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GB/T 2999-2016 English PDF (GBT2999-2016)

GB/T 2999-2016 English PDF (GBT2999-2016)

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GB/T 2999-2016: Refractory materials -- Determination of bulk density of granular materials

This Standard specifies two methods for the determination of the bulk density of granular refractory materials (grain density) with a grain size of larger than 2mm. Method 1: Weighing method; Method 2: Burette method.
GB/T 2999-2016
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 81.080
Q 40
Replacing GB/T 2999-2002
Refractory materials - Determination of
bulk density of granular materials
[ISO 8840.1987, Refractory materials - Determination of bulk density of granular materials (grain density), MOD]
ISSUED ON. AUGUST 29, 2016
IMPLEMENTED ON. JULY 1, 2017
Issued by. General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the PEOPLE Republic of China;
Standardization Administration of the PEOPLE Republic of
China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 5
2 Normative references ... 5
3 Terms and definitions ... 6
4 Principle... 6
5 Sampling ... 6
6 Test pieces ... 7
7 Determination of the mass of dry test pieces (m1) ... 7
8 Determination of the test piece volume - Method 1. Weighing method ... 7 9 Determination of the test piece volume - Method 2. Burette method ... 10 10 Rounding off for numerical values ... 12
11 Permissible error ... 12
12 Test report ... 12
Annex A (Informative) Contrast between the section numbers of
this Standard and ISO 8840.1987 ... 14
Annex B (Informative) Technical differences between this Standard and
ISO 8840.1987 and corresponding causes ... 15
Foreword
This Standard was drafted in accordance with the rules given in GB/T 1.1-2009. This Standard replaces GB/T 2999-2002 Refractory materials - Determination of bulk density of granular materials. Compared with GB/T 2999-2002, the major content changes are as follows.
?€? MODIFY the relevant contents in normative references (SEE Chapter 2
of this Standard, Chapter 2 of 2002 edition);
?€? MODIFY the method of wiping the immersion liquid on the surfaces of
saturated test pieces (SEE Section 8.4.2 of this Standard, Section 8.4.2 of 2002 edition);
?€? DELETE the Annex A (SEE Annex A of 2002 edition).
This Standard was redrafted by reference to ISO 8840.1987 Refractory
materials - Determination of bulk density of granular materials (grain density) after modification.
Compared with ISO 8840.1987, this Standard has made many structural
adjustments. The contrast table for the section numbers of this Standard and ISO 8840.1987 is listed in Annex A.
There are technical differences between this Standard and ISO 8840.1987. For the list of technical differences between this Standard and ISO 8840.1987 and corresponding causes, SEE Annex B.
Some of the elements of this document may be the subject of patent rights. The issuing authorities of this document shall not be held responsible for identifying any or all such patent rights.
This Standard was proposed by and shall be under the jurisdiction of the National Technical Committee for Standardization of Refractory Materials (SAC/TC 193).
Main drafting organizations of this Standard. Central Research Institute of Building and Construction Co., Ltd, Jiaozuo Jinxin Hengtuo High-temperature Materials Co., Ltd, and Luoyang Institute of Science and Technology.
Main drafters of this Standard. Tian Zhihong, Zhang Xiuhua, Huang Jiangwen, Wang Li, Mei Minghua, Xue Hongyan, Tian Jingjing, Yang Jing, Liu Xiang and Sun Lijun.
The previous released editions substituted by this Standard are as follows. Refractory materials - Determination of bulk
density of granular materials
1 Scope
This Standard specifies two methods for the determination of the bulk density of granular refractory materials (grain density) with a grain size of larger than 2mm.
?€? Method 1. Weighing method;
?€? Method 2. Burette method.
Method 1 is intended as the referee method.
Depending on the nature of the material tested, the two methods may give different results. Any statement of the value of a bulk density shall therefore be accompanied by an indication of the method used or to be used in case of dispute. The same method shall be used for the determination of the volume of the sample, for selecting and preparing the sample, for calculating the bulk density and for presenting the test report.
This Standard is applicable to the determination of the bulk density, water absorption and apparent porosity of granular refractory materials.
