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GB/T 34870.1-2017 English PDF (GBT34870.1-2017)

GB/T 34870.1-2017 English PDF (GBT34870.1-2017)

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GB/T 34870.1-2017: Super capacitors -- Part 1: General

This Part of GB/T 34870 specifies the terms and definitions, conditions of use, classification, quality requirements and tests, safety requirements, marking, packaging, transportation and storage, and environmental protection requirements for super capacitors. This Part applies to super capacitors including electric double-layer, hybrid, battery capacitors.
GB/T 34870.1-2017
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 31.060.70
K 42
Super capacitors - Part 1: General
ISSUED ON: NOVEMBER 01, 2017
IMPLEMENTED ON: MAY 01, 2018
Issued by: General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the PRC;
Standardization Administration of the PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 4
2 Normative references ... 4
3 Terms and definitions ... 4
4 Conditions of use ... 9
5 Classification ... 10
5.1 Overview ... 10
5.2 Classification according to electrodes ... 10
5.3 Classification according to principle ... 10
5.4 Classification according to electrolyte ... 10
6 Quality requirements and tests ... 10
6.1 Test classification ... 10
6.2 Test conditions ... 10
6.3 Test items ... 12
6.4 Test methods ... 13
7 Safety requirements ... 30
7.1 Safety requirements for case connection ... 30
7.2 Other safety requirements ... 30
8 Marking ... 30
8.1 Cell ... 30
8.2 Module ... 30
8.3 Packaging box ... 31
9 Packaging, transportation and storage ... 31
9.1 Packaging ... 31
9.2 Transportation, storage and installation ... 31
10 Environmental protection ... 32
10.1 Prevention of environmental pollution by chemicals ... 32
10.2 Electromagnetic compatibility ... 33
10.3 Noise ... 33
Bibliography ... 34
Super capacitors - Part 1: General
1 Scope
This Part of GB/T 34870 specifies the terms and definitions, conditions of use, classification, quality requirements and tests, safety requirements, marking, packaging, transportation and storage, and environmental protection
requirements for super capacitors.
This Part applies to super capacitors including electric double-layer, hybrid, battery capacitors.
2 Normative references
The following documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For the dated references, only the editions with the dates indicated are applicable to this document. For the undated references, the latest edition (including all the amendments) are applicable to this document.
IEC 61373:2010 Railway applications - Rolling stock equipment - Shock and vibration tests
IEC 62391-1:2015 Fixed electric double-layer capacitors for use in electric and electronic equipment - Part 1: Generic specification
IEC 62576:2009 Electric double-layer capacitors for use in hybrid electric vehicles - Test methods for electrical characteristics
3 Terms and definitions
The following terms and definitions apply to this document.
3.1
Capacitance
The ability to store electric charge.
Note: Modify GB/T 2900.16-1996, definition 2.3.1.
3.2
c) Atmospheric pressure: 86 kPa~106 kPa.
Unless otherwise agreed between the manufacturer and the purchaser, when calibration is necessary, the reference temperature during calibration is 20 ??C. Unless otherwise specified, generally, at the current specified by the
manufacturer, the capacitor shall be discharged at the constant current, until its minimum operated voltage. And put it under the above environmental
conditions for 24 h. Then test the performance of the capacitor, as a basis for comparison after the product test (but the test environment before and after the test shall be consistent).
6.2.2 Measuring instruments and meters
The accuracy of measuring instruments and meters shall meet the following requirements:
a) Voltage measuring device: Accuracy is not less than level 0.5;
b) Current measuring device: Accuracy is not less than level 0.5;
c) Temperature measuring device: It shall have an appropriate measuring range. The division value is not more than 1 ??C. The calibration accuracy is not less than 0.5 ??C;
d) Timer: Divide by hour, minute and second. The accuracy is ??0.1%;
e) Measuring tool for measuring dimensions: Division value is not more than 1 mm;
f) Weighing instrument for weighing mass: Accuracy is above ??0.05%.
6.2.3 Charging and discharging current
Unless otherwise specified, the charging and discharging current of this Part is selected according to the constant current I, as follows:
a) Hybrid capacitor: I=5I1 or 8C (or a current not lower than 5I1 provided by the manufacturer), whichever is greater;
b) Electric double-layer capacitor: I=40I1 or 66C (or a current not lower than 40I1 provided by the manufacturer), whichever is the greater;
c) Battery capacitor: 3C.
