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GB/T 31036-2014 English PDF (GBT31036-2014)

GB/T 31036-2014 English PDF (GBT31036-2014)

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GB/T 31036-2014: Proton exchange membrane fuel cell backup power system -- Safety

This Standard specifies terms and definitions, safety requirements and protective measures, type tests, routine tests, and marking, labeling and packaging related to the proton exchange membrane fuel cell backup power system.
GB/T 31036-2014
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 27.070
K 82
GB 31036-2014
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell backup power system -
Safety
ISSUED ON: DECEMBER 05, 2014
IMPLEMENTED ON: JULY 01, 2015
Issued by: General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine;
Standardization Administration of the PEOPLE Republic of China.
Table of Contents
FOREWORD ... 3
1 Scope ... 4
2 Normative references ... 6
3 Terms and definitions... 7
4 Safety requirements and protective measures ... 11
5 Type tests ... 22
6 Routine tests ... 31
7 Marking, labeling and packaging ... 32
Appendix A (Informative) Important hazards, hazardous situations and events involved in this Standard ... 33
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell backup power system -
Safety
1 Scope
This Standard specifies terms and definitions, safety requirements and protective measures, type tests, routine tests, and marking, labeling and packaging related to the proton exchange membrane fuel cell backup power system.
This Standard applies to the proton exchange membrane fuel cell backup power system (hereinafter referred to as PEMFC backup power system), including:
-- PEMFC backup power system providing AC or DC power;
-- PEMFC backup power system using hydrogen and air as reactant gases.
Safety requirements for the installation site are not specified in this Standard. Figure 1 is a schematic diagram of the boundary of a typical PEMFC backup power system.
The PEMFC backup power system applicable to this Standard shall constitute a complete system. In order to achieve the set function, the system shall be composed of some or all of the following components:
-- Fuel storage and supply system: a system that is used for storing fuel used by the PEMFC backup power system and providing fuel for the PEMFC backup power system;
-- Air supply system: a system that is used for metering, conditioning, processing and pressurizing the air required by the PEMFC backup power system;
-- Thermal management system: a system that provides cooling, heat dissipation, and/or heating functions to maintain thermal balance within the PEMFC backup power system;
-- Water treatment systems: a system that treats and purifies the recovered or added water for use by the PEMFC backup power system;
-- Electrical output conditioning system: a system that controls or converts the generated electrical energy to meet the electrical demand within the
manufacturer's design range;
-- Automatic control system: a system consisting of sensors, actuators, valves, switches, logic elements and control boards, etc., which is used for maintaining the parameters of the PEMFC backup power system, without manual intervention, within the range set by the manufacturer;
-- Ventilation system: a system that realizes the air exchange inside and outside the cabinet of the PEMFC backup power system by means of forced or natural
ventilation;
-- Fuel cell module: a module consisting of one or more fuel cell stacks, electrical connection devices for delivering electrical energy to the stacks, and monitoring devices, which converts chemical energy into electrical energy and thermal energy.
-- Auxiliary energy storage device: a rechargeable and dischargeable energy storage device inside the system, which is used for assisting or supplementing the fuel cell module to supply power to internal or external loads. (Optional)
This Standard applies to commercial, industrial and domestic PEMFC backup power systems in non-hazardous (unclassified) areas around the equipment.
This Standard only considers dangerous situations that may cause harm to persons, objects or the environment outside the PEMFC backup power system, and proposes safety requirements for such dangerous situations, excluding the safety measures that may be taken when the PEMFC backup power system itself may be damaged. The prerequisites in this part are not intended to limit innovation. When materials, designs or manufactures different from this part are used, they shall have the same or equivalent safety and performance with those specified in this part.
concentration is lower than critical ratio of the low flammability limit (LFL) or higher than the high flammability limit (UFL), it will not initiate combustion. 3.2
thermal stability
Stable temperature conditions, quasi-steady state. Read the temperature twice at an interval of 15 minutes; in any state where the temperature change does not exceed 3 ??C or 1% of the absolute operating temperature, the temperature with the higher reading shall prevail.
