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GB/T 34544-2017 English PDF (GBT34544-2017)

GB/T 34544-2017 English PDF (GBT34544-2017)

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GB/T 34544-2017: Safety test methods for onboard low pressure hydrogen storage devices for small fuel cell vehicles

This standard specifies the test conditions and test methods for the safety of onboard low-pressure hydrogen storage devices for small fuel cell vehicles.
GB/T 34544-2017
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 71.100.20
G 86
Safety test methods for onboard low-pressure hydrogen
storage devices for small fuel cell vehicles
ISSUED ON: OCTOBER 14, 2017
IMPLEMENTED ON: MAY 01, 2018
Issued by: General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of PRC;
Standardization Administration of PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 4
2 Normative references ... 4
3 Terms, definitions, symbols ... 4
4 Test conditions ... 6
5 Test methods ... 7
Appendix A (Normative) The method of determining the growth trend of the measured maximum strain ... 22
Safety test methods for onboard low-pressure hydrogen
storage devices for small fuel cell vehicles
1 Scope
This standard specifies the test conditions and test methods for the safety of onboard low-pressure hydrogen storage devices for small fuel cell vehicles (hereinafter referred to as low-pressure hydrogen storage devices).
This standard is applicable to onboard low-pressure hydrogen storage devices for small fuel cell vehicles, which have an inner volume of not more than 3 L, a maximum developed pressure of not more than 25 MPa, a working temperature of not lower than -40 ??C and not higher than 65 ??C.
2 Normative references
The following documents are essential to the application of this document. For the dated documents, only the versions with the dates indicated are applicable to this document; for the undated documents, only the latest version (including all the amendments) is applicable to this standard.
GB/T 3634.1 Hydrogen - Part 1: Industrial hydrogen
GB/T 13310 Electrodynamic vibration generator systems
GB/T 24499 Technology glossary for gaseous hydrogen, hydrogen energy and hydrogen energy system
3 Terms, definitions, symbols
3.1 Terms and definitions
The terms and definitions as defined in GB/T 24499, as well as the following terms and definitions, apply to this document.
3.1.1
Low-pressure hydrogen storage device
A hydrogen storage device, whose shell material is stainless steel, aluminum alloy 5.1.2.1 When using the helium mass spectrometer leak detection method, to conduct the air tightness test, the following test procedures shall be followed: a) Fill the low-pressure hydrogen storage device with helium gas, to the highest developed pressure, at room temperature; place it in a vacuum box;
b) After connecting the helium mass spectrometer to the vacuum box, vacuum the vacuum box, to make the vacuum degree lower than 2 Pa;
c) Let it stand at room temperature for more than 30 minutes; read the vacuum degree and leak rate data of the helium mass spectrometer.
5.1.2.2 When using the special leak detection method or the hydrogen sensor leak detector leak detection method, to conduct the air tightness test, the following test procedures shall be carried out:
a) Fill the low-pressure hydrogen storage device with hydrogen, to the highest developed pressure, at room temperature;
b) Use a special leak detection liquid or a hydrogen sensor leak detector, to carry out the leak detection of the low-pressure hydrogen storage device, once every 15 minutes, at room temperature; the number of leak detections is not less than twice; c) Observe and record the presence or absence of bubbles, the location of bubbles or the number indicated by the hydrogen sensor leak detector.
5.1.3 Qualification indicators
5.1.3.1 When using helium gas mass spectrometer leak detection method, the leak rate shall not exceed 7.6 x 10-5 Pa??m3/s (temperature is 20 ??C).
5.1.3.2 When using the leak detection method by hydrogen sensor leak detector, the leak detector has no indication.
5.1.3.3 When using the liquid leak detection method by special leak detector, for leak detection, no bubbles are generated.
5.2 Drop test
5.2.1 Test requirements
5.2.1.1 Drop test is performed on three low-pressure hydrogen storage devices, which are charged with hydrogen to the rated hydrogen charging pressure, in a manner specified by the manufacturer.
5.2.1.2 The low-pressure hydrogen storage device shall be equipped with shut-off valves, overpressure relief devices and other components, BUT shall not have any other protective devices.
5.2.1.3 The drop test is carried out at room temperature. The impact bench shall be a concrete or steel level surface, which shall not move during the test; it shall have a large enough area, to ensure that the low-pressure hydrogen storage device completely falls on the impact table.
5.2.1.4 During the lifting or lowering process of the lifting device, the low-pressure hydrogen storage device shall not be damaged; when the release device releases the low-pressure hydrogen storage device, it shall be ensured that the low-pressure hydrogen storage device is free to fall.