Note 1: C represents the ratio of the current magnitude when the capacitor is charged and discharged. 3C is discharge at 3 times the current.
Use the measuring tool and weighing instrument to check the boundary
dimensions and mass of the capacitor cell. It shall meet the technical conditions provided by the manufacturer.
6.4.1.3 Capacitance measurement
6.4.1.3.1 Capacitance
Follow the steps below to test the capacitance of capacitor cell:
a) At a constant current I, the capacitor cell is charged to the rated voltage UR;
b) At a constant current I, the capacitor cell is discharged to the minimum operated voltage Umin;
c) Repeat steps a)~b) 3 times. Record the discharge time t of the capacitor voltage from 90% of the rated voltage to the minimum operated voltage
Umin;
d) According to formula (1), calculate the capacitance of the capacitor cell in each cycle. Take the average value.
Where:
C - Capacitance, in farad (F);
I - Charging and discharging current, in amperes (A);
t - Charging time, in seconds (s);
UR - Rated voltage, in volts (V);
Umin - Minimum operated voltage, in volts (V).
The capacitance deviation shall not exceed ??10% of the rated capacitance. 6.4.1.3.2 Storage energy
Follow the steps below to test the storage energy and mass energy density of the capacitor cell:
a) At a constant current I, the capacitor cell is charged to the rated voltage UR;
The internal resistance shall not be greater than the nominal internal resistance. 6.4.1.5 Measurement of maximum mass power density
After measuring the internal resistance of the capacitor cell according to the method in 6.4.1.4, according to formula (5), calculate the maximum mass power density of the capacitor cell.
Where:
Pdm - Maximum mass power density, in watts per kilogram (W/kg);
UR - Rated voltage, in volts (V);
R - Internal resistance, in ohms (??);
M - Mass of capacitor cell, in kilograms (kg).
The maximum mass power density shall not be less than the nominal value. 6.4.1.6 Short-circuit discharge test
At a constant current I, charge the capacitor to the rated voltage UR; keep the constant voltage for 1 h. At 25 ??C??5 ??C, place it for 1 h. The super capacitor is externally short-circuited for 10 min. The external circuit resistance shall be less than 5 m??. Record the short-circuit discharge current value and actual
resistance.
During and after the test, the sample shall not explode, fire or leak.
6.4.1.7 Test of voltage holding characteristics
Follow the steps below to test the voltage holding characteristics of the capacitor:
a) At a constant current I, the capacitor cell is charged to the rated voltage UR;
b) The capacitor cell is charged at the constant rated voltage for 30 min; c) After standing in open circuit for 24 h at test temperature, measure the terminal voltage of the capacitor cell. Calculate the ratio of the terminal voltage to the rated voltage, as its voltage holding characteristics.
After the test, the voltage across the capacitor shall not be less than 85% of the - The storage energy is not less than 70% of the initial value;
- The internal resistance is less than 2 times the initial value.
6.4.1.11 Steady-state damp heat test
Store the super capacitor at 40 ??C??2 ??C, 90%~95%RH for 240 h; then, place it at room temperature for 24 h. Test its capacitance, leakage current and internal resistance. The test values shall meet the requirements for specified values. And the performance of the capacitor remains unchanged.
During and after the test, the sample shall not explode, fire or leak.
6.4.1.12 Cyclic life test
6.4.1.12.1 Ambient temperature
The test shall be carried out at an ambient temperature of 25 ??C??5 ??C.
6.4.1.12.2 Test steps
Perform the test as follows:
a) At a constant current I, charge the capacitor cell to the rated voltage UR; let it stand for 5 s;
b) At a constant current I, discharge the capacitor cell to the minimum operated voltage Umin; let it stand for 5 s;
c) Repeat steps a)~b) 2000 times;
d) Let stand for 12 h;
e) According to 6.4.1.3.1 and 6.4.1.4, detect the capacitance and internal resistance of the capacitor. If they meet:
- The capacitance of hybrid super capacitor is greater than 80% of the
initial value; the internal resistance is less than 2 times the initial value; - The capacitance of electric double-layer super capacitor is greater than 90% of the initial value; the internal resistance is less than 1.5 times the initial value;
- There is no electrolyte leakage.
