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GB/T 22724-2022 English PDF (GBT22724-2022)

GB/T 22724-2022 English PDF (GBT22724-2022)

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GB/T 22724-2022: Installation and equipment for liquefied natural gas -- Design of onshore installations

This document specifies the technical requirements for the design, construction, operation, maintenance of onshore fixed facilities for natural gas liquefaction plants (LNG plants), LNG receiving stations, onshore gasification parts of floating storage facilities, LNG storage and distribution stations, LNG peak shaving stations, ship LNG bunkering stations. This document applies to the newly built, expanded, renovated LNG stations mentioned above.
GB/T 22724-2022
ICS 75.060
CCS E 24
Replacing GB/T 22724-2008
Installation and equipment for liquefied natural gas - Design
of onshore installations
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation.
Standardization Administration of PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 6
1 Scope ... 9
2 Normative references ... 9
3 Terms and definitions ... 13
4 Safety and environment ... 16
4.1 General requirements ... 16
4.2 Environmental impact ... 16
4.3 Security ... 18
4.4 Hazard assessment ... 20
4.5 Safety design ... 27
5 Liquefaction device ... 30
5.1 Composition ... 30
5.2 Natural gas purification ... 30
5.3 Natural gas liquefaction ... 31
5.4 Storage ... 31
6 Storage system ... 32
6.1 General requirements ... 32
6.2 Tank types ... 32
6.3 Design principles ... 32
6.4 General design principles ... 35
6.5 Foundations ... 36
6.6 Field instruments ... 36
6.7 Pressure and vacuum protection ... 38
6.8 Impounding area ... 41
6.9 Safety facilities ... 42
6.10 Tank piping ... 43
6.11 Tank spacing ... 44
6.12 Test run and outage ... 44
6.13 Test ... 44
7 Liquefied natural gas pump ... 44
7.1 General requirements ... 44
7.2 Materials ... 45
7.3 Specific requirements ... 45
7.4 Inspection and test ... 45
8 Gasification of liquefied natural gas ... 46
8.1 General requirements ... 46
8.2 Design conditions ... 48
8.3 Vaporizer ... 49
9 Piping layout ... 55
9.1 Piping system ... 55
9.2 Design principles ... 57
9.3 Piping check, inspection, test ... 57
9.4 Pipe components ... 58
9.5 Valves ... 61
9.6 Safety valves ... 62
9.7 Pipe galleries and pipe strips ... 62
9.8 Thermal insulation ... 63
10 Receiving and exporting natural gas ... 66
10.1 Metering ... 66
10.2 Gas quality ... 66
10.3 Odorizing... 67
11 Recovery and treatment of evaporative gas ... 67
11.1 General requirements ... 67
11.2 Recycling ... 67
11.3 Collection ... 68
11.4 Return flow ... 68
11.5 Compressor ... 69
11.6 Recondensation ... 69
11.7 Re-liquefaction ... 69
11.8 Flaring and venting ... 69
12 Wharf facilities ... 71
12.1 Site selection ... 71
12.2 Engineering design ... 71
12.3 Safety ... 72
13 Electrical and building ... 72
13.1 Electrical equipment ... 72
13.2 Lightning protection and anti-static ... 72
13.3 Buildings ... 73
14 Hazard management ... 73
14.1 Intrinsic safety ... 73
14.2 Passive protection ... 76
14.3 Security ... 77
14.4 Detection and alarm ... 77
14.5 Active protection ... 77
15 Automatic control and communication ... 77
15.1 General requirements ... 77
15.2 Process control system ... 78
15.3 Safety instrumented systems ... 79
15.4 Fire and gas detection systems ... 81
15.5 Wharf facility monitoring and control ... 81
15.6 Communication ... 82
16 Construction, commissioning, maintenance ... 83
16.1 Environment, production safety, occupational health and quality ... 83 16.2 Acceptance test ... 83
16.3 Preparations before starting and shutdown ... 83
17 Anticorrosion ... 84
17.1 Anticorrosion layer ... 84
17.2 Cathodic protection ... 85
18 Training ... 85
19 Maritime training ... 85
Appendix A (Normative) Radiant heat limits ... 86
A.1 Radiant heat of LNG fire ... 86
A.2 Radiant heat from flares and venting tubes ... 87
Appendix B (Normative) Seismic classification ... 89
B.1 Principles ... 89
B.2 SSE seismic categories ... 90
B.3 Basic security measures after SSE occurs ... 91
Appendix C (Informative) Schematic diagram of different types of LNG storage tanks ... 92
C.1 Overview ... 92
C.2 Spherical storage tank ... 95
C.3 Low-temperature concrete storage tank ... 96
Appendix D (Normative) Reference flow ... 98
D.1 Gas emissions VT caused by heat input ... 98
D.2 Gas emissions VL caused by liquid filling ... 98
D.3 Gas emissions V0 caused by overfilling ... 98
D.4 Gas emissions VF caused by flash evaporation during filling process ... 98 D.5 Gas emissions VR caused by circulating LNG with a submersible pump ... 100 D.6 Gas emissions VA caused by changes in atmospheric pressure ... 100
D.7 Gas emissions VV caused by control valve failure ... 101
D.8 Gas emissions VI caused by heat input during fire ... 101
