GB/T 34370.5-2017 English PDF (GBT34370.5-2017)
GB/T 34370.5-2017 English PDF (GBT34370.5-2017)
GB/T 34370.5-2017: Nondestructive testing of amusement equipment -- Part 5: Ultrasonic testing
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
Nondestructive testing of amusement equipment -
Part 5. Ultrasonic testing
ISSUED ON. SEPTEMBER 29, 2017
IMPLEMENTED ON. APRIL 01, 2018
Issued by. General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine;
Standardization Administration of PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 4
1 Scope ... 5
2 Normative references ... 5
3 Terms and definitions ... 6
4 Summary of method ... 9
5 Safety requirements ... 10
6 Personnel requirements ... 10
7 Testing equipment ... 10
8 Testing procedure ... 16
9 Preparation before testing ... 18
10 Ultrasonic testing and quality grading of raw materials and components .. 20 11 Ultrasonic testing of welded joint of amusement equipment ... 41
12 Ultrasonic testing of in-use amusement equipment ... 69
13 Ultrasonic thickness measurement of pulse reflection type ... 76
14 Ultrasonic test report ... 77
Appendix A (Normative) Performance requirements of double-crystal straight probe ... 78
Appendix B (Normative) Lateral-wave testing of steel plates for amusement equipment ... 80
Appendix C (Normative) Lateral-wave testing of steel forgings for amusement equipment ... 83
Appendix D (Informative) Method for adjusting the bottom-wave of workpiece ... 85
Appendix E (Normative) Ultrasonic angle beam probe testing of steel forgings for amusement equipment ... 87
Appendix F (Normative) Axial lateral-wave testing of seamless steel tubes for amusement equipment ... 90
Appendix G (Normative) Ultrasonic testing method and quality grading of cast iron parts ... 92
Appendix H (Normative) Ultrasonic testing of austenitic stainless-steel butt- welded joint ... 100
Appendix I (Normative) Determination of the difference in acoustic energy transmission loss ... 105
Appendix J (Informative) Dynamic waveform of echo ... 108
Appendix K (Normative) Phased array ultrasonic testing method ... 112
Appendix L (Normative) Determination of flaw height by -6 dB method ... 125 Appendix M (Normative) Typical calibration block for measurement ... 128 Nondestructive testing of amusement equipment -
Part 5. Ultrasonic testing
This part of GB/T 34370 specifies the requirements for ultrasonic testing methods, quality grading, ultrasonic thickness measurement methods for
This part applies to ultrasonic testing of metal raw materials, parts, welded joints for amusement equipment, as well as ultrasonic testing of metal parts and welded joints for use in amusement equipment.
2 Normative references
The following documents are essential to the application of this document. For the dated documents, only the versions with the dates indicated are applicable to this document; for the undated documents, only the latest version (including all the amendments) are applicable to this standard.
GB/T 7233.1 Steel castings - Ultrasonic examination - Part 1. Steel castings for general purposes
GB/T 11344 Non-destructive testing - Practice for measuring thickness by ultrasonic pulse-echo contact method
GB/T 12604.1 Non-destructive testing - Terminology - Terms used in
GB/T 20306 Amusement devices terminology
GB/T 20737 Non-destructive testing - General terms and definitions
GB/T 27664.1 Non-destructive testing - Characterization and verification of ultrasonic test equipment - Part 1. Instruments
GB/T 27664.2 Non-destructive testing - Characterization and verification of ultrasonic test equipment - Part 2. Probes
GB/T 29302 Non-destructive testing instruments - Characterization and
verification of phased array ultrasonic examination systems
GB/T 34370.1 Nondestructive testing of amusement equipment - Part 1.
JB/T 8428 Non-destructive testing - General specification for ultrasonic blocks
JB/T 9214 Non-destructive testing - Test methods for evaluating
performance characteristics of A-scan pulse-echo ultrasonic testing systems JB/T 10062 Testing methods for performance of probes used in ultrasonic flaw testing
JB/T 11604 Non-destructive testing instruments - Ultrasonic thickness gauge JB/T 11731 Non-destructive testing - General specification for ultrasonic phased array probe
JB/T 11779 Non-destructive testing instrument - Specifications for phased array ultrasonic detectors
3 Terms and definitions
The terms and definitions as defined in GB/T 12604.1, GB/T 20306, GB/T
20737, GB/T 34370.1 as well as the following terms and definitions apply to this document.