Then skip to the next step. Otherwise it will be determined as
nonconformity; and the test will end;
b) Use a ??5 mm~??8 mm high-temperature-resistant steel needle (the needle tip angle is 60??; the needle surface is smooth, free of rust, oxide layer and oil), at a speed of 20 mm/s~30 mm/s, to penetrate in the direction
perpendicular to the capacitor plate (the steel needle stays in the capacitor cell).
During and after the test, the sample shall not explode or fire.
6.4.1.17 Squeeze test
Perform the test as follows:
a) At a constant current I, charge the capacitor cell to the rated voltage; b) Test according to the following conditions:
- Squeeze direction: Perpendicular to the direction of the capacitor lead wire;
- Form of squeezing plate: A semi-cylinder with a radius of 75 mm. The
length of the semi-cylinder is greater than the dimension of the capacitor to be squeezed;
- Squeeze degree: Stop squeezing when the voltage reaches 0 V or the
cell ruptures.
c) Observe for 1 h.
During and after the test, the sample shall not explode, fire or leak.
6.4.1.18 Heating test
Perform the test as follows:
a) At a constant current I, charge the capacitor cell to the rated voltage; b) Place the capacitor cell in a temperature box. At a rate of 5 ??C/min, the temperature box is heated to 130 ??C??2 ??C. Keep this temperature for 30
min;
c) Observe for 1 h.
During and after the test, the sample shall not explode, fire or leak.
6.4.1.19 Seawater immersion test
Perform the test as follows:
Use the measuring tool and weighing instrument to check the boundary
dimensions and mass of the capacitor module. It shall meet the technical conditions provided by the manufacturer.
6.4.2.4 Capacitance measurement
6.4.2.4.1 Capacitance
Follow the steps below to test the capacitance of capacitor module:
a) At a constant current I, the capacitor module is charged to the rated voltage UR;
b) At a constant current I, the capacitor module is discharged to the minimum operated voltage Umin;
c) Repeat steps a)~b) 3 times. Record the discharge time t of the capacitor voltage from 90% of the rated voltage to the minimum operated voltage
Umin;
d) According to formula (6), calculate the capacitance of the capacitor module in each cycle. Take the average value.
The capacitance deviation shall not exceed ??10% of the rated capacitance. 6.4.2.4.2 Storage energy
Follow the steps below to test the storage energy and mass energy density of the capacitor module:
a) At a constant current I, the capacitor module is charged to the rated voltage UR;
b) Keep the constant voltage for 30 min;
c) After the capacitor module is left standing for 5 s, at a constant current I, it is discharged to the minimum operated voltage Umin. Record the
waveform of capacitor voltage U and time t in real time;
d) Repeat steps a)~c) 3 times;
e) Respectively according to formula (7), formula (8) and formula (9),
calculate the storage energy, mass energy density and volumetric energy density of the capacitor module. Take the average values.
The test voltage shall be applied between connected terminals and case for 1 min. The test voltage value is 3000 V.
There shall be no breakdown or flashover in the test.
6.4.2.7 Short-circuit discharge test
Perform the test as follows:
a) At a constant current I, charge the capacitor module to the rated voltage; b) The super capacitor is externally short-circuited for 10 min. The external circuit resistance shall be less than 5 m??.
During and after the test, the sample shall not explode, fire or leak.
6.4.2.8 Test of voltage holding characteristics
Follow the steps below to test the voltage holding characteristics of the capacitor:
a) At a constant current I, the capacitor module is charged to the rated voltage UR;
b) The capacitor module is charged at the constant rated voltage for 30 min; c) After standing in open circuit for 24 h at test temperature, measure the terminal voltage of the capacitor module. Calculate the ratio of the terminal voltage to the rated voltage, as its voltage holding characteristics.
After the test, the voltage across the capacitor shall not be less than 85% of the rated voltage.
6.4.2.9 Cyclic life test
6.4.2.9.1 Ambient temperature
The test shall be carried out at an ambient temperature of 25 ??C??5 ??C.