3.3
accessible areas
Under normal operating conditions, an area that meets one of the following factors: a) It is accessible without the use of tools;
b) It is accessible after the operator is specially provided with an access method; c) Whether or not the use of tools is required, the operator can be guided to access. Note 1: Unless otherwise defined, the terms "access" and "accessibility" refer only to the operator's access to the area in the above definition.
Note 2: Only maintenance personnel can enter the inaccessible area. When entering the inaccessible area, the maintenance personnel may need to take appropriate personal protection according to the maintenance manual.
3.4
combustible materials
Burnable materials.
Note: Combustible materials shall also be considered combustible after being refractory treated, flame retardant treated or plastered.
3.5
design pressure
The maximum pressure value in all operating modes, including steady state and transient state.
3.6
Cabinets for storing fuel tanks and their auxiliary equipment.
3.13
hazardous area
Areas where flammable gases are present or expected to be present in quantities sufficient to require special precautions for the construction, installation and use of electrical equipment.
Depending on the frequency and duration of the presence of flammable gases, hazardous areas can be divided into:
Area 0: an area where flammable gases are continuously present or present for a long time.
Area 1: an area where flammable gases may occur during normal operation. Area 2: an area where flammable gas is unlikely to occur, and if it occurs, it occurs occasionally and only for a short time during normal operation.
3.14
flue gas vent
A line that carries exhaust gas from a backup power system to the outside environment. 3.15
interlock
A control method that monitors whether the specified conditions are met or not and ensures that the relevant control equipment performs safe actions.
3.16
state
3.16.1
cold state
The state where the fuel cell power generation system has neither energy input nor energy output at ambient temperature.
[GB/T 28816-2012, Definition 3.110.1]
3.16.2
operational state
backup power system. Anti-vibration facilities can be installed to avoid the adverse effects caused by vibration and impact (including those generated by the machine itself and auxiliary equipment, as well as those generated by the physical environment). The above adverse effects do not include the effects caused by seismic impact; if the manufacturer believes that its products are suitable for use in seismic areas, it shall be stated separately.
4.2.6 Transportation and storage temperature requirements
The PEMFC backup power systems shall be designed to withstand, or with proper precautions taken, transportation and storage temperatures of -25 ??C ~ 55 ??C. Manufacturers may also specify an alternative temperature range.
4.3 Selection of materials
The PEMFC backup power system shall meet the following requirements when selecting materials during the design and manufacturing stages:
-- When the materials used are known to be dangerous under certain conditions, the manufacturer shall take various precautions and provide the user with the necessary information to minimize the risk to personal safety and health; -- The possible corrosion, wear, erosion, etc. of these materials shall be fully considered, and materials with fire-resistant properties (see all parts of GB/T 5169), hydrogen embrittlement resistance and environmental friendliness shall be chosen as far as possible;
-- Metallic piping and metallic connectors shall comply with the provisions in GB/T 20972.1-2007;
-- Non-metallic piping and related fittings shall comply with the regulations in GB/T 5563-2006, GB/T 15329.1, GB/T 20801 (all parts);
-- Vulcanized rubber and thermoplastic rubber parts shall be subjected to hot air accelerated aging test and heat resistance test (aging time not less than 96 h) in accordance with the provisions of GB/T 3512-2001, to ensure that the
performance (elasticity, tensile strength, etc.) after the test can still meet the safe use of the power generation system within the expected life.
4.4 Pressure equipment and piping
4.4.1 Pressure equipment
The pressure vessel shall be made of appropriate materials in accordance with the provisions in 4.3 and shall meet the relevant requirements in 4.1. The above vessel and its associated joints and fittings shall be designed and manufactured with sufficient strength to ensure normal operation and prevent accidental leakage. The design and manufacture of the pressure vessel shall comply with the provisions of GB 150 (all parts).
