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GB/T 3291.3-1997 English PDF (GBT3291.3-1997)

GB/T 3291.3-1997 English PDF (GBT3291.3-1997)

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GB/T 3291.3-1997: Textiles. Terms of textile material properties and test. Part 3: General

This Standard specifies general terms of textile material properties and test; and is applicable to textiles in the forms of fibers, yarns and fabrics. This Standard does not include relevant terms dedicated to single-form products.
GB/T 3291.3-1997
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
Replacing GB 3291-1982
GB 5457-1985
Textiles - Terms of Textile Material Properties and Test
- Part 3: General
APPROVED ON: OCTOBER 09, 1997
IMPLEMENTED ON: MAY 01, 1998
Approved by: State Bureau of Technical Supervision
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 4
2 Definitions ... 4
Appendix A (Prompt) English Index ... 25
Textiles - Terms of Textile Material Properties and Test
- Part 3: General
1 Scope
This Standard specifies general terms of textile material properties and test; and is applicable to textiles in the forms of fibers, yarns and fabrics.
This Standard does not include relevant terms dedicated to single-form products. 2 Definitions
For the purpose of this Standard, the following definitions apply.
2.1 Inspection
The activities that measure, inspect and test one or more characteristics of the product; and compare the results with specified requirements for the purpose of determining the conformity of each characteristic.
2.2 Grade
The classification or sequencing of products with the same functional purpose but different quality requirements.
2.3 Requirements for quality
The expression of specified quantitative and qualitative requirements that need or to be needed transforming into a set of characteristics of the entity; so that it can be realized and evaluated.
2.4 Conforming unit
Products that meet all requirements.
2.5 Lot
According to different purposes, the unit of counting that is divided by product raw materials, production technology, etc.
2.6 Lot sample
One or more packaging units that are randomly selected from a batch of products in 2.17 Instrumental error
The intrinsic error of the test instrument.
2.18 Personal error
The error that is caused by subjective factors and operating techniques of the measuring staffs.
2.19 Environmental error
The error that is caused by the inconsistency between the actual environmental conditions and the specified conditions.
2.20 Error of method
The error that is caused by imperfect measurement method.
2.21 Absolute error
The difference between the measurement result and the measured (conventional) true value.
2.22 Relative error
The ratio of the absolute error of the measurement to the measured (conventional) true value.
2.23 Correction
In order to eliminate or reduce the systematic error, the value that is added to the actually-measured result by algebra.
2.24 Correction factor
In order to eliminate or reduce the systematic error, the numerical factor that is multiplied by the actually-measured result.
2.25 Arithmetic mean
The quotient that is obtained through dividing an algebraic sum of n measured values to be measured by n.
2.26 Weighted arithmetic mean; Lp
For multiple measurements to be measured, the quotient that is obtained through DIVIDING the sum of the product of the arithmetic mean (L1, L2, ... Ln) of each group of measured values and the corresponding ?€?weight?€? (p1, p2, ... pn) BY the sum of ?€?weight?€?.
A treatment to make the sample or specimen reach a lower moisture regain before conditioning in the standard atmosphere for the test.
2.34 Conditioning
A treatment in which the sample or specimen is placed in the test standard atmosphere for a certain period of time to reach moisture equilibrium.
2.35 Standard atmosphere for preconditioning
The relative humidity and temperature that are specified by the preconditioning treatment of the material.
2.36 Standard atmosphere for testing
The relative humidity and temperature that are specified in the textile test. 2.37 Moisture equilibrium
The state in which the moisture absorption and moisture release of textile materials reach a balance, and the change of its quality tends to zero.
2.38 Moisture content
The percentage ratio of the mass of any form of water in the textile material that is measured by the prescribed method to the mass of the measured moisture-containing material.
2.39 Moisture regain
The percentage ratio of the mass of any form of water in the textile material that is measured according to the prescribed method to the dry mass of the measured material.
2.40 Moisture and extractable component
The percentage ratio of the mass of any form of water and extractables in the textile material that is measured by the prescribed method to the mass of the material after extraction and drying.
2.41 Moisture regain in the standard atmosphere
After the textile material is preconditioned, the moisture regain when it reaches the moisture equilibrium in the standard atmosphere.
