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GB/T 24610.1-2019 English PDF (GBT24610.1-2019)

GB/T 24610.1-2019 English PDF (GBT24610.1-2019)

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GB/T 24610.1-2019: Rolling bearings -- Measuring methods for vibration -- Part 1: Fundamentals

GB/T 24610.1-2019
Rolling bearings--Measuring methods for vibration--Part 1. Fundamentals ICS 21.100.20
National Standards of People's Republic of China
Replaces GB/T 24610.1-2009
Method for measuring vibration of rolling bearings
Part 1. Basics
Part 1. Fundamentals
(ISO 15242-1..2015, IDT)
Published on October 18,.2019
2020-05-01 implementation
State Administration of Market Supervision
Published by China National Standardization Administration
Foreword I
Introduction Ⅱ
1 range 1
2 Normative references 1
3 Terms and definitions 1
4 Basic Concepts 3
5 Measurement procedure 6
6 Measurement and evaluation methods 7
7 Measurement conditions 9
8 Calibration and evaluation of measurement systems 10
Appendix A (informative) Need to consider the contact resonance of spring-loaded sensors 11 Appendix B (informative) Correlation between displacement, velocity and acceleration amplitude 12 Appendix C (informative) Measurement of radial runout and axial runout of the mandrel 13 References 14
GB/T 24610 "Measurement method for rolling bearing vibration" is divided into 4 parts. --- Part 1. Basics;
--- Part 2. Radial ball bearings with cylindrical holes and cylindrical outer surfaces; --- Part 3. Spherical roller bearings and tapered roller bearings with cylindrical bore and cylindrical outer surface; --- Part 4. Cylindrical roller bearings with cylindrical bore and cylindrical outer surface. This part is the first part of GB/T 24610.
This section is drafted in accordance with the rules given in GB/T 1.1-2009. This section replaces GB/T 24610.1-2009 "Measurement methods for rolling bearing vibration-Part 1. Basics", and GB/T 24610.1- Compared with.2009, the main technical changes are as follows.
--- Deleted the terms "stiffness", "displacement", "speed", "acceleration", "passband", "exponential average effective speed" and their definitions (see.2009 edition) 3.2, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.11, 3.14);
--- Modified the definition of "vibration" and "sensor" and the abbreviated form of "root mean square" (see 3.2, 3.3, 3.7, 3.3, 3.4,.2009 version, 3.13);
--- Added the term "sharp pulse" "pulse" and its definition (see 3.9, 3.10); --- Modified some requirements of measurement procedures (see 5.2, 5.5, 5.2 and 5.5 of the.2009 version); --- Modified some requirements for measurement and evaluation methods (see 6.2, 6.3, 6.5, 6.2, 6.3, 6.5 of the.2009 edition); --- Modified some graphics (see Figure 4, Figure 5, Figure 6,.2009 version of Figure 2, Figure 3, Figure 4); --- Modified the content of the bearing measurement conditions (see 7.1, 7.1 of the.2009 edition); --- Modified some requirements of test device conditions (see 7.3,.2009 version 7.3); --- Deleted the "requirements for operators" (see 7.4 of the.2009 edition); --- Revised the requirements for system performance evaluation (see 8.3, 8.3 of the.2009 version); --- Informative appendix B "Correlation of displacement, velocity and acceleration amplitude" and informative appendix C "radial runout and axis Measurement of runout ".
This section uses the translation method equivalent to ISO 15242-1..2015 "Rolling bearing vibration measurement methods-Part 1. Basics". The Chinese documents that have a consistent correspondence with the international documents referenced normatively in this section are as follows. --- GB/T 1800.2-2009 Geometrical Product Specifications (GPS) Limits and Fits Part 2. Standard Tolerance Grades and Hole and shaft limit deviation table (ISO 286-2. 1988, MOD)
--- GB/T 2298-2010 Vocabulary for mechanical vibration, shock and condition monitoring (ISO 2041..2009, IDT) --- GB/T 6930-2002 Vocabulary for rolling bearings (ISO 5593..1997, IDT) This section is proposed by China Machinery Industry Federation.
