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GB/T 35528-2017 English PDF (GBT35528-2017)

GB/T 35528-2017 English PDF (GBT35528-2017)

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GB/T 35528-2017: Safety guidelines for cryogenic liquefied gases

This Standard specifies the basic requirements closely related to safety in the process of (device) design, filling, storage, transportation and use of commonly used cryogenic liquefied gases. This Standard applies to common industrial gases that are transported and stored in cryogenic liquid form, that is, cryogenic liquefaction products of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, helium, neon, argon, krypton and methane. This Standard does not apply to the production process of various common industrial gases and their liquefied products.
GB/T 35528-2017
ICS 77.100.20
G 86
Safety guidelines for cryogenic liquefied gases
Issued by: General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People's Republic of China;
Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 4
1 Scope ... 5
2 Normative references ... 5
3 Terms, definitions and abbreviations ... 7
3.1 Terms and definitions ... 7
3.2 Abbreviations ... 9
4 General ... 10
4.1 Establishment approval ... 10
4.2 Safety review ... 10
4.3 Safety protection system ... 10
4.4 Alarm system ... 10
4.5 Safety certificate ... 11
4.6 Operating procedures ... 11
4.7 Safety training ... 11
4.8 Safety inspection ... 12
5 Design safety ... 12
5.1 Design qualification ... 12
5.2 Principles for the use of new technologies... 12
5.3 Principle to avoid accident resulted from human error ... 13
5.4 Principle to avoid chain reaction accident ... 13
5.5 Risk assessment ... 13
5.6 Material selection ... 13
5.7 Safety distance ... 13
6 Filling and storage safety ... 14
6.1 Containers for filling and storage ... 14
6.2 Stationary cryogenic liquid filling and storage system ... 14
6.3 Mobile cryogenic liquid storage system ... 16
6.4 Mobile cryogenic container safe filling technology ... 18
7 Transport safety ... 21
7.1 On-site short-distance transportation ... 21
7.2 General requirements for long-distance transport and intermodal transport of goods 21 7.3 Rail transport ... 23
7.4 Road transport ... 24
7.5 Waterway transportation ... 25
7.6 Air freight ... 26
8 Safety on use ... 30
8.1 Code for safe operation of liquid flammable gases ... 30
8.2 Specification for safe operation of liquid oxygen ... 32
8.3 Specifications for safe operation of liquid inert gases ... 35
9 Fire safety ... 38
9.1 General ... 38
9.2 General firefighting measures ... 40
9.3 Firefighting measures for hydrogen fires ... 42
9.4 Fire-fighting measures for methane fires ... 43
9.5 Firefighting measures for oxygen fire ... 43
9.6 Firefighting measures for inert cryogenic liquid fires ... 44
10 Personal safety protection ... 45
10.1 Labor protection articles ... 45
10.2 Occupational injury prevention ... 46
10.3 On-site first aid ... 47
Annex A (informative) Safety characteristics of cryogenic liquefied gas commonly used in industry ... 50
A.1 Main physical and thermophysical properties of cryogenic liquefied gases commonly used in industry ... 50
A.2 Hazard classification of common industrial liquefied gases ... 52
A.3 Product name number of gas dangerous goods ... 53
A.4 Safety hazards of cryogenic liquefied gas ... 53
Annex B (informative) International chemical safety card (ICSC) ... 56 B.1 Liquid hydrogen ... 56
B.2 Liquid oxygen ... 58
B.3 Liquid nitrogen ... 60
B.4 Liquid methane ... 61
B.5 Liquid helium ... 64
B.6 Liquid neon ... 65
B.7 Liquid argon ... 67
B.8 Liquid krypton ... 69
Annex C (informative) Low temperature properties of materials ... 71
Bibliography ... 73
Safety guidelines for cryogenic liquefied gases
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the basic requirements closely related to safety in the process of (device) design, filling, storage, transportation and use of commonly used cryogenic liquefied gases.
This Standard applies to common industrial gases that are transported and stored in cryogenic liquid form, that is, cryogenic liquefaction products of hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, helium, neon, argon, krypton and methane.
This Standard does not apply to the production process of various common industrial gases and their liquefied products.
