GB/T 28206-2011 English PDF (GBT28206-2011)
GB/T 28206-2011 English PDF (GBT28206-2011)
GB/T 28206-2011: Specification for compostable plastic
Specification for compostable plastic
National Standards of People's Republic of China
Compostable plastic technical requirements
(ISO 17088.2008, IDT)
General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People's Republic of China China National Standardization Administration issued
This standard was drafted in accordance with the rules given in GB/T 1.1-2009. This standard adopts the translation method equivalent to ISO 17088.2008 "Technical requirements for compostable plastics". Compared with ISO 17088.2008, this standard adds CJ/T 3059-1996 “Urban Domestic Waste Compost” to Appendix A. Treatment plant technical evaluation index.
The Chinese standards that have a consistent correspondence with ISO are as follows. GB/T 2035-2008 Plastic terminology and its definition (ISO 472.1999, IDT); GB/T 19811-2005 Determination of the degree of disintegration of plastic materials under the conditions of composting pilot test (ISO 16929.2002, IDT);
GB/T 19277.1-2011 Determination of the final aerobic biodegradation and disintegration ability of materials under controlled composting conditions Method of releasing carbon dioxide Part 1. General method (ISO 14855-1.2005, IDT). This standard was proposed by the China Light Industry Association.
This standard is under the jurisdiction of the National Plastics Standardization Technical Committee (TC48). This standard was drafted by the Light Industry Plastics Processing Application Research Institute and the National Plastic Products Quality Supervision and Inspection Center (Beijing). The main drafters of this standard. Weng Yunxuan and Li Ziyi.
The disposal of solid waste has become an issue of increasing concern worldwide. Cities, towns and villages are trying to pass various recycling parties The law changes the way of landfill and non-energy recycling of waste in order to recover more available waste and turn waste into useful product. Plastic recycling technology includes material recovery (physical recovery, chemical or raw material recovery, biological or organic recycling) and thermal energy under controlled conditions Recycling. As compost (bio or organic recycling) applications continue to grow, it is necessary to properly identify compostable plastics and products that are made The product should be disintegratable, biodegradable under composting conditions and will not have any permanent toxic residues. Compostable plastic technical requirements
WARNING. Wastewater, activated sludge, soil, and compost may contain potential pathogens, so appropriate precautions should be taken when handling. Special care must be taken when handling toxicity test compounds or compounds of unknown nature. 1 Scope
This standard specifies procedures and requirements for the identification and identification of plastics and products with aerobic composting performance. The technical requirements of this standard include the following four aspects. a) biodegradability;
b) disintegration performance;
c) negative impacts on composting processes and equipment;
d) The quality of the resulting compost, including the amount of controlled metals and other harmful components. This standard also specifies the identification content of compostable plastics and products, such as “compostable” or “compostable in municipal or commercial facilities” or “heap” Biodegradable in the process of fertilizer."
Note. Composting of compostable plastics should be carried out in well-run composting facilities, requiring suitable temperature, water content, aerobic conditions, carbon/nitrogen ratio And processing methods, etc. Commercial and municipal composting equipment can usually meet these conditions. Under these conditions, compostable plastics will disintegrate and biological Decomposition, the decomposition rate is equivalent to garden waste, kraft paper bags and food debris. 2 Normative references
The following documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only dated versions apply to this article. Pieces. For undated references, the latest edition (including all amendments) applies to this document. GB/T 2035-2008 Plastic terminology and its definition (ISO 472.1999, IDT) GB/T 19277.1-2011 Determination of the final aerobic biodegradation and disintegration ability of materials under controlled composting conditions Method of releasing carbon dioxide Part 1. General method (ISO 14855-1.2005, IDT) GB/T 19811-2005 Determination of the degree of disintegration of plastic materials under the conditions of composting pilot test (ISO 16929.2002, IDT)
ISO 14855-2 Determination of the ultimate aerobic biodegradation and disintegration capacity of materials under controlled composting conditions Methods of carbonation - Part 2. Laboratory scales - Determination of carbon dioxide emissions by weight ISO 20200 Plastics Determining the degree of disintegration of plastic materials in a laboratory scale condition composting environment EN13432 Packaging requirements for recyclability of packaging by composting and biodegradation Test plan and final acceptance criteria for packaging ASTMD5338 Method for the determination of aerobic biodegradation of plastics under controlled composting conditions OECD208 Chemical Testing Practice Terrestrial Planting Test
3 Terms and definitions
The following terms and definitions as defined in GB/T 2035-2008 apply to this document. 3.1
Biodegradableduringcomposting in composting
Synonymous with "compostable" (see definition of compostable plastic)
It is a substance that has a small amount of components and can accelerate the chemical reaction rate, and the chemical properties of the chemical reaction itself remain unchanged. 3.3
It is an organic soil conditioner obtained by biological decomposition of the mixture. The mixture consists mainly of plant residues and sometimes contains some organic Materials and certain inorganic substances.