This part is under the jurisdiction of the National Rolling Bearing Standardization Technical Committee (SAC/TC98). This section was drafted. Hangzhou Bearing Test Research Center Co., Ltd., Luoyang Bearing Research Institute Co., Ltd., Fujian Yongan Bearing Co., Ltd. Limited liability company, Cixing Group Co., Ltd., Huanchi Bearing Group Co., Ltd., Chongqing Changjiang Bearing Co., Ltd., Xinchang County Kaiyuan Automobile Bearing Co., Ltd., Zhejiang Meiyate Precision Machinery Co., Ltd., Jim Bearing Group Co., Ltd., Dalian Baishengyuan Technology Co., Ltd. The main drafters of this section. Li Xinglin, Zhao Liya, Li Feixue, Qian Weihua, Zhao Kun, Chen Yinjun, Zhao Xingxin, Liu Dan, Zhou Youhua, Zhang Tianping, Hou Yongqiang and Zhang Dongdong.
The previous versions of the standards replaced by this section are.
--- GB/T 24610.1-2009.
The vibration of a rolling bearing is an important operating characteristic. Vibration will affect the performance of the mechanical system with bearings. When propagated to the environment in which the operating mechanical system is located, it can cause audible noise, which can lead to system damage and even health problems. The vibration of a rolling bearing during rotation is a complex physical phenomenon related to the operating conditions. Single set of shafts measured under a set of conditions The bearing vibration value does not necessarily represent the vibration value under different conditions or when the bearing becomes a part of a larger component. Assessed The sound generated by the mechanical system of the bearing is more complicated.It is also affected by the interface conditions, the position and orientation of the sensing device, and the sound of the system. Impact of the learning environment. Air noise-GB/T 24610 (all parts) is defined as any unpleasant, undesired sound. Because the term "unpleasant, undesired" is subjective, its evaluation is more complicated. It can be considered that the structural vibration of the bearing is Eventually the driving source for air noise. GB/T 24610 (all parts) only includes vibration measurement of selected bearing structures method.
This section defines and specifies the physical quantities to be measured and the general test conditions and environment when measuring rolling bearing vibration on a test device. situation. According to this part, the acceptance party of the bearing can determine the acceptance standard through negotiation to control the vibration of the bearing. Bearing vibration can be evaluated using any of a number of methods, with different evaluation methods using different types of sensors and test conditions. No set of values characterizing bearing vibrations can evaluate bearing vibration performance under all possible conditions of use. Eventually, also It should be based on known bearing types, conditions of use, and vibration testing purposes (e.g. To choose the most suitable test method. Therefore, the scope of application of bearing vibration standards is not universal. But for the purposes of this section, Only certain methods with a very broad scope are established as standard methods. This section specifies the general principles of vibration measurement.The different types of bearing vibration assessment methods with cylindrical holes and cylindrical outer surfaces Details will be specified in other parts of GB/T 24610.
Method for measuring vibration of rolling bearings
Part 1. Basics
1 Scope
This part of GB/T 24610 specifies the vibration measurement methods of rotating rolling bearings under the established test conditions and related Calibration of measurement systems.
2 Normative references
The following documents are essential for the application of this document. For dated references, only the dated version applies to this article Pieces. For undated references, the latest version (including all amendments) applies to this document. ISO 286-2 Geometric Product Specifications (GPS) Linear Dimensional Tolerance ISO Code System Part 2. Standard Tolerance Classes and Hole and shaft limit deviation table [Geometricalproductspecifications (GPS) -ISO codesystemfortoleranceson linearsizes-Part 2. Tablesofstandardtoleranceclassesandlimitdeviationsforholesandshafts] ISO 2041..2009 Vocabulary for mechanical vibration, shock and condition monitoring (Mechanicalvibration, shockandcondition monitoring-Vocabulary)
ISO 5593 rolling bearing vocabulary (Rolingbearings-Vocabulary)
3 terms and definitions
The terms and definitions defined in ISO 2041 and ISO 5593 and the following apply to this document. 3.1
Motion error
Undesirable radial or axial (translational) or inclined (angular) motion of the axis of rotation, but does not include changes due to temperature or applied load Induced movement.
Mechanical oscillations around a point of equilibrium.
Note. This oscillation can be periodic or random.
[2.1 from ISO 2041..2009, modified]
A device that converts energy from one form to another in a way so that the desired characteristics of the input energy are at the output show.
Note 1. The output is usually an electrical parameter.
Note 2. The English term "pick-up" is not recommended.