4.4.2 Piping system
The piping and its associated joints and fittings shall be designed and manufactured with sufficient strength to ensure normal operation and prevent accidental leakage. 4.4.3 Exhaust gas emission system
The PEMFC backup power system shall be equipped with an exhaust device capable of transferring the exhaust gas from the inside of the system to the outside. Manufacturers shall design and manufacture exhaust air ducts that meet the following requirements or provide instructions for designing and manufacturing exhaust air ducts in the product technical specification:
a) The material shall meet the requirements specified in 4.3, and the emission system shall be made of materials resistant to condensate corrosion. Non-metallic materials shall be identified for their temperature resistance, strength and resistance to condensate reaction;
b) The exhaust air duct shall be properly supported and equipped with a rain cover or other components that do not restrict or impede the vertical upward air emission;
c) Drainages or measures shall be provided to prevent water, ice, snow and other debris from accumulating in the exhaust air duct or blocking the exhaust air duct; d) The end of the exhaust air duct shall be placed in a safe outdoor area, away from ignition sources and indoor air inlets;
e) Except for the outlet, the exhaust gas system of the PEMFC backup power system shall be sealed without leakage;
f) The temperature tolerance of the materials used in the manufacture of the exhaust air system shall be higher than the maximum temperature of the conveyed exhaust gas;
g) The hydrogen concentration at the outlet of the exhaust gas emission system shall be less than 75% LFL.
4.5 Fire and explosion-proof measures (fuel compartment and fuel cell cabinet) 4.5.1 Fire and explosion-proof measures for the fuel compartment
The following measures shall be taken for the fuel compartment to prevent fire and explosion:
4.6 Electrical safety
The design and structure of the electrical system shall be the same as the application of electrical and electronic equipment (including electric motors and accessories), and it needs to meet the application standards of related electrical products. Such as: -- GB 4943.1;
-- GB 7260.1.
Applications for PEMFC backup power systems shall be provided in the technical specification.
Manufacturers shall also consider residual charge on the fuel cell stack. 4.7 Electromagnetic compatibility
The PEMFC backup power system shall not generate electromagnetic interference above the specified level in its surroundings. In addition, the PEMFC backup power system electrical equipment shall have sufficient resistance to electromagnetic interference to operate normally in its working environment. The electromagnetic compatibility of the PEMFC backup power supply system shall comply with GB/T 17799.1, GB/T 17799.2, GB 17799.3, GB 17799.4 standards.
4.8 Control system and protection components
4.8.1 General requirements
The PEMFC backup power system shall be designed so that a single failure of the system component does not escalate into a hazardous situation.
4.8.2 Control system
When designing and manufacturing the automatic electrical and electronic control devices of the PEMFC backup power system, the requirements for safety and reliability analysis specified in 4.1.1 shall be met. The PEMFC backup power system for civil, commercial and light industry shall meet the requirements in GB 14536.1. Manual devices shall be clearly identified and designed to prevent accidental adjustment, startup and shutdown.
4.8.2.1 Startup
Only when all guards are in place and functional, can the PEMFC backup power system be started.
In order to ensure the normal startup next time, an appropriate interlocking device can be used.
4.8.2.2 Shutdown system
4.8.2.2.1 General
According to the reliability analysis and functional requirements of the PEMFC backup power system specified in 4.1.1, the PEMFC backup power system shall provide the following shutdown functions:
-- Emergency shutdown: When the internal or external conditions of the PEMFC backup power system deteriorate, and the continued operation of the PEMFC backup power system will bring harm, it shall be possible to manually activate the emergency button to terminate the operation of the PEMFC backup power system and automatically cut off the hydrogen supply at the same time;
-- Normal shutdown: When the PEMFC backup power system is in a normal
operational state, the operation of the PEMFC backup power system is terminated by starting the control device, and the system returns to the pre-generation after shutdown;
-- Abnormal shutdown: When the PEMFC backup power system is in an abnormal operational state, the operation of the PEMFC backup power system is terminated by starting the control device.