Compostable plastic compostableplastic
In the biodegradation process of composting, plastics are converted to carbon dioxide (CO2) and water at a rate comparable to other known compostable materials. (H2O) and the inorganic and biomass contained therein, and should not have visible, distinguishable residues and toxic residues. 3.5
An aerobic treatment method that produces compost.
The material is physically broken into extremely small pieces.
Adding an inert solid material to the plastic for improving its strength, durability, usability or other properties, or for reducing cost. 3.8
Theoretical release of carbon dioxide theoreticalamountofevolvedcarbondioxide, ThCO2 The theoretical maximum value of carbon dioxide that can be generated when the test material is completely oxidized can be calculated from the molecular formula to test per gram or milligram. The number of milligrams of carbon dioxide released by the material is expressed in mgCO2/g or mg of test material. 3.9
Total dry solids totaldrysolids
The amount of solids obtained by drying a known volume of material or compost at 105 ° C to constant weight. 3.10
Ultimate aerobic biodegradation ultimateaerobicbiodegradation
Under aerobic conditions, organic compounds are decomposed by microorganisms into carbon dioxide (CO2), water (H2O) and mineralized inorganic salts of the elements contained therein. And new biomass.
The total dry solids of the material or compost is subtracted from the difference in residual solids obtained after incineration at about 550 °C. Note. Volatile solids content is a measure of the amount of organic material present. 4 Principle
4.1 The purpose of this standard is to establish standards to identify and identify plastic products and materials that are operating well in composting facilities and typical Good compostability in a continuous composting environment (eg long-term thermophilic phase, aerobic conditions, adequate water content, suitable carbon/nitrogen ratio, etc.). Products that meet the requirements can be labeled as “compostable” or “compostable in municipal or commercial facilities” or “biodegradable during composting”. 4.2 The test mimics the aerobic composting process, which includes.
a) the final aerobic biodegradation rate of the test material;
b) the degree of disintegration of the test;
c) any adverse effects of composting after the end of the test;
d) The maximum concentration of the specified metal in the compost.
The test is terminated when the biodegradation reaches a stationary phase; the test can be terminated for 45 days, but the test can last for up to 6 months. 5 basic requirements
In order to achieve a satisfactory composting effect, the plastic products or materials should meet the requirements of 5.1.1~5.1.4 and the requirements of Chapter 6. 5.1.1 Disintegration performance during composting
Plastic products or materials should be disintegratable in composting. Residual plastics and other organic materials should not be distinguished in composting and should not be tested. Obvious plastic products or residual samples of materials were found during the composting process after the end of the test. 5.1.2 Final aerobic biodegradability
The final aerobic biodegradability was determined by tests under controlled conditions. 5.1.3 does not have a negative impact on the planting of compost
Tested plastics and products should not be composted compared to uncompiled compost or blank compost without starting reference Planting performance has a negative impact.
5.1.4 Compliance with regulations
Controlled heavy metals or other toxic substances released into the environment after decomposition of plastics and products shall comply with the limits stipulated by national and local regulations. Value.
5.2 Correct description of biodegradable
Unless it is clear the composting conditions as described in GB/T 19277.1-2011 and ISO 14855-2.2007, The term "solution" cannot be used to describe a plastic that conforms to the requirements of the present technology. The correct description is, for example, "biodegradable under composting conditions". 6 specific requirements
6.1.1 In order to determine the compostability of the product, appropriate laboratory tests are used to replace the aerobic composting equipment environment, products and materials should be When the corresponding clauses in 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4 are met, the finished product or product shall be tested in its intended form of use. For having no Products and materials of the same thickness and density, such as films, containers and foams, only have the highest thickness and density if the chemical structure and composition are identical. Big product.