Loss of back reflection caused by flaws BG/BF (dB)
The ratio of the first bottom-wave amplitude BG in a flaw-free region which is close to the flaw to the first bottom-wave amplitude BF in the flaw region, expressed by the value of sound pressure level (dB).
Basic and scanning sensitivities
The basic sensitivity generally refers to the recording sensitivity, which is usually used for the quantitation of flaws and the classification of flaws. The scanning sensitivity mainly refers to the actual testing sensitivity. In order not to miss recording flaws or certain specific flaws, to ensure the safety of the amusement equipment, the actual testing is usually carried out by a high testing sensitivity for scanning. In principle, the scanning sensitivity shall not be lower than the basic sensitivity.
7.1.2 Ultrasonic testing equipment shall have a certificate of product quality or a certificate of conformity.
7.2 Testing equipment
7.2.1 Basic requirements for type-A pulse reflection ultrasonic tester. a) For the type-A pulse reflection ultrasonic detector, the error of the measured value of the transmitted pulse?€?s repetition frequency as
compared with the nominal value is not more than 10%; the error of the
measured value of the transmitted pulse?€?s voltage as compared with the
nominal value is not more than 20%; the error of the measured value of
the transmitted pulse?€?s width as compared with the nominal value is not more than 10%; the rising time of the transmitted pulse is not more than 25 ns;
b) For the type-A pulse reflection ultrasonic detector, the measurement of the working frequency based on -3 dB shall include at least the range of 0.5 MHz ~ 10 MHz. The error between the measured value and the nominal
value of the upper and lower limits of each band is not more than 20%;
c) The Type-A pulse reflection ultrasonic detector shall have a continuously adjustable attenuation or gain of more than 80 dB. The minimum stepping stage shall be not more than 2 dB per step. The accuracy is that the
cumulative error in any continuous 20 dB is not more than 1.7 dB, the
cumulative error in any continuous 60 dB is not more than 3 dB;
d) The performance indicators are tested according to the requirements of GB/T 27664.1.
7.2.2 Basic requirements for ultrasonic thickness gauges.
a) When the ultrasonic thickness gauge is used for thickness measurement of wall thickness less than 10 mm, the maximum allowable indication error is ??0.1 mm; when it is used for thickness measurement of wall thickness greater than 10 mm, the maximum allowable indication error is ?? (0.1+H/ 100) mm, where H is the nominal value of the standard-thickness block;
b) The indication stability of the ultrasonic thickness gauge is not more than 0.2 mm;
c) The performance indicators are tested according to the requirements of JB/T 11604.
7.2.3 Basic requirements for phased array ultrasonic detectors.
be not less than 32 dB, the sensitivity margin of the instrument?€?s angle beam probe combination shall be not less than 42 dB;
e) The far-field resolution of the instrument?€?s direct probe combination shall be not less than 20 dB, the far-field resolution of the instrument?€?s angle beam probe combination shall be not less than 12 dB;
f) When the maximum testing sound path of the workpiece is reached, the effective sensitivity margin shall not be less than 10 dB;
g) The performance indicators are tested according to the requirements of JB/T 10062 and JB/T 9214.
7.4.2 System performance requirements for ultrasonic thickness gauges and probes.
a) The error of the combined frequency of the instrument and the probe as compared with the nominal frequency shall not exceed ??10%;
b) The performance indicators are tested according to the requirements of JB/T 10062.
7.4.3 System performance requirements for phased array ultrasonic detectors and probes.
a) The performance of the phased array ultrasonic testing system includes. determining the beam profile, the beam deflection range, the array
element?€?s validity, the software calculation function, the receiver gain linearity;
b) The performance indicators are tested according to the requirements of GB/T 29302.
7.4.4 It shall test the combined performance of the test instrument and the probe in the following cases.
a) Newly purchased ultrasonic detectors and/or probes;
b) After the detector and probe are repaired or their main parts replaced; c) When the testing personnel has doubts.
7.5 Test block
7.5.1 Test block for type-A pulse reflection ultrasonic testing
18.104.22.168 Standard test block
22.214.171.124.1 Standard test block means a block of material which has the specified 126.96.36.199 Calibration, verification and intermediate verification shall be performed on standard test blocks.
