I2 (A) to the cut-off voltage; record the discharge time; calculate the discharge capacity.
6.2.4 High temperature discharge
In an environment with a temperature of 23 ??C ?? 2 ??C, after the battery pack is charged according to the method specified in 6.2.1.1, place it in a high-temperature box with a temperature of 55 ??C ?? 2 ??C for 5 hours at a constant temperature; then, in this temperature environment, discharge at a constant current of 2I2 (A) to the cut-off voltage; record the discharge time; calculate the discharge capacity.
6.2.5 Charge retention capability and charge recovery capability
6.2.5.1 Charge retention capability
In an environment with a temperature of 23 ??C ?? 2 ??C, after the battery pack is charged according to the method specified in 6.2.1.1, place it in an environment with a temperature of 20 ??C ?? 5 ??C for 28 days in an open circuit; then, in an environment with a temperature of 23 ??C ?? 2 ??C, discharge at a constant current of I2 (A) to the cut-off voltage; record the discharge time; calculate the discharge capacity.
6.2.5.2 Charge recovery capability
In an environment with a temperature of 23 ??C ?? 2 ??C, charge the battery pack ?€? that has been subjected to the charge retention test ?€? according to the method specified in 6.2.1.1. After charging, place it for 0.5 h ~ 1 h; then, in this temperature environment, discharge at a constant current to the cut-off voltage; record the discharge time; calculate the discharge capacity.
Ua ?€? AC voltage effective value, in volts (V);
Ia ?€? AC current effective value, in amperes (A).
Note: An alternating current with a peak voltage lower than 20 mV should be chosen. 6.3 Safety test
6.3.1 Test requirements
The safety test shall be carried out in an environment with forced ventilation and explosion-proof measures. During the tests of 6.3.2, 6.3.3, and 6.3.4, the battery pack shall have its protective device removed. Before the safety test, all battery packs shall be charged according to the method specified in 6.2.1.1, and shall be left for 0.5 h ~ 1 h after charging, and tested within 24 h.
6.3.2 Overcharge
After preparation according to the method specified in 6.3.1, the battery pack shall be charged for 90 minutes with a constant current stabilized voltage source with I2 (A) constant current and limited voltage n??5 V (n is the number of series of single cells or parallel blocks of single cells in the battery pack), and then put aside for 6 hours, and visually inspected for the appearance. Stop charging and end the test when the battery pack explodes or catches fire during charging.
6.3.3 Forced discharge
After preparing according to the method specified in 6.3.1, discharge any battery cell in the battery pack to the cut-off voltage, and keep the remaining battery cells fully charged; then, discharge the battery pack at a constant current of 2I2 (A) for 60 min; visually inspect the appearance of the battery pack.
6.3.4 External short circuit
After preparing according to the method specified in 6.3.1, use an external circuit with a resistance of 80 m?? ?? 20 m?? to short-circuit the positive and negative poles of the battery pack, until the voltage of the battery pack is less than 0.2 V; inspect the appearance of the battery pack visually.
6.3.5 Squeeze
After preparing according to the method specified in 6.3.1, place the battery pack in the middle of a flat plate on one side and a special-shaped plate on the other side. The indenter of the special-shaped plate is perpendicular to the direction of the cell arrangement in the battery pack (as shown in Figure 1). The radius of the semi- cylindrical extrusion head of the special-shaped plate is 75 mm, and the length of the semi-cylindrical body is greater than the size of the extruded battery, but not greater than 1 m.
low temperature impact cycles, place it in an environment with a temperature of 20 ??C ?? 5 ??C for 7 days; visually inspect for observation.
6.3.11 Soaking
After preparing according to the method specified in 6.3.1, immerse the battery pack in a water tank at a temperature of 20 ??C ?? 5 ??C (based on the top end of the battery pack submerged in water) for 24 hours; then, take out the battery pack and place it in an environment that meets the requirements of 6.1 for 4 h; visually inspect the appearance of the battery pack.
6.4 Safety protection capability test
6.4.1 Test requirements
Safety protection capability testers shall operate under the condition where there are safety protection facilities, and the battery pack shall be equipped with safety protection devices.
6.4.2 Overcharge protection
After the battery pack is charged according to the method specified in 6.2.1.1, connect it to the DC power supply for charging. Set the test voltage to 1.5 times the nominal voltage of the battery pack under test; set the current to 2I2 (A); charge continuously for 24 hours; visually inspect the appearance of the battery pack.