6.1.2 Test samples shall not be subjected to the handling behavior of the test results of 6.2 or 6.3 prior to testing. 6.1.3 If the test product or material contains fillers, the products or materials tested in accordance with 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4 shall include The material is removed and the inorganic carbon content is removed according to the calculation method of the inorganic content in 6.3. For products or materials with post fillers or filler content changes, It should be retested to demonstrate that the new material meets the requirements of 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4. Manufacturers can pass the test of the highest and lowest proportion of filler Product or material to establish an acceptable range. Typical fillers include, without limitation, calcium carbonate and titanium dioxide. 6.1.4 The product or material to which the catalyst is subsequently added, or in which the concentration of the catalyst has changed, should be retested to prove that the new material is full. Requirements for feet 6.2, 6.3 and 6.4. Manufacturers can build a product by testing the highest or lowest concentration of catalyst products or materials. The scope of acceptance. Typical catalysts include, without limitation, organometallic compounds such as metal carboxylates and metal complexes. 6.2 Compost disintegration performance
If the plastic product is in the controlled composting test for 84 days, the compost is screened using a sieve with a pore size of 2.0 mm, and the dry weight of the organic matter remains. More than 10% believe that this product is disintegrable. The test is based on GB/T 19811-2005, ISO 20200.2004, GB/T 19277.1- 2011 or ASTM D5338-98 (2003), can be carried out under the conditions of thermophilic composting and CO2-free collection systems. 6.3 Final aerobic biodegradability
6.3.1 When plastic products are in accordance with GB/T 19277.1-2011 or ISO 14855-2.2007 or ASTM D5338-98 (2003) Test that the carbon dioxide conversion rate (CO2/T hCO2) within the time limit specified in 6.3.3 meets the requirements of 6.3.2, then the plastic product may It is considered to have a satisfactory biodegradation rate.
The final aerobic biodegradability of the entire material and the organic component of each content (dry weight) of more than 1% should be determined. The content of less than 1% of the components in the material does not need to prove its biodegradability, but the total amount of these components must not exceed 5%. 6.3.2 For all polymers, at the end of the test (see 6.3.3) 90% of the organic carbon (relative to the positive reference material) should be converted to two Carbon oxide. The positive reference material and the test sample were subjected to the same time compost test, after both curves reached a plateau stage, at the same time Point to compare. Microcrystalline cellulose should be used as a positive reference material; or, at the end of the test, 90% (absolute) of organic carbon is converted to carbon dioxide.
Note. Although in the biological test, the polymer is converted into biomass and humus in addition to carbon dioxide, there is currently no recognized standard for its production. Verification by quasi-test methods or specifications.
6.3.3 The test period should not exceed 180d.
6.4 Ecotoxicity requirements
6.4.1 Composting should not have a negative impact on planting and comply with national and local regulations. 6.4.2 In order to determine the composting of plastic products or materials, composting has no negative impact on the environment and complies with relevant national and local regulations. All requirements are specified in 6.4.2~6.4.4.
6.4.3 The concentration of controlled metals and other toxic substances in plastic products or materials shall be less than that of the country where the product is sold or the country where the sludge is treated. 50% of fertilizer and composting values (see Appendix A).
6.4.4 Plastic products or materials contain at least 50% volatile solids. 6.4.5 Tested in accordance with the provisions of Annexes E of OECD 208 and EN13432.2000, test plant composting Planting germination rate and plant biomass quality tested against blank compost (not tested or tested with the addition of reference material), at least 90% the above.
7 Identification and marking
7.1 Plastic products or materials that meet the requirements specified in Chapter 6 may be identified as “compostable” or “compostable in municipal or commercial facilities” Or "biodegradable in compost."
7.2 Labeling should comply with international, national, regional and local codes. 7.3 The name of the country in which the plastic product or material is sold or composted should be identified. 8 test report
The test results should provide all relevant information, including.
a) all necessary information to prove and describe the test of the product or material; b) all sources, standards and regulations related to the content of controlled metals and other toxic substances in 6.4.2 (a table, column Controlled metals and other toxic substances, description of each source and description of each metal and other toxic substance limits, test Measured concentration and percentage of the specified range);
c) Describe the reference documents and statements regarding whether the test results meet other relevant requirements. Appendix A
Maximum content of controlled metals and other toxic substances
The maximum levels of controlled metals and other toxic substances are shown in Table A.1. Table A.1 is in milligrams per kilogram of dry weight
EN13432c Japan d China e
Zn 1400 463 150 180 -
Cu 750 189 50 60 -
Ni 210 45 25 30 -
Cd 17 5 0.5 0.5 1.5
Pd 150 125 50 10 50
Hg 8.5 1 0.5 0.2 2.5
Cr - 265 50 50 150
Mo - 5 1 - -
Se 50 4 0.75 - -
As 20.5 19 5 5 15
F - - 100 - -
Co - 38 - - -
a The maximum metal concentration in the United States given here is 40 CFR 503.13, 50% of Table 3 (required in ASTM D6400); b Canada's maximum metal concentration is specified in BNQ9011-911-I/2007; c The maximum metal concentration in the EU is the value specified in the ecological criteria for granting environmental improvement indicators to the soil improvement group; d The maximum metal concentration in Japan is the Fertilizer Control Law (Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries) and Compost Control Regulations (Agriculture); e China's maximum metal concentration is 50% of the compost quality specified in CJ/T 3059-1996.