4.8.2.2.2 Emergency shutdown
Emergency shutdown shall be part of the PEMFC backup power system control system; in order to avoid actual or imminent danger (the danger cannot be corrected by the control device), it shall have the following functions:
-- Prevent hazards from occurring without creating new hazards;
-- Trigger or allow triggering of certain safeguards where necessary;
-- No matter what operating mode the fuel cell is in, after the emergency switch is activated, the emergency shutdown has the first right to operate;
-- The system cannot be restarted without the emergency switch being reset; -- The reset of the emergency switch must not lead to any dangerous situation. If a manual emergency shutdown device is used in accordance with the safety and reliability requirements in 4.1.1, it shall be equipped with clearly visible, easily identified and quickly accessible control components such as buttons.
When the control system fails, it shall have:
-- After the shutdown button is activated, the PEMFC backup power system shall be able to shut down;
c) Pressure limiting devices such as safety valves shall be provided.
d) Gas sensors involving safety shall be selected, installed, calibrated, used and maintained in accordance with IEC 61779-6.
e) Other control and setting devices shall be clearly identified and detailed to prevent operational errors. They shall be designed to prevent accidental operation. f) In the working position of heavy equipment such as pressure vessels and high- pressure gas cylinders, mechanical structures such as anti-fall chains and guardrails shall be installed.
4.9 Valves
4.9.1 Shut-off valve
The shut-off valve shall meet the following requirements:
-- All equipment and systems for transferring fluids shall be equipped with shut-off valves for use in case of shutdown, testing, maintenance, malfunction or emergency;
-- Shut-off valves shall be graded according to the valve's working pressure, temperature and fluid characteristics;
-- The regulator installed on the shut-off valve shall have heat resistance and can withstand the heat conducted from the valve body;
-- Various types of shut-off valves, operated electronically, hydraulically or pneumatically, shall be able to switch to a safe state for the system when the driving energy disappears.
4.9.2 Fuel supply valve
The fuel supply valve shall meet the following requirements:
-- Supply the fuel used to the PEMFC backup power system, which has both the function of the operating valve and the function of the safety shut-off valve; -- Electrically operated fuel supply valves shall meet the requirements specified in GB 14536.19.
4.9.3 Pressure relief valve
The pressure relief valve shall meet the following requirements:
-- When the pressure of the transmitted fluid is higher than the discharge pressure of the pressure relief valve, the fluid is discharged from the pressure relief valve; -- When the pressure of the transmitted fluid is lower than the discharge pressure of the pressure relief valve, the pressure relief valve is closed, and the fluid cannot flow out from the valve;
-- When the pressure generated in the piping may be higher than that the piping can withstand, a pressure relief valve needs to be installed;
-- The fuel discharged through the pressure relief valve needs to be discharged to the outside through a special discharge piping or an exhaust gas discharge system. 4.10 Fluid driven device (optional)
4.10.1 General requirements
The fluid driven device shall meet the following requirements:
-- The fluid driven device shall be designed to meet pressure, temperature and fluid requirements under normal operating conditions;
-- Appropriate protection measures shall be taken for fluid inlet and outlet piping to prevent damage due to vibration;
-- Shaft seals shall be compatible with the fluid being pumped and the expected operating temperature and pressure under normal and emergency shutdown
conditions;
-- Shaft seals shall be designed to avoid hazardous fluid leakage. If the shaft seal leaks dangerous fluid, the manufacturer shall provide necessary measures to suppress the dangerous fluid or dilution methods to avoid hazards to human health and safety;
-- Motors, bearings and seals shall be suitable for the expected operating conditions; -- The rotating parts such as the rotating shaft cannot be directly exposed, or a protective device shall be installed in the circumferential position where the rotating parts are directly exposed, to avoid direct damage to the equipment or personnel caused by flying objects due to equipment abnormalities.
4.10.2 Compressor (air compressor and air blower)
4.10.2.1 The compressor shall meet the requirements specified in the standard GB 10892.
4.10.2.2 Unless the safety and reliability analysis deem it unnecessary, the following devices shall be provided together with the compressor or compressor system: -- Pressure relief device: for limiting the relative pressure of the compression cylinder and different pressure sections within the maximum operating pressure;

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