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GB/T 33145-2023 English PDF (GBT33145-2023)

GB/T 33145-2023 English PDF (GBT33145-2023)

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GB/T 33145-2023: Large capacity seamless steel gas cylinders

This document specifies the type and parameters, technical requirements, test methods, inspection rules, marking, coating, packaging, transportation and storage of large capacity seamless steel gas cylinders.
GB/T 33145-2023
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 23.020.30
CCS J 74
Replacing GB/T 33145-2016
Large Capacity Seamless Steel Gas Cylinders
(ISO 11120:2015, Gas cylinders - Refillable seamless steel tubes of water capacity between 150 L and 3,000 L - Design, construction and testing, NEQ) ISSUED ON: MAY 23, 2023
IMPLEMENTED ON: DECEMBER 1, 2023
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the PEOPLE Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 4
2 Normative References ... 4
3 Terms, Definitions and Symbols ... 6
4 Type, Parameters and Model ... 9
5 Technical Requirements ... 10
6 Test Methods ... 18
7 Inspection Rules ... 24
8 Marking, Coating, Packaging, Transportation and Storage ... 29
9 Product Certificate, Instruction Manual and Batch Inspection Quality Certificate .. 32 Appendix A (Normative) Chemical Composition of Commonly Used Cylinder Body Materials ... 34
Appendix B (Informative) Calculation Method of Shear Stress Safety Factor for Straight Threads ... 35
Appendix C (Normative) Ultrasonic Testing ... 36
Appendix D (Normative) Magnetic Particle Testing ... 40
Appendix E (Informative) Hardness - Tensile Strength Correspondence Diagram ... 43 Bibliography ... 45
Large Capacity Seamless Steel Gas Cylinders
1 Scope
This document specifies the type and parameters, technical requirements, test methods, inspection rules, marking, coating, packaging, transportation and storage of large capacity seamless steel gas cylinders (hereinafter referred to as the ?€?gas cylinders?€?). This document is applicable to mobile gas cylinders that can be refilled with compressed gas or liquefied gas, which are used under a normal ambient temperature of ?€?40 ???C ~ +60 ???C, and with a nominal operating pressure of 10 MPa ~ 35 MPa, and a nominal water capacity greater than 150 L, and less than or equal to 3,000 L.
Steel cylinders with a nominal capacity greater than 3,000 L, and less than or equal to 4,200 L may take the relevant stipulations of this document as a reference.
2 Normative References
The contents of the following documents constitute indispensable clauses of this document through the normative references in the text. In terms of references with a specified date, only versions with a specified date are applicable to this document. In terms of references without a specified date, the latest version (including all the modifications) is applicable to this document. GB/T 196 General Purpose Metric Screw Threads - Basic Dimensions (GB/T 196-2003, ISO 724:1993, MOD)
GB/T 222-2006 Permissible Tolerances for Chemical Composition of Steel Products GB/T 223 (all parts) Methods for Chemical Analysis of Iron, Steel and Alloy GB/T 224 Determination of the Depth of Decarburization of Steels (GB/T 224-2019, ISO 3887:2017, MOD)
GB/T 226 Test Method for Macrostructure and Defect of Steel by Etching
GB/T 228.1 Metallic Materials - Tensile Testing - Part 1: Method of Test at Room Temperature (GB/T 228.1-2021, ISO 6892-1:2019, MOD)
GB/T 229 Metallic Materials - Charpy Pendulum Impact Test Method (GB/T 229-2020, ISO 148-1:2016, MOD)
GB/T 231.1 Metallic Materials - Brinell Hardness Test - Part 1: Test Method (GB/T 231.1-2018, ISO 6506-1:2014, MOD)
allowed to be used for the cylinder body.
5.2.1.8 The tensile strength of the cylinder body material shall be controlled. For steel cylinders containing gases that are prone to brittleness and stress corrosion, for example, hydrogen, natural gas or methane, the actual tensile strength of the cylinder material after heat treatment shall not be greater than 880 MPa, the yield ratio shall not be greater than 0.86, and the elongation after break (A50 mm) shall not be less than 20%; for steel cylinders containing other gases not prone to brittleness and stress corrosion, the actual tensile strength of the cylinder material after heat treatment shall not be greater than 1,060 MPa, the yield ratio shall not be greater than 0.92, and the elongation after break (A50 mm) shall not be less than 16%. 5.2.1.9 For steel cylinders containing gases that are prone to brittleness and stress corrosion, for example, hydrogen, natural gas or methane, the allowable value of the cylinder wall stress selected for calculating the design wall thickness of the cylinder body shall not be greater than 67% of the minimum tensile strength of the material, and shall not be greater than 482 MPa; for steel cylinders containing other gases not prone to brittleness and stress corrosion, the allowable value of the cylinder wall stress selected for calculating the design wall thickness of the cylinder body shall not be greater than 67% of the minimum tensile strength of the material, and shall not be greater than 624 MPa.
