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GB/T 28046.2-2019 English PDF (GBT28046.2-2019)

GB/T 28046.2-2019 English PDF (GBT28046.2-2019)

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GB/T 28046.2-2019: Road vehicles -- Environmental conditions and testing for electrical and electronic equipment -- Part 2: Electrical loads

This Part of GB/T 28046 describes the electrical environmental loads of electrical and electronic equipment on the vehicles and specifies the tests and requirements. This Part applies to type M, N, O automotive electrical and electronic systems/components. Type L vehicle systems/components may refer to it.
GB/T 28046.2-2019
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.040.10
T 36
Replacing GB/T 28046.2-2011
Road vehicles - Environmental conditions and testing
for electrical and electronic equipment - Part 2:
Electrical loads
(ISO 16750-2:2012, MOD)
ISSUED ON: OCTOBER 18, 2019
IMPLEMENTED ON: MAY 01, 2020
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 7
2 Normative references ... 7
3 Terms and definitions ... 7
4 Tests and requirements ... 8
4.1 General ... 8
4.2 Direct current supply voltage range ... 8
4.3 Overvoltage ... 9
4.4 Superimposed alternating voltage ... 10
4.5 Slow decrease and increase of supply voltage ... 12
4.6 Transient changes in supply voltage ... 13
4.7 Reversed voltage ... 21
4.8 Ground reference and supply offset ... 21
4.9 Open circuit ... 22
4.10 Short circuit protection ... 23
4.11 Withstand voltage ... 24
4.12 Insulation resistance ... 25
Annex A (Informative) Origin of load dump in vehicle electrical systems ... 26 Annex B (Normative) Test load dump pulse generator verification ... 27 Annex C (Informative) Flammability test of plastic materials for parts in devices and appliances ... 28
Bibliography ... 34
Road vehicles - Environmental conditions and testing
for electrical and electronic equipment - Part 2:
Electrical loads
1 Scope
This Part of GB/T 28046 describes the electrical environmental loads of electrical and electronic equipment on the vehicles and specifies the tests and requirements.
This Part applies to type M, N, O automotive electrical and electronic
systems/components. Type L vehicle systems/components may refer to it.
2 Normative references
The following documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For the dated references, only the editions with the dates indicated are applicable to this document. For the undated references, the latest edition (including all the amendments) are applicable to this document.
GB/T 28046.1 Road vehicles - Environmental conditions and testing for
electrical and electronic equipment - Part 1: General (GB/T 28046.1-2011, ISO 16750-1:2006, MOD)
GB/T 28046.4-2011 Road vehicles - Environmental conditions and testing for electrical and electronic equipment - Part 4: Climatic loads (ISO 16750- 4:2006, MOD)
GB/T 31465 (all parts) Road vehicles - Fuse-link [ISO 8820 (all parts)] 3 Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this document, the terms and definitions given in GB/T 28046.1 apply.
The functional status shall be minimum class D. Functional status shall be class B where more stringent requirements are necessary.
4.3.2 24 V system
4.3.2.1 Purpose
SIMULATE the condition where the generator regulator fails, so that the output voltage of the generator rises above normal values.
4.3.2.2 Test at Tmax - 20 ??C
HEAT the DUT in a hot air oven to a temperature of Tmax - 20 ??C. Apply a voltage of 36 V for 60 min to valid inputs of the DUT.
4.3.2.3 Requirement
The functional status shall be minimum class C. Functional status shall be class A where more stringent requirements are necessary.
4.4 Superimposed alternating voltage
4.4.1 Purpose
SIMULATE the ripple voltage which occurs under d.c. supply.
4.4.2 Test
Connect the DUT as shown in Figure 1; TEST the valid inputs of the DUT
according to the following regulations. Severity level 1, 2, 3, or 4 may be selected according to actual needs. The test conditions are as follows: - Maximum supply voltage US max (see Figure 2): 16 V (for 12 V system); 32 V (for 24 V system);
- Alternating current voltage (sinusoidal):
Severity 1: Upp=1 V (for 12 V and 24 V systems);
Severity 2: Upp=4 V (for 12 V and 24 V systems);
Severity 3: Upp=10 V (only for 24 V system);
Severity 4: Upp=2 V (only for 12 V system).
- Internal resistance of power supply: 50 m??~100 m??;
- Frequency range (see Figure 3): 50 Hz~25 kHz;
If there are two or more power supply paths for the DUT, this test is used to verify the reliable operation of the component. For example, components with different reference points for power ground and signal ground need to be tested. Note: This test may be determined by negotiation between the supplier and the purchaser. 4.8.2 Test
All inputs and outputs shall simulate a real vehicle. Connect a typical load or network; apply a voltage UA (see GB/T 28046.1) to the DUT to make it work normally.
The ground/supply offset test applies to ground/supply lines. The offset shall be applied to each ground/supply line and between each ground/supply line
separately in sequence. For all DUTs, the offset voltage shall be (1.0??0.1)V. The test sequence is as follows:
a) Apply UA to the DUT.
b) Apply the offset voltage to the DUT ground/supply line.
c) Perform a functional test under the above condition.
d) Repeat step c) for each next ground/supply line combination.
Repeat the test with reverse offset voltage.
4.8.3 Requirement
All functional status shall be class A.
4.9 Open circuit
4.9.1 Single line interruption
4.9.1.1 Purpose
Verify the performance of the DUT when a line is disconnected.
4.9.1.2 Test
Connect and operate the DUT as intended. Open one circuit of the DUT/system interface, then restore the connection. Observe the device behaviour during and after the interruption. Repeat for each circuit of the DUT/system interface. The test conditions are as follows:
- Interruption time: (10??1)s.
1) outputs active;
2) outputs inactive;