2.42 Conventional moisture regain
The conventional value of the moisture regain of the textile material.
2.52 Liquid wicking rate
A measurement of the capillary effect of a test material, which characterizes the speed of liquid transfer to the fabric.
2.53 Color fastness
In processing and use, the color of textiles can withstand various effects. It is expressed by the degree of discoloration of the textiles and the degree of staining of the adjacent fabric.
2.54 Change in color
A single or comprehensive change in the brightness, chroma or hue of a textile color. 2.55 Staining
The dye in the bath liquid is absorbed into the adjacent fabric or the dye on the specimen is transferred to the adjacent fabric.
2.56 Photochromism
A phenomenon that the colored textiles is restored the color after a short-time exposure and discoloration, then being placed in a dark place. Namely, the reversible discoloration that is produced by light.
2.57 Sublimation
A phenomenon in which dyes on colored textiles are directly transformed into gaseous state by heating.
2.58 Yellowing
A phenomenon that the textiles turn yellow under the action of physics and chemistry. 2.59 Aging
A phenomenon that the textile materials are subjected to environmental conditions, such as light, heat, air, etc., to damage their chemical structure and decrease their physical and mechanical properties.
2.60 Color difference
The color difference between textiles or between textiles and standard scales. 2.61 Composite specimen
In the textile color fastness test, a specimen that consists of a specimen and one or two adjacent fabrics for staining test.
percentage ratio.
2.72 pH
A measurement of the pH of a solution. A value of 7 means the solution is neutral; below 7 means acidic; and above 7 means alkaline.
2.73 Aqueous extract
The solution that is obtained by immersing the specimen by water or other liquid, and after dissolving the soluble substance in the specimen.
2.74 Acid content
The number of millimoles of acid that is contained in a unit mass specimen measured under specified conditions.
2.75 Washing
The process of washing textiles by water. This process includes all or part of the operations of dipping, pre-washing, conventional washing, rinsing and dehydration. 2.76 Chlorine-based bleaching
The process of using chlorine bleach in an aqueous solution to increase the whiteness of textiles before, during or after washing.
2.77 Ironing and pressing
The process of forming a certain shape and appearance of textile products by heating and pressing.
2.78 Dry-cleaning
The process of cleaning textile products by organic solvents. The process includes decontamination, rinsing, de-liquoring and drying.
2.79 Hand washing
Domestic washing is done in a gentle way without using machines or scrubbing devices.
2.80 Commercial laundering
The process of washing, bleaching, drying, ironing and pressing textiles by non- domestic device.
2.81 Domestic laundering
On the stress-strain curve of an elastic material, the ratio of the increase in stress to the increase in strain in the elastic region of the material.
2.92 Chord modulus (secant modulus)
The ratio of the stress difference to the strain difference between two points specified on the stress-strain curve of the material.
2.93 Immediate elastic deformation
The deformation that the material recovers instantly after the external force is removed, namely, the recoverable deformation that is basically independent of time. 2.94 Delayed deformation
The time-dependent deformation of a material under a constant force.
2.95 Permanent deformation
The deformation, after the material is deformed under the specified conditions, that can?€?t be recovered when the external force is removed. Also called plastic deformation. 2.96 Elastic deformation
The deformation of the material that can be recovered after the external force is removed.
2.97 Delay elastic deformation
The deformation of material, after the external force is removed, that recovers i after a certain period of time.
2.98 Elasticity
The characteristics of materials, after the external force that causes the deformation is removed, that tries to restore its original size and shape.
2.99 Extensibility
The characteristics of materials that generate the extension under sufficient external force.
2.100 Yield point
The turning point from the starting straight part to the bent part on the stress-strain curve, namely, the point at which permanent deformation of the material begins. 2.101 Tensile test
The ratio of the extension of the specimen to its initial length, which is expressed by a percentage ratio.
2.112 Force-extension curve
A graph that characterizes the relationship between force and extension of a material under tensile force.
2.113 Breaking force; maximum force
During the tensile test under specified conditions, the maximum force that is recorded when the specimen is broken.
2.114 Breaking strength
The strength that is expressed by breaking force.
2.115 Elongation at break
The elongation of the specimen under the action of breaking force.