5.2.1.10 The design service life of the steel cylinders shall be determined based on the number of fatigue cycles during type test; the design service life of the steel cylinders is 20 a. 5.2.2 Calculation of cylinder body wall thickness
The minimum design wall thickness a??? of the cylinder body shall be calculated in accordance with Formula (1):
5.2.3 Verification of bending stress
Assume that the steel cylinder is horizontally supported at both ends and evenly loaded over its entire length. The load includes the gravity per unit length of the cylinder body after it is filled with water and the hydrostatic test pressure applied to the steel cylinder. When the cylinder body is horizontally placed, twice the maximum tensile stress of the bottom metal due to bending, plus the longitudinal tensile stress of the same bottom metal under the effect of the hydrostatic test pressure shall not be greater than 80% of the minimum yield strength of the cylinder material.
a) The maximum tensile stress ??1 of the bottom metal of the cylinder body due to bending shall be calculated in accordance with Formula (2):
relief device is connected to the gas phase space in the cylinder.
5.2.5.2 The nominal bursting pressure of the bursting disc is 1.5 times the nominal operating pressure p of the steel cylinder, and the tolerance of the calibrated bursting pressure is ??? 5%; the operating temperature of the fusible alloy is 102.5 ???C ??? 5 ???C.
5.2.5.3 When a series combination device of bursting disc and fusible alloy plug is adopted, the fusible alloy plug device shall be connected in series on the outlet side of the bursting disc device. The combined relief device shall be subject to a type test in accordance with different combinations of operating conditions.
5.2.5.4 When adopting bursting discs, the relief area shall be calculated in accordance with the relevant requirements of GB/T 33215.
NOTE: for steel cylinders containing hydrogen, the safe relief volume can be calculated in accordance with the stipulations of CGA S-1.1.
5.2.6 Screw plug
The screw plugs at both ends of the steel cylinder shall be made of forgings and shall comply with the stipulations of Class III forgings in NB/T 47008-2017 and NB/T 47010-2017. 5.2.7 Drainage device
Steel cylinders containing natural gas and other media that have stress corrosion effects on the cylinder body material shall be equipped with a drainage device for liquid accumulation in the cylinder. The structure and arrangement of the drainage pipe shall be able to ensure smooth and clean drainage of liquid accumulation in the cylinder.
5.2.8 Other requirements
When steel cylinders used on long-tube trailers and tube bundle containers are used to contain liquefied gas, each steel cylinder shall be independently filled and have the filling volume controlled. The valve of the steel cylinders that have been filled shall be closed. During storage, transportation and use, the circulation of medium between steel cylinders shall be prevented, so as to avoid overfilling of a single steel cylinder.
5.3 Manufacturing
5.3.1 General requirements
5.3.1.1 The manufacturing of the steel cylinders shall comply with the stipulations of this document, and the stipulations of product drawings and relevant technical documents. 5.3.1.2 The cylinder body shall not be welded.
5.3.1.3 The manufacturing of the cylinder body shall be managed in batches. The quantity of steel cylinders in each batch shall not exceed 50.
5.3.2.3.1 Chemical composition
The chemical composition verification shall be carried out in accordance with GB/T 20066 and GB/T 223 (all parts), or GB/T 4336 based on the furnace batch No., and the results shall comply with the design requirements.
5.3.2.3.2 Hardness
The hardness test shall be carried out in accordance with GB/T 231.1, and the results shall comply with the design requirements.
5.3.2.3.3 Thread
The thread dimensions shall be inspected using the corresponding thread gauge and comply with the requirements of the corresponding standards. The thread surface shall be subject to magnetic particle testing or penetrant testing in accordance with NB/T 47013.4-2015 or NB/T 47013.5-2015, and there shall be no crack defects.
5.3.2.4 Safety relief device
The safety relief devices shall be confirmed by batches (referred to material batch, product batch and purchasing batch), and the results shall comply with the design requirements. 5.3.3 Closed end
The cylinder body is made of seamless steel pipes as the raw material and closed by hot spinning or hot forging, which shall be carried out in accordance with the process that has passed the assessment of conformity.