188.8.131.52 During calibration, verification and intermediate verification shall be such that the main sound beam of the probe is vertically aligned with the reflecting surface of the reflector, to obtain a stable and maximum reflected signal.
7.6.2 Calibration, verification, intermediate verification or inspection 184.108.40.206 It shall carry out at least one calibration of the ultrasonic detector. The calibration requirements shall meet the requirements of the calibration procedures of ultrasonic detector.
220.127.116.11 It shall carry out at least one verification of the surface corrosion and mechanical damage of the test block annually.
18.104.22.168 It shall carry out the immediate verification and recording of the system performance of the ultrasonic detector and probes at least once every 6 months. The testing requirements shall meet the requirements of 7.4.
22.214.171.124 Before each testing, check whether the appearance of the equipment, cable connection and display of power-on signal are normal.
126.96.36.199 During calibration, immediate verification and inspection, any controller that affects the linearity of the instrument (such as suppression or filter switches) shall be placed in the ?€?off?€? position or at the lowest level.
7.7 Recheck of newly-purchased probes and testing process
7.7.1 Determination of newly-purchased probe
188.8.131.52 The newly-purchased probe shall have the specification of probe?€?s performance parameters. Before the use of the newly-purchased probes, it shall determine such main parameters as leading-edge distance, K-value, main beam deviation, sensitivity margin, resolution, and so on.
184.108.40.206 The determination method shall be according to the relevant provisions of JB/T 10062 and meet the requirements.
7.7.2 Pre-testing determination of instrument and probe system
220.127.116.11 For the use of the instrument-angle beam probe system, before testing, it shall determine the leading-edge distance, K-value, main beam deviation, adjust and re-check the scanning range and the scanning sensitivity. Before each testing, it shall set the time baseline and sensitivity, meanwhile refer to the impact of temperature. When the time baseline and sensitivity are set, the difference between the temperature and the tested workpiece does not exceed far as possible during the testing.
9.2.2 The surface quality of the tested workpiece shall pass the visual inspection. All rust, splash or dirt that affect ultrasonic testing shall be removed, the surface roughness shall meet the testing requirements. The irregular state of the surface shall not affect the correctness and completeness of the testing results, otherwise it shall be properly treated.
9.3 Requirements for scanning coverage
9.3.1 It shall be ensured that the ultrasonic beam may scan the entire testing area of the workpiece during the testing.
9.3.2 Each scanning coverage of the probe shall be greater than 15% of the diameter of the probe or preferentially meet the testing coverage requirements of the corresponding clauses.
9.4 Requirements for probe?€?s movement speed
9.4.1 The scanning speed of the probe shall not exceed 150 mm/s.
9.4.2 When using automatic alarm device for scanning, the scanning speed shall be determined by comparison test.
9.5 Requirements for scanning sensitivity
9.5.1 The scanning sensitivity shall normally not be lower than the basic sensitivity and shall be according to the relevant clauses.
9.5.2 Before each testing, the set temperature of time baseline, the sensitivity shall differ from the temperature of the tested workpiece for not more than 15 ??C. 9.6 Coupling agent
9.6.1 It shall use the coupling agents that have good sound transmission and do not damage the testing surface, such as engine oil, paste, glycerin, water. 9.6.2 The selection of the coupling agents shall take into account the
requirements of the conditions and environment of use.
9.7 Sensitivity compensation
9.7.1 Coupling compensation. In the testing and flaw quantitation, it shall compensate the coupling loss caused by surface roughness.
9.7.2 Attenuation compensation. In the testing and flaw quantitation, it shall compensate the testing sensitivity degradation and flaw quantitation error caused by material attenuation.
the ratio of the height of the first reflected wave of flaw to the height of the first reflected wave of the bottom-surface is 50%. At this time, the moving distance of the probe?€?s center is the indicated length of the flaw, the probe?€?s center point is the boundary point of the flaw. The results as
measured by the two methods are based on the more serious ones.
c) When using a single straight probe to determine the boundary range or indicated length of the flaw, move the probe to reduce the height of the reflected wave of the flaw wave to 25% of the full-scale of the fluorescent screen under the basic sensitivity condition or otherwise allow the ratio of the height of the first reflected wave of flaw to the height of the first reflected wave of the bottom-surface is 50%. At this time, the moving
distance of the probe?€?s center is the indicated length of the flaw, the probe?€?s center point is the boundary point of the flaw. The results as
measured by the two methods are based on the more serious ones.
