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GB/T 2893.1-2013 English PDF (GBT2893.1-2013)

GB/T 2893.1-2013 English PDF (GBT2893.1-2013)

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GB/T 2893.1-2013: Graphical symbols -- Safety colours and safety signs -- Part 1: Design principles for safety signs and safety markings

This Part of GB/T 2893 specifies the safety colors and design principles of different types of safety signs and safety markings, which are mainly used in work areas and public places, to prevent accidents, prevent fires, transmit information on dangerous situations and emergency evacuation, etc. This Part also specifies the basic principles to be applied, in the development of standards containing safety signs.
GB/T 2893.1-2013
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 01.080.10
A 22
Replacing GB/T 2893.1-2004
Graphical symbols - Safety colors and safety signs - Part 1:
Design principles for safety signs and safety markings
(ISO 3864-1:2011, MOD)
ISSUED ON: JULY 19, 2013
IMPLEMENTED ON: NOVEMBER 30, 2013
Issued by: General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of PRC;
Standardization Administration of PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
Introduction ... 5
1 Scope ... 6
2 Normative references ... 6
3 Terms and definitions... 7
4 Uses of safety colors and safety signs ... 7
5 General meaning of geometric shapes and safety colors ... 7
6 Design of safety signs ... 8
6.1 General requirements ... 8
6.2 Prohibition signs ... 8
6.3 Instruction flags ... 9
6.4 Warning signs ... 10
6.5 Safety status signs ... 10
6.6 Signs of fire protection facilities ... 11
7 Design of auxiliary signs ... 11
8 Design of combination signs ... 13
9 Designs of duplex sign ... 14
10 Design principles of graphic symbols for safety signs ... 15
11 Design of safety markings ... 15
Appendix A (Informative) The relationship between the size of the safety sign and the viewing distance ... 16
References ... 22
Foreword
GB/T 2893 "Graphical symbols - Safety colors and safety signs" is divided into four parts:
- Part 1: Design principles for safety signs and safety markings;
- Part 2: Design principles for product safety labels;
- Part 3: Design principles for graphical symbols for use in safety signs; - Part 4: Colorimetric and photometric properties of safety sign materials. This Part is Part 1 of GB/T 2893.
This Part was drafted in accordance with the rules given in GB/T 1.1-2009 "Directives for standardization - Part 1: Structure and drafting of standards".
This Part replaces GB/T 2893.1-2004 "Graphical symbols - Safety colors and safety signs - Part 1: Design principles for safety signs and safety markings". Compared with GB/T 2893.1-2004, the main technical changes are as follows:
- DELETE the standardization process of safety signs (Chapter 6 of GB/T 2893.1- 2004);
- DELETE the provisions on the lining in the design of safety signs (7.1 in GB/T 2893.1-2004)
- DELETE the design requirements for the combination of emergency exit signs and directional auxiliary signs (8.6 in GB/T 2893.1-2004);
- MOVE the relationship between the size of the safety sign and the observation distance, into the informative appendix (Chapter 10 of GB/T 2893.1-2004); - DELETE the provisions on the chromaticity and luminosity properties of the safety color and contrasting color (Chapter 11 of GB/T 2893.1-2004).
This Part, using the redrafting method, modifies and adopts ISO 3864-1:2011 "Graphical symbols - Safety colors and safety signs - Part 1: Design principles for safety signs and safety markings ".
Compared with ISO 3864-1:2011, this Part has the following technical differences: - Use the GB/T 2893.3, which modifies and adopts the international standard, to replace the reference document ISO 3864-3 in the original international standard; - Use the GB/T 2893.4, which modifies and adopts the international standard, to Graphical symbols - Safety colors and safety signs - Part 1:
Design principles for safety signs and safety markings
Important note: The colors, which are presented in the electronic files of this Part of GB/T 2893, cannot be viewed as real colors on the screen or used for printing. Although this Part of GB/T 2893 is printed in China, in accordance with the color requirements (within the allowable deviation, according to visual inspection), the printed version is not used for color matching. For requirements on color matching, please refer to GB/T 2893.4. This Part gives the color reference values quoted from the color sequence system, whilst giving the chromaticity attributes and photometric attributes.
1 Scope
This Part of GB/T 2893 specifies the safety colors and design principles of different types of safety signs and safety markings, which are mainly used in work areas and public places, to prevent accidents, prevent fires, transmit information on dangerous situations and emergency evacuation, etc. This Part also specifies the basic principles to be applied, in the development of standards containing safety signs. This Part applies to all locations, that require attention to personal-related safety issues. This Part does not apply to signals guiding railway, road, inland shipping, maritime and air traffic. In short, it does not apply to areas otherwise specified in laws and regulations. 2 Normative references
The following documents are essential for the application of this document. For dated references, only the dated version applies to this document. For undated references, the latest edition (including all amendments) applies to this document.
GB/T 15565 (all parts) Graphical symbols - Terms
GB/T 2893.3 Graphical symbols - Safety colors and safety signs - Part 3: Design principles for graphical symbols for use in safety signs (GB/T 2893.3-2010, ISO 3864-3:2006, MOD)
GB/T 2893.4 Graphical symbols - Safety colors and safety signs - Part 4: Colorimetric and photometric properties of safety sign materials (GB/T 2893.4-2013, ISO 3864-4:2011, MOD)
3 Terms and definitions
The terms and definitions as defined in GB/T 15565, as well as the following terms and definitions, apply to this document.
3.1
Identifiability
The property of a graphic symbol, to make its symbolic element be understood as the object or shape it describes.
3.2
Safe observation distance
The maximum distance, FROM the position, where the observer can recognize the safety sign and have the opportunity to execute the safety sign's instruction, TO the safety sign.
4 Uses of safety colors and safety signs