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. GB/T 150.1, Pressure Containers - Part 1: General Requirements
GB/T 191, Packaging and storage marks
GB/T 4387, Safety regulation for railway and road transportation in plants of industrial enterprises
GB/T 5458, Liquid nitrogen biological container
GB 7258, Technical specifications for safety of power-driven vehicles operating on roads
GB 8958, Safety regulation for working under hazardous condition of the oxygen deficiency
GB 8965.1, Protective clothing - Flame retardant protective clothing
GB/T 10478, Railway tank car for liquefied gases
GB 12014, Protective clothing - Static protective clothing
GB 12158, General guideline for preventing electrostatic accidents
3.1.8 risk assessment
At the beginning of the design, an evaluation of the expected use of the device and equipment after a certain period of time and the possible failure modes under various operating conditions.
3.1.9 loss of vacuum
A failure that for different cryogenic liquid containers adopting vacuum jacket insulation, the leakage rate of vacuum interlayer is greater than the requirements of GB/T 18442 or GB/T 24159, so that the degree of vacuum gradually decreases, and the thermal insulation performance gradually deteriorates.
3.1.10 violent boiling
Sudden violent boiling of a frozen liquid with splashing of the liquid. 3.1.11 maximum allowable filling volume
That is, the design storage capacity of the stationary pressure container and the maximum allowable filling capacity of the mobile pressure container.
3.1.12 vent pipe
A pipeline with a certain height that can directly discharge gas into the atmosphere. 3.1.13 flame arrester
A safety device to prevent flashback of flammable gases.
3.1.14 confined space
Confined space with known or potentially hazardous and limited access structures. 3.1.15 buddy system
A safety measure in which one person performs necessary tasks in a dangerous operating environment, while another person observes and monitors in a safe area and is ready to carry out timely rescue at any time.
3.1.16 backflow
Specifically refers to the phenomenon of air diffusion into cryogenic liquefied gas containers or equipment.
3.1.17 detonation
An exothermic chemical reaction accompanied by a shock wave in which an explosive mixture or medium travels at supersonic speeds.
3.1.18 sensitivity to impact
The degree of susceptibility to detonation of an explosive mixture or medium by mechanical shock.
3.1.19 cryogenic contact injury
Cold burns similar to thermal burns to skin tissue or eyes due to exposure to cryogenic liquids or cold vapors on exposed parts of the body.
3.1.20 oxygen deficiency atmosphere
A state where the oxygen content in the workplace air is less than 19.5%. 3.1.21 asphyxia caused by inhalation of hypoxic air
A pathological state that due to the lack of oxygen in the air, the breathing process of the human body is blocked or abnormal, resulting in tissue and cell metabolism disorders, functional disorders and morphological and structural damage caused by oxygen deficiency and carbon dioxide retention in various organs and tissues throughout the body.
3.1.22 respiratory protective equipment
Protective equipment to prevent oxygen-deficient air and air pollutants from entering the respiratory tract.
3.1.23 self-contained open-circuit compressed air breathing apparatus
A respirator that the mask is tightly attached to the wearer's face, so that the respiratory organs, eyes and face are completely isolated from the oxygen-deficient environment. It has its own compressed air source to supply the wearer with clean air for breathing, and the exhaled gas is directly discharged into the atmosphere.
3.1.24 international chemical safety card; ICSC
A set of internationally authoritative and instructive chemical safety information cards that are jointly prepared by International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) -- a joint partner of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the International Labour Organization (ILO) and the World Health Organization (WHO) -- and European Commission (EC).
NOTE: See Annex B.
3.2 Abbreviations
The following abbreviations apply to this document.
4.5 Safety certificate
Cryogenic liquid devices and related equipment, electrical instrument control systems, storage and transportation units as well as power supply systems, before being put into normal use, shall pass the safety performance certification not lower than that of the prefecture-level safety supervision agencies.