6.4.3 Over discharge protection
After charging the battery pack according to the method specified in 6.2.1.1, discharge it at I2 (A) to the cut-off voltage; then, continue to discharge at a constant current of 0.2I2 (A) for 24 h; visually inspect the appearance of the battery pack. 6.4.4 Short circuit protection
After the battery pack is charged according to the method specified in 6.2.1.1, use an 80 m?? ?? 20 m?? external circuit to short-circuit the positive and negative poles of the charging end and discharging end respectively for 0.5 h; visually inspect the appearance of the battery pack. Then, disconnect the external line; measure and record the voltage at the charging end and discharging end of the battery pack after the protective device resumes its work.
6.4.5 Discharge overcurrent protection
After charging the battery pack according to the method specified in 6.2.1.1, discharge it for 1 hour at 1.5 times the maximum discharge current value specified by the manufacturer, and visually inspect the appearance of the battery pack.
6.4.6 Electrostatic discharge
Test the battery pack according to the requirements for electronic discharge in GB/T 17626.2-2006. Carry out the contact discharge test on the battery pack at 4 kV, and carry out the air discharge test on the battery pack at 8 kV. After the electrostatic discharge is over, check whether the protective device is working normally.
Note: This test is carried out to test the bearing capability of the battery pack to electrostatic discharge.
6.5 Combination shell safety test
6.5.1 Molded shell stress
After charging the battery pack according to the method specified in 6.2.1.1, place it in an incubator at 70 ??C ?? 2 ??C for 7 hours; then, take out the battery pack and return it to room temperature; visually inspect the appearance of the battery pack.
6.5.2 Shell bearing pressure
After the battery pack is charged according to the method specified in 6.2.1.1, place one end face of a cylinder with a diameter of 30 mm on the top, bottom, and side of the battery pack enclosure respectively, and apply a force of 250 N on the other end face of the cylinder; keep it for 60 s; visually inspect the appearance of the battery pack. 6.5.3 Shell flame resistance
Battery pack shells made of non-metallic materials shall be tested in accordance with GB/T 5169.16-2017.
6.6 Other requirements.
6.6.1 External dimensions
Use a length ruler and a vernier caliper to measure the external dimensions and installation dimensions of the battery pack.
6.6.2 Charge-discharge interface
Visually check whether the charge-discharge interface of the battery pack complies with the interface specified in QB/T 4428.
6.6.3 Appearance
Visually inspect the battery pack for fluid leakage and whether the appearance meets the standard requirements.
6.6.4 Polarity marking
Visually check whether the markings on the battery pack are complete, accurate, clear and firm.
c) type specifications;
d) standard number and name (which can also be marked on the product or manual); e) box size (length ?? width ?? height) and volume;
f) quantity;
g) net weight and gross weight of each box;
h) pictorial marking for handling of goods, such as ?€?handle with care?€? and ?€?be afraid of wetness?€?;
i) date of delivery;
j) zip code and contact number.
8.1.3 In the contract environment, it can be marked according to the requirements of the buyer.
8.2 Packaging
8.2.1 The ex-factory products shall be accompanied by the product certificate, packing list, and product description materials.
8.2.2 Each product shall be packaged in a single small package, externally packed in cartons or other boxes, and tied firmly. In special circumstances, it can be determined according to the requirements of the buyer (contract).
8.3 Transportation
Packing boxes containing products shall be loaded, unloaded and transported in accordance with the provisions of GB/T 191. During transportation, it shall be handled with care and shall not be thrown. During transportation, it shall be protected from severe vibration, impact or extrusion, and shall not be exposed to the sun or rain. It is strictly forbidden to mix and transport with flammable materials and active chemicals. 8.4 Storage
8.4.1 The product shall be stored in a clean, dry and ventilated room ?€? with an ambient temperature of -5 ??C ~ 35 ??C and a relative humidity not greater than 75% ?€? that can prevent rain and snow, and shall not be stored together with corrosive substances such as acids and alkalis or dust-generating items. It shall not be exposed to direct sunlight, and the distance from fire and heat sources (heating equipment, etc.) shall not be less than 2 m.
8.4.2 The box containing the product shall be properly padded, the distance from the ground shall not be less than 100 mm, and the stacking height shall not exceed 2 m.

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