5.2.1.5 The difference, between the lifting height of the low-pressure hydrogen storage device and the predetermined height, shall not exceed ??2% of the predetermined height. 5.2.2 Test procedure
5.2.2.1 After the low-pressure hydrogen storage device is raised to the predetermined height, it shall be fixed by the release device, according to the predetermined state. 5.2.2.2 Release the low-pressure hydrogen storage device, according to the following predetermined states:
a) When the end of the low-pressure hydrogen storage device, which has the shut- off valve and the overpressure relief device, falls vertically downward, the height of the lowest point of its initial position shall not be less than 1.8 m. b) When the low-pressure hydrogen storage device falls at an angle of 45??, between its axial direction and the horizontal plane, the height of its center of gravity is not less than 1.8 m; meanwhile the end with the stop valve and the overpressure relief device falls first. If the height of the lowest point of the initial position of the device is less than 0.6 m, adjust the drop angle, to ensure that the lowest point of the initial position of the device AND the height of the center of gravity of the device are not less than 0.6 m and 1.8 m, respectively. If the accessories, such as the check valves and overpressure relief devices, are equipped at both ends of the device, THEN, the device still falls at an angle of 45?? AND the end with the weaker impact resistance falls first.
c) When the low-pressure hydrogen storage device falls horizontally on the steel cone, at a height of 1.8 m, the line connecting the center of gravity and the apex of the steel cone shall be perpendicular to the impact table (see Figure 1). The steel cone is fixed on the impact table; its dimensions shall meet the requirements of Figure 1. The device shall hit the steel cone first, before hitting the impact table. 5.4.1.1 Carry out high temperature test, on 3 low-pressure hydrogen storage devices, which are filled with hydrogen to the rated hydrogen charging pressure, in the manner specified by the manufacturer.
5.4.1.2 The high temperature test temperature is 80 ??C ?? 2 ??C.
5.4.1.3 There shall be sensors in the test chamber, which can measure and control the test temperature, AND shall ensure the uniformity of the temperature in the test chamber. The difference between the temperature of the inner wall of the test chamber and the specified test temperature shall not exceed ??3% of the specified test temperature. 5.4.2 Test procedure
5.4.2.1 Put the low-pressure hydrogen storage device in the test chamber; raise the temperature to the specified test temperature. When the temperature of the low-pressure hydrogen storage device reaches the specified test temperature, start timekeeping; keep it for 4 hours; take it out and return to normal temperature.
5.4.2.2 Carry out the air tightness test as specified in 5.1.2.1.
5.4.3 Qualification index
5.4.3.1 After the high temperature placement test, the shell of the low-pressure hydrogen storage device does not deform.
5.4.3.2 The air tightness test results meet the requirements of 5.1.3.1. 5.5 Thermal cycling test
5.5.1 Test requirements
5.5.1.1 For low-pressure hydrogen storage devices, which have specified transportation and use orientations, at least 5 low-pressure hydrogen storage devices are required to perform thermal cycling tests, in this orientation. For low-pressure hydrogen storage devices, which do not specify the orientation of transportation and use, at least three low-pressure hydrogen storage devices are used in the horizontal and vertical directions, for the test.
5.5.1.2 After filling the low-pressure hydrogen storage device with hydrogen to the rated hydrogen filling pressure, in the manner specified by the manufacturer, put it into the test chamber.
5.5.1.3 There shall be sensors in the test chamber; the test temperature can be measured and controlled; the uniformity of the temperature in the test chamber shall be ensured. The difference between the temperature of the inner wall of the test chamber and the specified test temperature shall not exceed ??3% of the specified test temperature. The test chamber can be raised, from the lowest operating temperature of the low-pressure f) Repeat steps a) ~ e), for a total of 50 cycles;
g) Carry out the air tightness test, as specified in 5.1.2.1;
h) Take any one low-pressure hydrogen storage device, to carry out the burst test, according to the provisions of 5.7.
5.5.3 Qualification index
5.5.3.1 The air tightness test results meet the requirements of 5.1.3.1. 5.5.3.2 The burst test results meet the requirements of 5.7.3.
5.6 Fire resistance test
5.6.1 Test requirements
5.6.1.1 For low-pressure hydrogen storage devices, whose transportation and use orientations have been specified, at least three low-pressure hydrogen storage devices are required to undergo fire resistance tests, according to the specified orientations. For low-pressure hydrogen storage devices, whose transportation and use orientation is not specified, at least three low-pressure hydrogen storage devices are required to conduct fire resistance tests in horizontal, vertical, inverted directions, meanwhile it shall include the test, by an overpressure relief device, which faces the fire source, AND by an overpressure relief device, which is at an angle of 180?? to the fire source. 5.6.1.2 The fire resistance test shall be carried out in a well-ventilated room OR in a spacious outdoor area; necessary protection shall be carried out, to ensure the safety of the test personnel.