4.6 Operating procedures
All positions from product packaging to use shall formulate safe operating procedures in normal and emergency situations. See Annex A and Annex B for the safety characteristics of cryogenic liquefied gas commonly used in industry. The information provided in Annex A is very important for the formulation of safety technical regulations and safe operation regulations for each post of cryogenic liquid packaging, storage, transportation and use. The international chemical safety card provided in Annex B has the characteristics of concise text, easy to read and remember, authoritative data and strong practicability. It is necessary for the safety management, environmental management, occupational disease prevention, and poison safety registration of related cryogenic liquefied gases. It can be used by managers, technicians and operating workers of any company or organization that produces, stores, transports or uses cryogenic liquefied gas as a raw material. It is also available for review and use by the safety management department.
4.7 Safety training
It shall, according to the provisions of the "Work Safety Law of the People's Republic of China"[1], "Regulations on the Safety Management of Hazardous Chemicals"[3], "Regulations on the Administration of Safety Technology Training and Assessment for Special Operators"[5] and "Safety Training Regulations on Producers and Operators"[4] of State Administration of Work Safety, carry out targeted safety education, legal education and job technical training for cryogenic liquid practitioners, based on different jobs. Ensure that employees have the necessary safety production knowledge, are familiar with relevant safety production rules and regulations and safety operation procedures and master the safety operation skills of their positions. Practitioners without safety production education and who fail training shall not operate. For special positions with qualification requirements, personnel who have obtained corresponding qualifications in accordance with the law shall be assigned.
The safety technical training mainly includes:
- Basic physicochemical properties and safety characteristics of cryogenic liquids in liquid and gas phases, respectively;
- Compatibility of cryogenic liquids and materials;
- Cryogenic properties of various materials in contact with cryogenic liquids; - Operating procedures for cryogenic liquid packaging, storage, transportation and use of equipment related to various positions;
- Use and maintenance methods of safety protection facilities and protective clothing for on-the-job personnel;
- Knowledge of safe handling in the event of over-temperature, over-pressure, leakage, overflow, fire, explosion and other emergency hazards;
- Knowledge of personal safety protection, rescue, escape and first aid and self- rescue knowledge in the event of personal safety accidents.
4.8 Safety inspection
System-wide safety inspection shall be carried out before the cryogenic liquid device is put into production. The inspection includes the implementation of the safety measures specified in 4.1~4.7. After the device is put into production and in normal operation, a regular safety inspection shall be carried out once a year. Inspect whether the relevant safety systems involving cryogenic liquids are complete, whether the safety facilities and equipment are in good condition, and whether they can be started and activated normally immediately.
5 Design safety
5.1 Design qualification
The organization that undertakes the design of the cryogenic liquefied gas device, including the filling and storage system, the transportation unit and the required special equipment, must pass the review of the design qualification assessment agency authorized by the General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine. Design can only be done after obtaining the corresponding design qualifications.
5.2 Principles for the use of new technologies
The latest safety design specifications shall be adopted in the design of cryogenic liquefied gas device. Prioritize the adoption of new technologies. When adopting new technologies, new processes, new equipment, new materials and new components, it shall understand and master their safety technical characteristics. Take effective safety protection measures. It shall be fully justified. It shall be verified as feasible. The approval is complete. Reduce risks and hazards to an acceptable minimum level. Since GB 50030 and GB 50177 determine the fire safety distance according to the gas reserves of the storage tank, the design shall first follow the values of the gas/liquid volume ratio of the equivalent substances listed in Table A.1 and Table A.2 in Annex A. Convert the volume of liquid storage tank to the volume of gas in standard state. Then carry out the corresponding provisions of the above standards for the fire separation distance of gas storage tanks with different reserves.
6 Filling and storage safety
6.1 Containers for filling and storage
There are many types of containers or equipment used to fill and store cryogenic liquids. There are stationary cryogenic tanks and mobile cryogenic containers. Usually, stationary tanks have a relatively large capacity. The mobile container can be as small as a laboratory Dewar or a large-capacity tank on a vehicle or a ship. The safety of cryogenic liquefied gas is closely related to filling storage containers. Filling and storage containers are pressure containers. The design, material selection, manufacture, performance test and inspection, safety maintenance shall all comply with the relevant regulations of "Supervision Regulations on Pressure Vessel Safety Technology"[8], "Supervision Regulations on Special Equipment Safety"[2], GB/T 18442 and JB 4732. The structural type and technical parameters of different cryogenic liquid containers shall correspond to the corresponding cryogenic liquids. They shall meet the performance requirements of different temperatures, pressures, specific operating applications and use environments.