Note 3. The main types of sensors used for measuring vibration are.
a) piezoelectric accelerometer;
b) piezoresistive accelerometers;
c) strain gauge accelerometer;
d) variable resistance sensor;
e) electrostatic (capacitance) sensors;
f) sticky wire (foil) type strain gauge;
g) variable reluctance sensor;
h) magnetostrictive sensors;
i) moving conductor sensors;
j) moving coil sensor;
k) Inductive sensors;
l) Laser vibrometer.
Note 4. Other types of sensors can also be used, such as dynamic force sensors, which can convert signals into displacement, velocity or acceleration signals. [From 4.1 of ISO 2041..2009, changes have been made --- note 3 and note 4 have been added] 3.4
Filter; wavefilter
An analog or digital device that separates vibrations based on frequency so that the attenuation of a wave's vibration in one or more frequency bands is relatively small, while in its The attenuation in other frequency bands is relatively large.
Band-pass filter
Single passband filter (3.4) from a lower cut-off frequency greater than zero to a defined upper cut-off frequency. 3.6
Nominal upper and lower cut-off frequencies
fupp and flow
Defines the nominal frequency of the band-pass filter (3.5).
Root mean square velocity rootmeansquarevelocity; rmsvelocity
vrms (t)
Within the time interval T, the average value of the square of the vibration velocity is taken as the square root. Note 1. The root mean square value also applies to displacement and acceleration. Note 2. In the.2009 edition of this section, the root mean square is abbreviated as rms. 3.8
Fundamental period
The minimum increment of the argument when the periodic quantity function is repeated. Note. If there is no ambiguity, the basic period can be called the period. [2.32 from ISO 2041..2009]
Sharp pulse spike
A single, obvious, rapid transient change in amplitude that exceeds the average level of the signal. Note. Figure 1 is an example of a sharp pulse.
1 --- sharp pulse.
Figure 1 Sharp pulses in the time domain
Pulse plus
The amplitude is periodic and obvious, and the transient changes rapidly, and exceeds the average level of the signal. Note. Figure 2 is an example of a pulse.
Fig. 2 Pulse phenomenon in time domain
4 Basic concepts
4.1 Bearing vibration measurement
Figure 3 shows the basic elements of bearing vibration measurement and the factors that affect the measurement. The numbers in Figure 3 correspond to the items in this section. Section number.
Figure 3 Basic elements of bearing vibration measurement
4.2 Characteristics of the rotation axis
Rotary bearings can provide a rotation axis for the rotation of one machine part relative to another part, and can bear radial and/or axial loads. A spin The axis can show the movement of six basic degrees of freedom, as shown in Figure 4, and listed as follows. --- Rotary motion, see Figure 4b);
--- Radial translational movement, that is, translational movement in one or two mutually perpendicular planes through the axis of rotation, see Figure 4c) And Figure 4d);
--- Axial translational movement, that is, translational movement in a direction parallel to the axis of rotation, see Figure 4e); --- Angular tilting motion, that is, angular motion in one or two mutually perpendicular planes passing through the axis of rotation, see Figure 4f) And Figure 4g).
Ideally, there is no resistance (ie zero frictional torque) to the external load in the rotation direction of the rotary bearing. According to the applied load Type, the bearing shall be designed to be able to withstand the applied load and present at any or all of the remaining five degrees of freedom Is rigid. For example, bearings with self-aligning capability can withstand radial and axial loads. Does not appear rigid. Other bearings can be designed to move freely in the axial direction, but at this time they should be rigid in radial and tilt directions. a) General information about axis names
b) Rotational motion coaxial with the Z reference axis c) Radial translational motion in the X direction d) Radial translational motion in the Y direction e) Axial translational motion in the Z direction f) Tilt motion in the X direction with A as the origin g) Tilt motion in Y direction with A as the origin Explanation.
AB --- Z reference axis;
CD --- axis of rotation.
Figure 4 Schematic diagram of six degrees of freedom of the rotation axis 4.3 Bearing motion error
The bearing has five non-rotating degrees of freedom and can be designed to bear loads on any one of the non-rotating degrees of freedom. Axis of rotation of a rotary bearing The displacement on any of the five non-rotating degrees of freedom is the bearing's motion error. This includes any position related to bearing rotation Shift, but not including shifts due to temperature changes or applied load changes. Kinematic errors are expressed as displacements, deviation. The motion error of rotary bearings is caused by the imperfect geometry of the internal surfaces of the bearings that perform relative motion when the bearings rotate of. The non-ideal geometry may be an inherent characteristic of the bearing part (e.g., an error in the shape of the machined surface), or it may be due to the Caused by deformation of bearing parts during fitting or installation.