5.3.4 Heat treatment
5.3.4.1 The cylinder body shall be subject to overall quenching and tempering heat treatment, which shall be carried out in accordance with the heat treatment process that has passed the assessment of conformity.
5.3.4.2 Oil or water-based quenching agent can be used as the quenching medium. When using water-based quenching agent as the quenching medium, the cooling rate of the cylinder body in the medium shall not be greater than 80% of the cooling rate in 20 ???C water. Water shall not be directly used as the quenching medium.
5.3.4.3 A continuous heat treatment furnace with an automatic furnace temperature control device and the capability of automatically recording the furnace temperature curve shall be adopted.
5.3.4.4 The furnace temperature shall be determined in the effective heating zone of the heat treatment furnace in accordance with the stipulations of GB/T 9452-2012 or GB/T 30824-2014. Before the initial use, equipment overhaul, equipment transformation or commencement of operation after above three months of suspension, the furnace temperature shall be determined; 6.6.1 After heat treatment, the cylinder body shall be subject to hardness test one by one in accordance with GB/T 231.1.
6.6.2 Each cylinder body shall be tested for hardness at 4 equally divided points (i.e., two adjacent points are 90??? apart) on the circumference of the outer surface of at least 3 different sections, including the two end sections and the middle section of the cylinder body. The spacing between different sections shall not be greater than 3 m.
6.7 Hydrostatic Test
6.7.1 Conduct the test in accordance with the external test method (water jacket method) specified in GB/T 9251, in which:
a) The reading resolution value of the expansion measuring device shall not exceed 1% of the total expansion of the steel cylinder to be determined, and its accuracy shall not be lower than ??? 1% of the total expansion of the steel cylinder to be determined and ??? 0.5% of the full scale of the device;
b) The reading resolution value of the pressure measuring and display device shall not exceed 1% of the hydrostatic test pressure of the steel cylinder to be determined, and its accuracy shall not be lower than ??? 1% of the hydrostatic test pressure of the steel cylinder to be determined and ??? 0.5% of the full scale of the device;
c) The relative deviation of the total deformation capacity of the standard cylinder when calibrated within the two pressure ranges greater than and less than the hydrostatic test pressure ph is not greater than ??? 1%; after the pressure is released to zero pressure, the total expansion of the standard cylinder shall return to zero (not exceeding the greater value between ??? 0.1% of the total expansion value under the test pressure and ??? 0.1 mL).
6.7.2 Under the hydrostatic test pressure ph, the pressure shall be maintained for a sufficient time, which shall not be less than 2 min, so that the cylinder body is fully deformed. 6.8 Non-destructive Testing
After heat treatment or hydrostatic test of the cylinder body, the ultrasonic testing and magnetic particle testing shall be carried out one by one in accordance with Appendix C and Appendix D.
6.9 Air Tightness Test
6.9.1 When exiting factory in the form of single steel cylinders, air tightness test shall be conducted one by one. Generally, the air tightness test shall adopt the water immersion method. For steel cylinders assembled and used in the form of long-tube trailers or tube bundle containers, single steel cylinders may be exempted from the air tightness test; after being assembled into long-tube trailers, containerized tube bundles, gas storage cylinder groups or tube bundle containers, the liquid coating method can be adopted to conduct an overall air tightness test on the steel cylinders and the pipeline system.
6.9.2 The test method shall comply with GB/T 12137, in which:
a) Use compressed gas, for example, dry oil-free air or nitrogen, as the test medium; b) The air tightness test pressure shall be the nominal operating pressure p; c) The pressure holding time shall not be lower than 3 min.
6.10 Hydraulic Burst Test
Carry out the test in accordance with GB/T 15385.
6.11 Fatigue Test
6.11.1 The measured wall thickness of the cylinder body section of the sample cylinder used for fatigue test shall be as close as possible to the design wall thickness, and the positive deviation of the wall thickness shall not be greater than 10% of the design wall thickness of the steel cylinder.
6.11.2 It shall be carried out in accordance with GB/T 9252. The upper limit of the cyclic pressure is the hydrostatic test pressure ph, and the lower limit of the cyclic pressure shall not exceed 10% of the upper limit of the cyclic pressure.
7 Inspection Rules
7.1 Judgment Bases of Tests and Inspections
7.1.1 Wall thickness and manufacturing tolerances
7.1.1.1 The wall thickness shall not be lower than the minimum design wall thickness, and the wall thickness deviation of the cylinder body shall not exceed +20%.