d) When determining the boundary range or indicated length of the flaw in 10.1.7.1 c), move the probe (single straight probe or double straight probe) to increase the height of the first reflected wave of the bottom-surface to 50% of the full-scale of the screen. At this point, the moving distance of the probe?€?s center is the indicated length of the flaw, the probe?€?s center point is the boundary point of the flaw.
e) When the thickness of the plate is small and it is necessary to use the second flaw wave and the second bottom wave to evaluate the flaw, the
testing sensitivity shall be calibrated by the corresponding second
10.1.8 Evaluation method of flaws
10.1.8.1 Rules for evaluating the indicated length of flaw.
a) The maximum indicated length of a single flaw is used as the indicated length of the flaw;
b) If the indicated length of a single flaw is less than 40 mm, it may not record it.
10.1.8.2 Rules for the evaluation of the indicated area of a single flaw. a) The indicated area of a single flaw is used as the single indicated area of this flaw;
b) When the adjacent spacing between several flaws is less than 100 mm or the spacing is less than the indicated length of the adjacent small flaw (whichever is larger), use the sum of the flaw area of all pieces as the indicated area of a single flaw.
b) Determination of the basic sensitivity of the double-crystal straight probe. Use a corresponding test block, to sequentially test a set of ??2 flat-bottom hole test blocks (at least 3) of different inspection distances. Adjust the attenuator to make the distance-amplitude curve of the double-crystal
straight probe, use it as the basic sensitivity.
10.2.5.2 The scanning sensitivity shall generally not be lower than the equivalent diameter of ??2 mm flat-bottom hole at the maximum testing sound path.
10.2.6.1 The coupling method is generally a direct contact method.
10.2.6.2 Sensitivity compensation. It shall carry out coupling compensation, attenuation compensation, curved-surface compensation according to the
actual situation during testing.
10.2.6.3 Scanning method.
a) Radial testing shall be performed by selecting a probe which has a smaller wafer size as much as possible;
b) It shall carry out scanning along a spiral line or the circumference, the travel shall overlap sometimes, the scanning plane shall cover the entire cylindrical surface;
c) For the axial testing, it shall carry out scanning from the both end surfaces of the bar, to avoid the impacts of edge effects on the testing results. 10.2.7 Determination and recording of flaws
10.2.7.1 The determination of the flaw is based on the amplitude of the reflected wave. Generally, it shall use the distance-amplitude curve method or the calculation method to determine the flaw equivalent.
10.2.7.2 When using the calculation method, if the material?€?s attenuation factor exceeds 4 dB/m, it shall consider correction. The attenuation factor is determined as specified in 10.3.6.3.
10.2.7.3 For the flaws in one of the following cases, it shall record its amplitude and location.
a) A single flaw which has a reflected wave equivalent greater than ??2 mm; b) Flaw which has a loss of back reflection greater than 8 dB.
10.2.8 Quality grading
10.3.2.1 Testing shall generally be carried out after heat treatment and before the machining of holes, benches and other structures. The surface roughness of the testing surface is Ra ??? 6.3 ??m.
10.3.2.2 Forgings shall be subjected to longitudinal wave testing.
10.3.2.3 Forgings are generally to be tested by straight probes. The cylindrical and annular forgings shall also be subjected to the angle beam probe testing. 10.3.2.4 When the thickness of the forging in the testing direction exceeds 400 mm, it shall be tested from the two opposite end faces.
10.3.2.5 The transverse wave testing of cylindrical and annular forgings shall be carried out according to Appendix C. The scanning locations and acceptance criteria shall be agreed upon by both parties through negotiation.
10.3.3 Selection of probe
10.3.3.1 The selection of straight probes shall meet the following requirements. a) It shall use the single-crystal straight probe, the nominal frequency of the probe shall be in the range of 1 MHz ~ 5 MHz;
b) The effective diameter of the single-crystal straight probe?€?s wafer shall be in the range of ??10 mm ~ ??40 mm.
10.3.3.2 The selection of the angle beam probe shall meet the following requirements.
a) The probe shall be in good contact with the tested workpiece;
b) The nominal frequency of the probe is mainly 2 MHz ~ 5 MHz, the area of the probe?€?s wafer is 80 mm2 ~ 625 mm2. <...