4.4 Bearing vibration
Factors that cause bearing motion errors can also cause dynamic vibration of bearing parts. Vibration is the result of displacement caused by motion errors As a result, the effects of acceleration-related inertial forces and the rigidity of the bearing or mounting also need to be considered to cause internal forces in the bearing. Deformation of bearing parts over time, a number of unexpected rolling elements and cage movement patterns, and cages relative to rolling elements or Periodic displacement of the ferrule can also cause internal forces. Under certain circumstances (e.g., rotational speed and applied load), vibration is induced by motion errors Up. Bearing vibration can affect the performance of mechanical systems and can cause air noise and structural noise in systems including bearings. 5 Measurement procedure
5.1 Basic principles of vibration measurement
For the purpose of this section, the structural vibration of a rotating bearing measured by a sensor is evaluated. Sensors can be displacement, velocity, acceleration, or Force sensor. The sensor is installed at a specified point on a bearing ring, or on a mechanical connection with a bearing ring. At a specified point on a mechanical part on the test device. The line of action of the sensor relative to a frame of reference (ie axial or radial) should be specified. The bearing rotates at a fixed rotational frequency under a specified load condition, monitors the signal of the sensor for a specified period of time, and then The data is analyzed and calculated, and one or more parameters used to characterize the vibration are obtained. From these observations, the selected test is obtained Bearing vibration data under conditions.
Note. Under different operating conditions, these results may not necessarily lead to conclusions about bearing vibration and noise. The measurement program can be represented by a block diagram, as shown in Figure 3, which is a combination of various elements. The corresponding clauses in this section give the measurement procedures Details of each element.
5.2 Rotation frequency
During bearing vibration measurement, the outer ring is stationary, and the inner ring rotates at a constant rotational frequency, which is related to the size and structure of the bearing (see GB/T 24610 specific types of parts); or, when measuring, the bearing can also be stationary on the inner ring and the outer ring rotating. During the measurement, the stationary sleeve The ring allows a small amount of rotational movement.
During the test, the actual rotation frequency should not exceed 1-2% of the nominal rotation frequency. 5.3 Bearing orientation of bearing rotation axis
When testing bearing vibration, the axis of rotation of the bearing can be in a vertical or horizontal position. When the axis is horizontal, the gravity of the earth relative to The orientation of a rotating rolling body changes, otherwise it will cause additional vibration, unless the centrifugal force on the rolling body or the contact force on the rolling body Much greater than its own weight.
5.4 Bearing load
In order to achieve the kinematic conditions defined in the bearing, the bearing should be loaded during the vibration measurement process. The applied load should be large enough to prevent rolling The body is relatively slippery relative to the inner and outer ring raceways without affecting the measurement results. 5.5 Sensor
The measured parameter is the radial or axial vibration of the measured ferrule. Electromechanical sensors convert mechanical motion into displacement, velocity or acceleration as Unit of electrical signal.
When using a touch sensor, care should be taken to ensure that the sensor cannot affect the vibration of the ferrule under test. But this contact needs to be strong enough So that all vibrations in the applicable frequency range can be detected. For this reason, the mass of the movable part should be as small as possible. If Zhen Motion is transmitted through the sensor contacts that are in contact with the ferrule under test, and the occurrence of contact resonance should also be considered (see Appendix A). The signal presented should be speed because it provides the best resolution over a wide frequency range. Vibration of the ferrule under test It is a complex superposition of various amplitude displacements at different frequencies. Although there may be large single amplitudes, even at higher frequencies This is the case (especially for defective bearings), but the amplitude generally decreases with increasing frequency and can be reduced to the nanometer level at a few kilohertz. Because the sound pressure is proportional to the speed signal on the surface, the speed sensor should be selected first. The selected sensor should provide sufficient Enough wide frequency response.
Note. The correlation of displacement, velocity and acceleration at different frequencies is given in Appendix B. 6 Measurement and evaluation methods
6.1 Measured physical quantities

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