5.6.1.3 The ignition source shall be fuel, which can provide uniform heat and can maintain combustion for at least 20 min, under specified test conditions; meanwhile it shall meet environmental protection requirements.
5.6.1.4 The low-pressure hydrogen storage device shall be installed with a remote pressure relief device, to ensure that the pressure can still be released in time, when the overpressure relief device of the low-pressure hydrogen storage device fails. 5.6.2 Test procedure
5.6.2.1 Before the test, fill the low-pressure hydrogen storage device with hydrogen, to the rated hydrogen filling pressure, according to the method specified by the manufacturer.
5.6.2.2 Arrange the thermocouple at a position, within 0.05 m from the surface of the low-pressure hydrogen storage device BUT not in direct contact with the surface of the device.
5.8.2.3 Carry out the air tightness test, according to the provisions of 5.1.2.1. 5.8.3 Qualification index
The air tightness test results meet the requirements of 5.1.3.1.
5.9 Long-term storage test
5.9.1 Test requirements
5.9.1.1 Carry out a long-term storage test, for three low-pressure hydrogen storage devices, which are filled with hydrogen to the rated hydrogen charging pressure, in a manner specified by the manufacturer.
5.9.1.2 The test chamber can stabilize the ambient temperature in the chamber, within the range of 50 ??C ?? 2 ??C. It is equipped with a hydrogen sensor and a safety discharge device, to prevent the hydrogen concentration in the test chamber from reaching a hydrogen burst limit, due to hydrogen leakage from the low-pressure hydrogen storage device.
5.9.2 Test procedure
5.9.2.1 After measuring and recording the initial mass, m1, of the low-pressure hydrogen storage device, place the low-pressure hydrogen storage device in the test chamber. Maintain the ambient temperature, in the test chamber, within the range of 50 ??C ?? 2 ??C; allow the low-pressure hydrogen storage device to stand still in the test chamber, for 672 hours.
5.9.2.2 After standing for 672 hours, remove the low-pressure hydrogen storage device from the test chamber; measure and record the final mass, m2, of the low-pressure hydrogen storage device, within 5 min.
5.9.2.3 Calculate and record the hydrogen mass's loss rate (m1 - m2)/672 of the low- pressure hydrogen storage device.
5.9.2.4 Carry out the air tightness test, according to 5.1.2.1.
5.9.3 Qualification index
5.9.3.1 The hydrogen mass's loss rate is lower than 0.0032 g/h;
5.9.3.2 The air tightness test results meet the requirements of 5.1.3.1. 5.10 Hydrogen cycle test
5.10.1 Test requirements
5.10.1.1 For low-pressure hydrogen storage devices, which have specified transportation and use orientations, at least 5 low-pressure hydrogen storage devices are required to conduct the hydrogen cycle test, in this orientation. For low-pressure hydrogen storage devices, which have no specified transportation and use orientation, use at least three low-pressure hydrogen storage devices, in the horizontal and vertical directions, for hydrogen circulation tests.
5.10.1.2 Use strain gauges, to measure the maximum strain of the low-pressure hydrogen storage device, during the cycle of hydrogen charging and discharging. The number and position of strain gauges shall be determined, according to the stress analysis report of the low-pressure hydrogen storage device. When there is no stress analysis report, the detailed strain measurement of more than two low-pressure hydrogen storage devices shall be carried out first, then the number and position of the strain gauges shall be determined, according to the test results.
5.10.1.3 The strain measurement of the low-pressure hydrogen storage device shall at least include: the hoop strain of the cylindrical part AND the triaxial strain of the stress concentration part.
5.10.1.4 The hydrogen charging temperature is 20 ??C ?? 5 ??C; the hydrogen discharging temperature is not higher than 65 ??C.
5.10.1.5 Take protective measures, to prevent the strain gauge from failing, during the test.
5.10.1.6 The performance requirements and vibration signals of the vibration test equipment shall comply with the provisions of GB/T 13310.
5.10.1.7 Before the vibration test, check whether the appearance of the low-pressure hydrogen storage device is in good condition.
5.10.1.8 The low-pressure hydrogen storage device is to be fastened to the vibration table surface, directly or with the aid of a fixture, to simulate the installation state in actual use; all the connecting parts of the device are fastened in the normal way, to prevent additional vibration.
5.10.1.9 The sensor, which is used for measurement and control, shall be rigidly and firmly installed on the fixed point, between the low-pressure hydrogen storage device and the table (or fixture), OR as close to the fixed point as possible. 5.10.1.10 Take necessary protective measures, to ensure the safety of test personnel and equipment, when the low-pressure hydrogen storage device ruptures OR hydrogen leaks, during the test.
5.10.2 Test procedure
5.10.2.1 According to the method specified by the manufacturer, charge the low- pressure hydrogen storage device with hydrogen, to not more than 5% of its rated

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