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GB/T 36133-2018 English PDF (GBT36133-2018)

GB/T 36133-2018 English PDF (GBT36133-2018)

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GB/T 36133-2018: Refractory materials -- Determination of thermal conductivity (Platinum resistance thermometer method)

This Standard specifies the principle, equipment, specimen, installation, test steps, result calculation and test report for determination of thermal conductivity of refractory materials by platinum resistance thermometer method. This Standard is applicable to determination of thermal conductivity of refractory materials that have no carbon, no electrical conductivity and thermal conductivity is not more than 15W/(m????K).
GB/T 36133-2018
ICS 81.080
Q 40
Refractory materials - Determination of thermal
conductivity (Platinum resistance thermometer
ISSUED ON: MAY 14, 2018
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 4
2 Normative references ... 4
3 Principle ... 5
4 Equipment ... 5
5 Sample selection and sample preparation ... 9
6 Installation ... 11
7 Test steps ... 11
8 Calculation ... 14
9 Expression of test results ... 17
10 Test report ... 18
This Standard was drafted in accordance with the rules given in GB/T 1.1-2009. Attention is drawn to the possibility that some of the elements of this Standard may be the subject of patent rights. The issuing authority shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
This Standard was proposed by and shall be under the jurisdiction of National Technical Committee on Refractory Materials of Standardization Administration of China (SAC/TC 193).
The drafting organizations of this Standard: Wuhan University of Science and Technology, Yixing Morgan Thermal Ceramics Co., Ltd., Sinosteel Luoyang Refractory Research Institute Co., Ltd., Hubei Provincial Refractory Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Station.
Main drafters of this Standard: Yin Yucheng, Li Yiwei, Zhu Qingyou, Yin Bo, Bai Chen, Liu Zhiqiang, Peng Xigao, Ge Shan.
Refractory materials - Determination of thermal
conductivity (Platinum resistance thermometer
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the principle, equipment, specimen, installation, test steps, result calculation and test report for determination of thermal conductivity of refractory materials by platinum resistance thermometer method.
This Standard is applicable to determination of thermal conductivity of refractory materials that have no carbon, no electrical conductivity and thermal
conductivity is not more than 15W/(m·K).
NOTE 1: The test temperature range of this Standard is from room temperature to 1500°C. The upper limit of the test temperature also depends on the extreme temperature of the material or the temperature at which the refractory material becomes a conductor. NOTE 2: It is generally difficult to obtain accurate test values for heterogeneous materials, especially for materials containing fibers. When using this method to test these materials, it needs to be agreed by the relevant parties.
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies.
GB/T 4513.5, Monolithic (unshaped) refractory products - Part 5: Preparation and treatment of test pieces
GB/T 5977, Platinum wires for resistance thermometers
GB/T 8170, Rules of rounding off for numerical values and expression and
judgement of limiting values
GB/T 17911, Methods of test for refractory fibre products
GB/T 31057.1, Granular materials - The physical properties - Part 1:
4.1.2 Heating furnace
The heating chamber of the heating furnace shall be able to accommodate two straight bricks of 230mm×114mm×75mm. Set two support frames at the bottom to make the test piece evenly heated. The temperature of the heating furnace at each test temperature point is controlled to ±5°C. The temperature difference between any two points of the test piece is not more than 10°C. The
temperature shall be stable within 15min before the start of the heating step of the hot wire. During the constant temperature period, the temperature
fluctuation measured by the thermocouple on the outside of the test piece shall not exceed ±0.5°C. In addition, four holes shall be set on the furnace wall to place four hollow alumina protective tubes. Two hot wire heating leads and two resistance measuring leads are respectively buried in the protection tube. A certain distance shall be maintained between the holes to reduce the
conductivity during the heating process.
4.1.3 Thermocouple
It is used to measure the temperature outside the test piece. It shall be composed of platinum or platinum rhodium wire and match the final test
4.1.4 Hot wire heating system
The hot wire heating system includes AC power, current divider and breaker. Generate a stable current of 0A~10A (0V~50V). Hot wire heating shall use stable alternating current. The test power shall be between 1W/m and 125W/m, which is equivalent to 0.15W~18.75W of hot wire power between 150mm
resistance measurement leads. The system shall also have a device for
measuring current and voltage drop. Its full-scale accuracy should reach ±0.5%. 4.1.5 Data logging system
Data recording system includes DC power supply, digital voltmeter, program recorder, relay, current divider. In order to measure the change of the resistance of the hot wire, a low (such as 100mA) constant DC current needs to be
superimposed on the AC heating current of the hot wire. Record the DC voltage drop of the hot wire section between the resistance measurement leads to calculate the temperature change of the hot wire. Because the rate of change of the hot wire resistance during measurement is only one millionth of its absolute resistance value, it needs to use a data logging system with sufficient resolution. The programmed digital voltmeter shall be able to automatically change the range and automatically calibrate. The digital resolution is (that is, the accuracy reaches six and a half digits). The sensitivity of the temperature-time recording equipment shall be at least 0.2µV/mm, or the 5 Sample selection and sample preparation
5.1 Refractory brick
Choose 2 straight bricks with uniform structure and density or specimens of the same size to form a test piece. The minimum size of a single specimen is 200mm×100mm×50mm. The recommended size is 230mm×114mm×65mm or