b) disconnected supply voltage.
4.10.2.2 Requirement
The functional status shall be class C.
4.10.3 Load circuits
4.10.3.1 Test
Connect the DUT to the power supply. The load circuits shall be in operation. For test duration, the specifications of the appropriate part of GB/T 31465 (operating time rating) shall be used, considering the upper tolerance plus 10 %. If protection other than fuses is used (e.g. electronic protection), the test duration shall be agreed between supplier and purchaser.
4.10.3.2 Requirements
All electronically protected outputs shall be able to withstand the short circuit current and shall return to normal operation upon removal of the short circuit current (the functional status shall be minimum class C).
All conventional fuse protected outputs shall be able to withstand the short circuit current and shall return to normal operation upon replacement of the conventional fuse (the functional status shall be minimum class D).
All unprotected outputs may be damaged by the test current (the functional status shall be class E) provided that the materials in the DUT are compliant with the flammability test of UL 94 (see Annex C).
4.11 Withstand voltage
4.11.1 Purpose
Verify the dielectric insulation withstand voltage capability of the DUT. This test is required only for systems/components which contain inductive elements (e.g. relays, motors, coils) or are connected to circuits with inductive load. The leakage current generated by high voltage through the electric field between electrically isolated components may affect the insulation performance. This test stresses the insulation system and checks the ability of the dielectric material to withstand a higher voltage caused by switching off inductive loads. Annex C
(Informative)
Flammability test of plastic materials for parts in devices and
appliances1)
C.1 Explanation of special terms
Some of the terms used in this annex are explained below:
After-flame: The flame remaining on the test material after the fire source is removed.
After-flame time: The time for which the flame remains on the test material under the specified conditions after the fire source is removed.
After-glow: The state in which the test material glows after the flame has gone out or there is no flame after the fire source is removed.
After-glow time: The duration of the After-glow on the test material under the specified test conditions after the fire source is removed/the flame is stopped. C.2 Significance of the test
C.2.1 The test materials are subjected to prescribed tests to provide the following information: compare the combustion characteristics of different test materials; or before use, evaluate all changes in their combustion
characteristics. This test method does not provide the characteristics of the test material under the relevant working conditions.
C.2.2 Assessing the risks caused by combustion needs to consider the effects caused by the fuel, the intensity of the combustion (the rate of heat release), the environmental consequences of the intensity of the products and sources of combustion, the direction of material exposure, and the conditions of air circulation.
C.2.3 The test process is used to determine the combustion characteristics. The influencing factors are density, color, material heterogeneity due to forming conditions, and sample thickness.
C.2.4 When the thin material sample taken from the flat plate does not shrink 1) This annex has been prepared with reference to UL 94.
samples are put into the test. In this case, the total After-flame time (t1+t2) range of the 5 samples for V-0 is 51 s~55 s and is 251 s~255 s for V-1 and V-2. If the total time of all samples in a group meets the corresponding requirements, the test material of this thickness is determined as V-0, V-1, or V-2.
C.5.2 Test samples
C.5.2.1 All samples shall be cut into strip-shaped materials, or cast or compressed, extruded, converted, or laminated to the required shape. After cutting, it shall pay attention to remove all dust and particles on the surface. The edges and end faces shall be rounded.
C.5.2.2 In the minimum and maximum thickness range, the standard sample strip is 125 mm??5 mm in length and 13.0 mm??0.5 mm in width. The maximum thickness does not exceed 13 mm. When the test results of the minimum and maximum thickness samples are not consistent, the test is performed on the intermediate-thickness sample. The increment of the intermediate-thickness sample shall not exceed 3.2 mm. Similarly, the corners need to be rounded; the radius does not exceed 1.3 mm.
C.5.2.3 Test material scope: If the material needs to consider color, density, melting flow or enhancement, these samples shall be provided.
C.5.2.4 If the test results are essentially the same, most of the samples usually provided can be dark and light, deep dark, and in representative colors. In addition, a set of samples of deep color combinations is required, unless most of the dark light and deep dark colors have been included. When some known colors (such as red, yellow, or similar colors) affect the combustion
characteristics, samples are required.
C.5.2.5 If the test results are consistent in nature, the samples provided shall be representative, including extreme (lowest and highest end) density, melting flow and enhancement samples. If the scope of samples provided is essentially different in the combustion characteristics, only a limited evaluation of the density, melting flow and enhancement parts can be performed; or the samples of intermediate density, melting flow and enhancement parts can be increased for testing.
C.5.3 Conditions
C.5.3.1 5 samples in each group. A total of 2 groups of samples are pretreated according to the requirements of C.4.1.
C.5.3.2 5 samples in each group. A total of 2 groups of samples are pretreated according to the requirements of C.4.2. As an alternative, pre-treatment for industrial laminated products at 125 ??C??1 ??C for 24 h is chosen.

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