6.2 Stationary cryogenic liquid filling and storage system
6.2.1 System composition
The stationary cryogenic liquid filling and storage system is generally composed of a liquid storage tank, a cryogenic liquid pump, related valves and pipelines. When the liquid needs to be converted into gas for use, a vaporizer shall also be configured. The liquid storage tank can be of different types such as spherical tank, vertical cylindrical tank, horizontal cylindrical tank and so on.
6.2.2 Equipment manufacturing
For cryogenic liquid containers with vacuum jacketed powder insulation system, the design, material selection, manufacture, inspection and safety maintenance shall comply with the relevant provisions of GB/T 18442. To ensure that the container is fully insulated, the outer wall of the inner container shall be provided with a heat-insulating cladding material, so as to prevent the air in the heat-insulating system from condensing and generating oxygen-rich accumulation. Both the inner container and the vacuum jacket shall be provided with safety pressure relief devices.
6.2.3 Equipment transportation
After the cryogenic liquid storage tank is manufactured, its coating and transportation packaging shall comply with the provisions of JB/T 4711.
6.2.4 Equipment installation
The installation foundation and support of cryogenic liquid storage tanks shall be made of non-combustible materials and shall be firm.
6.2.5 Equipment grounding
Any stationary storage tanks containing cryogenic liquids shall be reliably grounded. Periodically check that the ground connection is intact. For flammable cryogenic liquids, to prevent electrostatic discharge and ignition, it shall be in accordance with the requirements for electrostatic protection measures in GB 12158. Equipotential bonding shall be carried out between the tank and the carrier or loading tool of the cryogenic liquid. Ground before loading or transporting cryogenic products. The ground resistance shall not be greater than 1??. In addition, to electrostatically ground the electrostatic conductors and electrostatic sub-conductors other than metals, part or all of their surfaces shall be in close contact with the grounded metal body. 6.2.6 Maximum allowable filling volume of storage tank
When the stationary storage tank is filled with the specified cryogenic liquid products, the rated filling capacity indicated on the nameplate of the storage tank shall not be exceeded. According to the different needs of storing different cryogenic liquids in the liquid storage tank, dedicated level limiting valve can be configured on the reservoir, so as to facilitate the automatic control of the filling volume within the maximum allowable filling volume.
6.2.7 Safety valves and rupture discs
Safety valves and rupture discs are safety pressure relief devices. They will only be activated when the system is abnormal, or an emergency occurs. The setting parameters of the safety pressure relief device shall not be changed arbitrarily. Prevent freezing and clogging of the outlet of the pressure relief device due to leak icing. When the pressure relief device is abnormally activated, the equipment shall be checked for vacuum leakage or serious liquid leakage.
6.2.8 Vacuum leak
For cryogenic liquid storage tanks with vacuum jacket insulation, when there is an abnormal frost point on the jacket shell, or when the tank pressure rises rapidly, it shows that the degree of vacuum in the vacuum jacket layer decreases, and the vacuum is gradually lost. If the vacuum in the interlayer of the storage tank is broken, all the cryogenic liquid in the container shall be discharged. Carry out full inspection and - Welded insulated low temperature liquefied gas cylinders.
6.3.3 Portable cryogenic liquid containers (Dewars)
A portable cryogenic liquid container is known as Dewar. It is an open (wide or narrow), atmospheric pressure container with a high vacuum interlayer. It is usually used to hold liquid nitrogen. It can also be filled with liquid argon or liquid oxygen. It is used for laboratory scientific research, low temperature biological engineering, material low temperature test and so on. Some Dewars are designed for special light liquids and have the longest retention times. The internal structure cannot carry relatively heavy cryogenic liquids. Therefore, other cryogenic liquids not listed on the product nameplate shall not be shipped in such Dewars. Make sure that there is no icing on the neck of the Dewar and the mouth of the bottle, as icing can cause blockage and increase the internal pressure of the Dewar.
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