6.4.2.9.2 Test steps
Perform the test as follows:
a) At a constant current I, charge the capacitor module to the rated voltage UR; let it stand for 5 s;
b) At a constant current I, discharge the capacitor module to the minimum operated voltage Umin; let it stand for 5 s;
During and after the test, the sample shall not explode, fire or leak.
6.4.2.12 Puncture test
Perform the test as follows:
a) At a constant current, charge the capacitor module to the rated voltage; b) Use a ??6 mm~??10 mm high-temperature-resistant steel needle; at a
speed of 20 mm/s~30 mm/s, in the direction perpendicular to the capacitor plate, until at least 3 capacitor cells are penetrated (the steel needle stays in the capacitor);
c) Observe for 1 h.
During and after the test, the sample shall not explode or fire.
6.4.2.13 Squeeze test
Perform the test as follows:
a) At a constant current I, charge the capacitor module to the rated voltage; b) Test according to the following conditions:
- Form of squeezing plate: A semi-cylinder with a radius of 75 mm. The
length of the semi-cylinder is greater than the dimension of the squeezed capacitor, but not more than 1 m;
- Squeeze direction: The same as the direction where the capacitor
module is most susceptible to squeezing in the use layout. If the direction most susceptible to squeezing is not available, apply pressure
perpendicular to the arrangement direction of the capacitor cells;
- Squeeze degree: The squeeze force reaches one of the following
conditions; keep for 10 min. The deformation of the capacitor module
reaches 30%. Or the squeeze force reaches 1000 times the mass of the
capacitor module, or reaches 500 kN, whichever is greater.
c) Observe for 1 h.
During and after the test, the sample shall not explode, fire or leak.
6.4.2.14 Vibration test
Unless otherwise specified, the vibration test shall be carried out in accordance with class 1, level A in IEC 61373:2010.
7 Safety requirements
7.1 Safety requirements for case connection
The capacitor case shall be equipped with bolts for connection (if applicable); so that the potential of the capacitor metal case can be fixed; and it can withstand the fault current when the case is broken down.
7.2 Other safety requirements
When there are special requirements in relevant national safety regulations, the purchaser shall explain them during the inquiry.
8 Marking
8.1 Cell
The following information shall be given on the nameplate of each capacitor cell: a) Manufacturer (abbreviation of company name) or registered trademark; b) Rated voltage (V);
c) Capacitance (F);
d) Polarity mark;
e) Product number;
f) Date of production.
Note: For small capacitor cells, if all the items listed above cannot be marked on the nameplate, some items can be given in the manual.
8.2 Module
The following information shall be given on the nameplate of each capacitor module:
a) Manufacturer (abbreviation of company name) or registered trademark; b) Product model or specification;
c) Capacitance (F);
d) Rated voltage (V);
In the process of loading-unloading, it shall handle with care and avoid falling, rolling, and heavy pressure.
9.2.2 Storage
The capacitor shall be stored in a dry, clean, and naturally-ventilated place at - 30 ??C~40 ??C.
The capacitor shall not be exposed to direct sunlight. The distance from the heat source must not be less than 2 m.
Do not drop any metal debris between the positive and negative electrodes of the capacitor. It shall avoid contact with any liquid or harmful substances. The capacitor must not be placed upside down or lying down, to avoid
mechanical shock or heavy pressure.
9.2.3 Installation
The capacitor shall be placed in a place, where the heat generated by the loss of the capacitor can be fully dissipated by convection, conduction and radiation. By the radiation from the sun or any high-temperature surface, the temperature of the capacitor will increase.
According to the cooling air temperature, cooling efficiency, and the intensity and duration of radiation, one of the following precautions may need to be taken: - Prevent the capacitor from being radiated;
- Choose a capacitor designed for higher working air temperature; or use a capacitor with a rated voltage higher than the specified voltage.
10 Environmental protection
10.1 Prevention of environmental pollution by chemicals
If the super capacitor contains substances that can pollute the environment or have other hazards, in accordance with relevant regulations, it shall be marked with corresponding signs on the equipment and devices. The purchaser shall inform the manufacturer of these relevant regulations.
When the capacitor is impregnated with materials, which are not allowed to be diffused into the environment, in accordance with China's legal requirements in this regard, preventive measures must be taken.

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