7.1.1.2 The deviation of the outer diameter of the cylinder body shall not exceed ??? 1% of the nominal design value.
7.1.1.3 The roundness of the cylinder body, that is, the difference between the maximum outer diameter and the minimum outer diameter on the same section, shall not exceed 2% of the average outer diameter of the section.
7.1.1.4 The straightness of the cylinder body shall not exceed 0.2% of the total length of the cylinder body.
7.1.1.5 The manufacturing deviation of the length of the cylinder body shall not be greater than ??? 20 mm and shall not be greater than the value specified in the drawing. 7.1.2 Interior and exterior
12---name or chemical formula of filling gas;
13---maximum filling capacity of liquefied gas, (kg);
14---manufacturing license No. of steel cylinder manufacturing organization. Figure 7 -- Schematic Diagram of Steel Seal Mark of Steel Cylinder
8.1.2 Colored mark
Comply with GB/T 7144.
8.1.3 Electronic identification mark of steel cylinder
8.1.3.1 Steel cylinders separately exiting the factory and being put into use (except for steel cylinders used for long-tube trailers and tube bundle containers) shall be equipped with firm and non-damageable electronic identification marks (such as: QR code and electronic chip, etc.) in a conspicuous position as the electronic certificate of the steel cylinder product. 8.1.3.2 The information recorded in the electronic certificate of the steel cylinder product shall be effectively stored and publicly disclosed on the gas cylinder safety traceability information platform specified in TSG 23. The stored and publicized information shall be traceable, exchangeable, query-able and tamper-proof.
8.2 Coating
8.2.1 Before coating, the surface of the steel cylinder shall be treated, so as to remove rust, oxide scales, greasy dirt and other impurities. The surface quality shall reach Level Sa2.5 specified in GB/T 8923.1-2011, and coating can be performed under dry conditions. 8.2.2 The coating of the steel cylinders shall be uniform and firm, and there shall be no defects, such as: bubbles, cracks, flow marks and peeling, etc.
8.3 Packaging
8.3.1 When exiting the factory, the steel cylinder usually includes the cylinder body, screw plugs at both ends and other accessories. Protective measures shall be taken for all accessories and the threads at both ends of the cylinder body, so as to prevent collision damage. 8.3.2 The inside of the steel cylinder shall be kept dry and closed. When exiting the factory, if there are no screw plugs at both ends, then, protective screw plugs shall be used for sealing. 8.3.3 The internal and external threads of the bottlenecks at both ends of the steel cylinder shall be rust-proofed in an appropriate mode, and shall not contaminate the medium in the cylinder. 8.3.4 When exiting the factory, the steel cylinder can be filled with 0.05 MPa ~ 0.2 MPa (at a reference temperature of 20 ???C) nitrogen.
8.4 Transportation
Appendix C
(Normative)
Ultrasonic Testing
C.1 General Rules
This Appendix specifies the ultrasonic testing method for steel cylinders. Other ultrasonic testing techniques proven suitable for steel cylinders may also be used. C.2 General Requirements
C.2.1 The ultrasonic testing equipment shall be able to realize automatic testing of the cylinder body and detect at least the artificial defects on the comparison sample tube specified in C.4. In addition, it shall also be able to normally operate in accordance with the process requirements, with ensured accuracy. The equipment shall have a quality certificate or calibration approval certificate.
C.2.2 Ultrasonic testing operators shall obtain ultrasonic testing qualifications for special equipment. Operators engaged in ultrasonic testing equipment shall have at least Level I (primary) ultrasonic testing qualifications. Personnel issuing ultrasonic testing reports shall have at least Level II (intermediate) ultrasonic testing qualifications. C.2.3 The inner and outer surfaces of the steel cylinder to be tested shall meet the conditions for accurate ultrasonic testing and repeated testing.
C.2.4 Pulse reflection ultrasonic testing shall be adopted, and the contact method or immersion method may be adopted as the coupling mode.
C.3 Testing Methods
C.3.1 Usually, the ultrasonic testing probe shall be used to scan the cylinder body in a spiral mode. The scanning movement rate of the probe shall be uniform and vary within ??? 10%. The spiral pitch shall be smaller than the scanning width of the probe (there shall be at least 10% overlap), so as to ensure 100% testing during the spiral scanning process. C.3.2 The longitudinal and transverse defects of the cylinder wall shall be detected. When detecting longitudinal defects, the sound beam propagates in the circumferential direction in the cylinder wall; when detecting transverse defects, the sound beam propagates in the axial direction in the cyl...

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