230mm×114mm×75mm. The hot wire measuring rack is placed in the center of two closely contacted specimens. Process a step on the contact surface of the upper and lower specimens, so as to embed hot wire, as shown in Figure 2.l In order to ensure that the sample is in close contact with the hot wire, the maximum height of the specimen step shall not be greater than 0.8mm. Ensure that its minimum height is not less than the diameter of the hot wire used. In order to ensure that the test piece does not shake, the average height error of the two steps shall be within 0.1mm. In addition, the flatness of the upper and lower specimen contact surfaces shall not be greater than 0.1mm/100mm. After the steps are processed, put the two specimens together. Make the two steps coincide with each other. Shake the test piece to detect whether it is shaking. If it is not shaking, it shall pass the test. After the step height and the flatness of the close contact surface have reached the requirements, the resistance measurement lead groove is carved on the step of a specimen. In order to match the solder joints of the hot wire and the resistance measurement lead, tools can be used to dig pits at the solder joints for modification.
5.2 Refractory castable
Prepare refractory castable according to GB/T 4513.5. The cast blocks of refractory castable can be cut into specimens meeting the size requirements according to 5.1. Or use a special mold to directly form a specimen that meets the requirements of 5.1. When using a disposable hot wire rack, it can be poured directly into the test piece.
5.3 Refractory plastic and ramming material
Prepare refractory plastic or refractory ramming material according to GB/T 4513.5. After forming, immediately press the hot wire measuring rack into two 230mm×114mm×65mm or 230mm×114mm×75mm specimens. A certain
pressure shall be applied when drying to make close contact between the specimens.
5.4 Low-strength materials
Use a notching machine or a knife with a saw blade thickness of not more than 0.5mm to carve a groove for pressing into the hot wire measuring rack on the 230mm×114mm brick surface of one of the specimens.
6 Installation
6.1 Measure the length L of the hot wire between the resistance leads, to the nearest of 0.5mm.
6.2 Different types of specimens are installed according to the following methods:
- Specimens that have been prepared as shown in Figure 2: put a specimen with a lead groove for resistance measurement in the base of the furnace first; put the hot wire measuring rack into the groove; place another
specimen on the grooved specimen; buckle them together in close contact with the hot wire;
- Compressible refractory fiber products: through positioning by pillars, install the first specimen on the lower partition; place the hot wire measuring rack in its upper center position; place the second specimen on top and place the partition to make the hot wire measuring rack and the two specimens in close contact;
- Fine powder and granular material: fill the lower sagger with the powdered specimen; place the hot wire measuring rack in its center; put the upper sagger; fill the powder specimen; cover the top cover; measure and record the mass of the powder specimen in the sagger; calculate its bulk density. 6.3 Place the assembled test piece on the two support racks in the furnace to ensure uniform heating. Connect the hot wire and resistance lead to the test circuit respectively. Place the thermocouple for temperature measurement outside the specimen on the upper part of the center of the specimen. Pull the excess resistance lead out of the furnace to reduce the length of the inner line. Make it no more than 200mm. If the resistance measurement lead in the furnace is too long, when the temperature in the furnace exceeds 1000°C, AC
interference may occur at the heating element.
7 Test steps
7.1 Calibration before test. Depending on the data analysis and calculation method used, it may be necessary to detect the resistance of the hot wire measuring rack at 0°C (R0). The hot wire measuring rack can be placed in a plastic tray containing a mixture of ice and water. Use the same resistance measurement method as the actual test process to record the data of the four leads on the hot wire measurement rack. Calculate its freezing point resistance. Another alternative method is to check the room temperature resistance of the hot wire measuring rack. Calculate R0 value by RT/R0=(a+bT+cT2). The
resistance (Rs) or specific resistance (RT/R0) and the recorded temperature data. Obtain the polynomial (a+bT+cT2). The traditional calculation method is to use the ratio data (RT/R0) of the measured resistance to the freezing point resistance at 0°C for fitting. R0 shall be measured or calculated when using this method. Because in the process of repeated use of the hotline, R0 may change due to stretching or specimen loading steps, it shall regularly use 0°C ice water bath to verify; or recalculate based on the data measured at room temperature and the regression coefficient measured in the previous experiment according to the equation RT/R0=(a+bT+cT2). The advantage of using resistance ratio data is that the regression coefficients can be normalized. It can be directly compared with other data sources (for example, different test data measured by using the same hot wire measuring rack, or test data measured by hot wire measuring racks of different lengths and wire diameters). Another alternative method is to only fit the data of the hot wire resistance and temperature. The advantage of this method is that all data can be obtained in the current test. No need for 0°C freezing point resistance data R0. There is no need to consider the slight change in the resistance of the hot wire caused by the hot wire installation process. Therefore, this method is more suitable for routine tests. But the disadvantage of this method is that the regression coefficient between
resistance and temperature needs to be obtained through the test heating process every time. This coefficient will also change due to changes in the length and diameter of the hot wire rack.
8.3 Slope calculation
Use a suitable linear regression method to calculate the slope (B) from the linear interval in the RT versus ln(t) curve measured in each test. The linear interval of RT versus ln(t) curve can be determined by computer analysis software or visual inspection. In order to avoid the deviation of RT to the high temperature section when linear regression of the ln(t) curve, it is
recommended to use the ln(t) time axis of uniform interval for analysis. This may require collecting resistance data over a longer period of time before performing the linear regression analysis step or collecting more data points at a uniform sampling rate. If the linear interval is not found on the curve, the reason may be that the material is not suitable for this test method, or the test operation has made an error. The test shall be repeated at this time.
8.4 Thermal conductivity calculation
According to the slope (B) of RT to ln(t) based on the data collected during each heating process of the hot wire and the polynomial regression coefficient calculated in 8.2, use formula (7) or formula (8) to calculate the thermal conductivity.
The Fourier heat flow equation for a linear heat source is shown below:

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