2 Normative references
The following documents are essential to the application of this document. For dated references, only the editions with the dates indicated are applicable to this document. For undated references, only the latest editions (including all the amendments) are applicable to this document.
GB/T 2997 Test method for bulk density, apparent porosity and true porosity of dense shaped refractory products
GB/T 6005 Test sieves - Metal wire cloth, perforated metal plate and
electroformed sheet - Nominal sizes of openings
GB/T 8170 Rules of rounding off for numerical values and expression and
judgement of limiting values
8.1.5 Non-absorbent fiber cloth, such as polyester fiber cloth, nylon fiber cloth, etc.
8.1.6 Vessel.
8.1.7 Vacuum equipment. It can decrease the absolute pressure to not greater than 2,500MPa, and shall also be able to measure the absolute pressure value. 8.1.8 Immersion liquid. tap water or kerosene.
8.1.9 Mesh basket. It refers to the mesh basket with a handle, which is made of sieve with a pore diameter of 1mm.
8.1.10 Vessel with an overflow pipe.
8.1.11 Cotton gauze. The dimension is about 60cm ?? 60cm.
8.1.12 Weighing bottle. with a diameter of 60mm and a height of 30mm.
8.1.13 Hydrostatic balance or hydrometer. with a division value of 0.001 g/cm3. 8.2 Test piece immersion
After weighing, carefully PLACE the test pieces on a piece of non-absorbent fiber cloth (SEE Section 8.1.5). USE a string to wrap them firmly. PLACE in a vessel (SEE Section 8.1.6). PLACE the vessel in the vacuum equipment (SEE Section 8.1.7). VACUUM until the absolute pressure is less than 2,500MPa. KEEP the test pieces at this degree of vacuum for 5min. Slowly INJECT the immersion liquid (SEE Section 8.1.8) for absorption of test pieces within 5min, until the test pieces are completely immersed. KEEP vacuuming for 5min. STOP air exhaust. TAKE out the vessel. LET it stand in air, until the liquid inside comes up to room temperature.
8.3 Determination of the apparent mass of saturated test pieces (m2)
HANG the mesh basket (SEE Section 8.1.9) on the balance hook so that the mesh basket can completely immerse into the liquid. ZERO the balance. TAKE out the mesh basket for standby application. OPEN the wrapping cloth.
Carefully SCRAPE the saturated test pieces into the mesh basket. Rapidly MOVE the mesh basket into the immersion liquid in the vessel with an overflow pipe. After the test pieces completely immerse into the immersion liquid, MOVE the mesh basket up and down for several times so that the residual bubbles can escape. HANG the mesh basket on the balance hook for weighing.
ACCURATE to 0.01g.
8.4 Determination of the mass of saturated test pieces (m3)
9.2 Determination of the test piece volume
After drying and weighing, PLACE the test pieces (SEE Chapter 7) into a beaker (SEE Section 9.1.1). ADD the immersion liquid at room temperature until the test pieces are completely submerged in it.
Before each use, REMOVE the grease in the burette (SEE Section 9.1.2).
FLUSH the burette afterwards until it becomes clean. ADD the immersion liquid until it comes up to 20mL to 25mL. LET it stand for 1min. USE a magnifier (SEE Section 9.1.3) to estimate the reading to 0.05mL. PLACE a funnel (SEE Section 9.1.4) on the burette.
Before each determination, FOLD the cotton gauze (SEE Section 8.1.11) into a square which is 4 to 8 layers thick. USE immersion liquid for saturation. WRING dry the cotton gauze by hands (SEE Section 8.4.1).
SOAK the test pieces for at least 2min. COVER a piece of glass on the beaker afterwards to block the test pieces. POUR out all of the immersion liquid as far as possible. UNFOLD the wringed wet cotton gauze. PLACE the test pieces and non-absorbent fiber cloth flat on the left side of the cotton gauze to form a thin layer. FOLD the right side of the cotton gauze. COVER it on the granular test pieces. Gently PAT and PRESS to absorb the immersion liquid on the surfaces of the test pieces. TRY not to damage the edges of the granular test pieces as far as possible. Slowly OPEN the cotton gauze. PLACE the test pieces and non-absorbent fiber cloth flat on the right side of the cotton gauze. REPEAT this procedure until the grains do not adhere to each other, and the immersion liquid adhered to the grain surfaces is invisible (however, do not absorb the immersion liquid in the pores). FOLD the fabric cloth next so that the test pieces can be put into the burette through the funnel. USE a magnifier to estimate the reading of the fi...

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