2.116 Breaking point
On the force-extension or stress-strain curve of a material tensile test, the point that corresponds to the breaking force or breaking stress.
2.117 Rupture
In the tensile test, the material breaks into two parts immediately or gradually. 2.118 Force at rupture
The last force that is recorded immediately before the specimen breaks during a tensile test under specified conditions.
2.119 Strength at rupture
The strength that is expressed by the force at rupture.
2.120 Elongation at rupture
The elongation of the specimen from the beginning of the tension to the rupture. 2.121 Work to break
The energy that is consumed when the tensile force of the material reaches the breaking force.
2.122 Work to rupture
2.134 Fire hazard
The potential for death, injury, and/or property damage due to fire.
2.135 Fire risk
The possibility of fire that causes death, injury and/or property damage. 2.136 Flame, n
The zone with luminous gas phase combustion.
2.137 Flame, v
Gas phase combustion process with luminescence.
2.138 Glowing
The phenomenon that the material does not burn in the solid phase of flame, but emits light in the burning zone.
2.139 Smoldering
The material burns slowly that has no visible light, usually exhibits temperature rise and smoke.
2.140 After-flame
Under the specified test conditions, the material continues to burn with flame after the ignition source is removed.
2.141 Afterglow
Under the specified test conditions, after the flame combustion is terminated; or it is the flameless combustion itself, the material shall continue to burn without the flame after the ignition source is removed.
2.142 Flame spread
The expansion of the front of the flame.
2.143 Flame spread rate; rate of flame spread
Under the specified test conditions, the distance that the front of the flame extends per unit time, which is expressed in meters per second (m/s).
2.144 Flame spread time
Under the specified test conditions, the time that is required for the flame on the Under the specified test conditions, the mass of the specimen that is consumed or lost due to ablation, dripping or burning.
2.155 Burned area
Under the specified test conditions, the damaged area of the material that is damaged by combustion or pyrolysis, which is expressed in square centimeters.
2.156 Damaged area
Under the specified test conditions, the total area of irreversible damage that is caused by heating of the material. Including material loss, shrinkage, softening, melting, carbonization, combustion and pyrolysis, which is expressed in square centimeters. 2.157 Damaged length
Under the specified test conditions, the maximum length of the damaged part of the material in the specified direction, which is expressed in centimeters. 2.158 Limiting oxygen index (LOI)
Under the specified test conditions, the minimum oxygen concentration that is required to maintain the material to burn in the oxygen-nitrogen mixture, which is expressed by a percentage ratio (%).
2.159 Char, n
Carbonaceous residue that is formed by pyrolysis or incomplete combustion. 2.160 Char, v
The process of forming carbonaceous residues during pyrolysis or incomplete combustion.
2.161 Melt drip
Drops of molten material, whether it burns or not.
2.162 Melting behavior
The phenomena of shrinkage, dripping, and burning of the material occur while the material is heated and softened.
2.163 Pyrolysis
The irreversible chemical decomposition of materials due to non-oxidizing temperature increase.
2.164 Scorch
2.175 Flash temperature/flash point
Under the specified test conditions, the minimum temperature at which flash-fire occurs when the liquid produces enough flammable gas and is applied to an ignition source. 2.176 Ignition temperature
Under the specified test conditions, the minimum temperature at which the material starts to burn continuously.
2.177 Ignition time
Regardless of whether the material is ignited or not, the specified exposure time of the material in the ignition source, which is expressed in seconds.
2.178 Minimum ignition time
Under the specified test conditions, the minimum time that the material is exposed to the ignition source, and required to obtain sustained combustion, which is expressed in seconds.
2.179 Exposure time
The specified placement time that the material is in the ignition source, which is expressed in seconds.
2.180 Self-heating
An exothermic reaction inside a material that can cause its temperature to rise. 2.181 Self-ignition
The combustion that is caused by self-heating.
2.182 Spontaneous combustion
In the absence of external heating, the combustion that is caused by self-heating. 2.183 Spontaneous ignition temperature
Under the specified test conditions, in the absence of external ignition source, the minimum temperature at which the material ignites due to heating.
2.184 Surface burn
The burning that is only limited to the surface of the material.
2.185 Surface burning time

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