4.1 The role of safety colors and safety signs is to make objects or environments, that affect safety and health, quickly attract people's attention, AND to quickly understand specific information.
4.2 Safety signs shall only be used for instructions, which are related to personal safety and health.
5 General meaning of geometric shapes and safety colors
Tables 1 and 2 give the general meaning of geometry, safety, contrasting colors. Appendix A
(Informative)
The relationship between the size of the safety sign and the viewing distance A.1 General
This Appendix is mainly concerned with the perceived quality of the graphic symbol elements in the safety sign. It has nothing to do with the intelligibility and meaning of the safety sign. In addition to being easy to understand, graphic symbols also need to have sufficient perceptual quality, in order for the end-users to correctly identify the symbol elements in the actual use environment.
Note 1: GB/T 16903.3 describes the concept of perceived quality of graphic symbol elements. When the viewing distance of the safety sign increases, the viewing angle of the graphic symbol will be reduced. With the increase of observation distance, it becomes increasingly difficult to identify graphic symbol elements, which leads to a smaller and smaller proportion of users, who can correctly identify graphic symbol elements. Therefore, in the short observation distance, the design of the graphic symbol elements shall keep a very high proportion of the people, who can correctly identify the graphic symbol elements, in the expected user group. On the contrary, in the long observation distance, the proportion that the expected user group can correctly identify the graphic symbol elements will be low or none. Since the distance to correctly identify the elements of graphic symbols varies from person to person, the proportion of the expected users, who may make the correct identification, can actually be counted. Therefore, it is very important for a higher proportion of the expected users, to correctly identify the elements of the graphic symbols AND understand the meaning of the safety signs, at a distance where they can follow the instructions of the safety signs. In practice, in the minimum safe observation distance of safety signs, the proportion of the expected users, who can correctly identify the elements of graphic symbols, is at least 85%. The evaluation of identification of graphic symbol elements is a complex task. The following factors and circumstances will affect the identifiability of graphic symbol elements:
- The graphic symbol elements and the dimensions of their parts within the geometry of the safety sign;
- Whether the safety sign is externally or internally illuminated, as well as the material used for the safety sign;
- Brightness, brightness contrast or contrast between the graphic symbol and the of graphic symbol elements and the basic geometric shape of safety signs are fixed in the safety signs, which are stipulated in GB 2894.
The value of z0 will vary, among safety signs, for a given intended user population and lighting conditions. For safety signs, which have external lighting, where the illuminance measured on the surface of the sign is 100 lx, AND where the users have normal or corrected vision, use the test method, which is specified in GB/T 16903.3, to determine the z0 value, which is related to 85% correct identification ratio standard with the graphic symbol elements. However, for a specific safety sign, the conditions for the generation of the correct identification ratio of the graphic symbol elements, to the normal vision population, are unknown; at this time, the general value of 60 is used for z0.
A.2.2 For externally illuminated safety signs, the distance factor is affected by the lighting level of the sign. Typically, for externally illuminated safety signs in low lighting environments, such as safety signs illuminated by emergency lights, z0 is multiplied by a factor of 0.5.
For externally illuminated emergency exit signs, Table 1 gives the recommended values for z0, at different lighting levels. The same value for z0 can also be applied to the auxiliary direction arrows for external lighting.
Note: When the illuminance range is exceeded for about 200 lx, the value of z0 changes linearly with the logarithm of the illuminance.
For internally illuminated safety signs, the distance factor is affected by the brightness and brightness contrast of the safety sign. A generalized numerical value for the distance factor is not available. By using a longer viewing distance in a dark environment, the test method of GB/T 16903.3 can be used.
For internally illuminated emergency exit signs, Table A.2 gives the recommended values for z0, under different brightness conditions, with white contrasting colors. The same value for z0 also applies to the auxiliary direction arrows for interior lighting. Note: The value of z0 changes approximately linearly with the logarithm of the brightness, when it exceeds the brightness range up to about 50 cd/m2.
A.2.3 The visual acuity of visually impaired people is low. For people with 6/60 visual acuity, z0 is multiplied by a factor of 0.1.
Note: The numerical visual acuity, which is equivalent to 6/60, is 0.1. The numerical visual acuity, which is equivalent to 6/6 visual acuity of the normal vision population, is 1. A.3 Distance factor for viewing safety signs from different angles
When the safety sign is observed, at a certain angle to the normal line of the safety sign, the projected size of the sign will be reduced, thus reducing the observation distance, that can correctly identify the elements of the graphic symbol. For internally illuminated or externally illuminated safety signs, which have Lambertian brightness characteristics, if ?? is the angle between the line of sight and the normal line of the sign (located at the center of the sign), THEN, the distance factor of the angle z?? is calculated by the following formula:
z?? = z0 cos??
For example, when viewing the safety sign, at an angle of 30??, 45?? or 60?? from the normal to the safety sign, z0 shall be multiplied by 0.87, 0.71 or 0.5, respectively. The viewing distance of the safety sign, which has the same degree of identifiability of the graphic symbol elements, forms a circle, which has a diameter of z0. Figure A.2 shows a ring, in the vertical and horizontal planes. In three-dimensional space, these rings form the outer surface of a sphere, which has a diameter of z0.

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