D.9 Gas supplement volume VD caused by liquid phase pump extraction ... 101 D.10 Gas supplement amount VC caused by compressor extraction ... 101
D.11 Gas emissions VB caused by rollover ... 102
Appendix E (Normative) Additional requirements for LNG pumps ... 103
E.1 Design ... 103
E.2 Inspection... 103
E.3 Test ... 105
E.4 Nominal value ... 107
E.5 Nameplate ... 107
E.6 Submersible pump and cables ... 108
E.7 Vertical submersible pump ... 109
Appendix F (Normative) Pipeline design ... 110
Appendix G (Normative) Odor ... 112
G.1 Odorants ... 112
G.2 Odorization system ... 112
G.3 Odorant treatment ... 113
G.4 Odorant filling ... 114
G.5 Odorant leakage ... 114
G.6 Personal protection ... 114
References ... 115
Installation and equipment for liquefied natural gas - Design
of onshore installations
1 Scope
This document specifies the technical requirements for the design, construction, operation, maintenance of onshore fixed facilities for natural gas liquefaction plants (LNG plants), LNG receiving stations, onshore gasification parts of floating storage facilities, LNG storage and distribution stations, LNG peak shaving stations, ship LNG bunkering stations.
This document applies to the newly built, expanded, renovated LNG stations mentioned above.
2 Normative references
The contents of the following documents constitute essential provisions of this document through normative references in the text. Among them, for dated reference documents, only the version corresponding to the date applies to this document; for undated reference documents, the latest version (including all amendments) applies to this document.
GB/T 150 (all parts) Pressure vessels
GB/T 3215 Centrifugal pumps for petroleum, petrochemical and natural gas industries
GB/T 3216 Rotodynamic pumps - Hydraulic performance acceptance tests - Grades 1, 2 and 3
GB/T 3836.1 Explosive atmospheres - Part 1: Equipment - General requirements GB/T 8423.3 Petroleum and natural gas industries terminology - Part 3: Oil-gas surface engineering
GB/T 9445 Non-destructive testing - Qualification and certification of NDT personnel
GB 12348 Emission standard for industrial enterprises noise at boundary GB 12523 Emission standard of environment noise for boundary of construction site natural gas and vaporize it into normal temperature gas.
4 Safety and environment
4.1 General requirements
4.1.1 The safety design of the LNG station shall be controlled by a feasible safety and environmental protection management system; the impact of the station on safety and environment shall be evaluated, according to the requirements of this chapter. 4.1.2 The personal risk and social risk benchmarks of LNG stations shall comply with the provisions of GB 36894.
4.2 Environmental impact
4.2.1 Environmental impact assessment During the feasibility study stage of the project, a preliminary environmental impact analysis shall be conducted on the selected site; when determining the site, an environmental impact assessment shall be conducted. All emissions within the station, including waste gas, waste water, solid waste, liquid waste, etc., shall be identified; measures shall be taken, to ensure that there will be no impact on people, property, environment, etc. It shall establish an environmental management and monitoring plan for wastewater and waste gas; it shall formulate measures and plans for treating pollutants. Environmental impact assessments shall be conducted, on activities increased due to project construction and operation, to eliminate, reduce, limit adverse impacts on the environment. The main assessment contents include but are not limited to the following:
a) Construction plan and pollutant emissions during construction;
b) Transportation plan and pollutant emissions (inlet and outlet channels for ship transportation, roads for LNG tankers to enter and exit the filling station, external pipeline projects, etc.);
c) Process waste gas and combustion flue gas emissions during station operation; d) Sewage discharge during station operation period;
e) Solid waste disposal plan during the station operation period;
f) Noise emissions during station operation;
g) Environmental risk assessment during station operation period.
4.2.2 Station emissions
During the design process, it shall formulate plans, to avoid and reduce emissions, which are caused by facility test run, operation, maintenance. It shall clarify the pollutant emissions and emission limits.
4.2.3 Emission control
The following emissions shall be controlled, under the premise of safety: a) Combustion products;
b) Venting of normal or accidental gases;
c) Combustion of normal or accidental gas;
d) Disposal of acidic gas solvents;
e) Disposal of waste mercury reagents (when the mercury removal process is non- renewable, the used adsorbent shall be stored and processed, OR disposed of by a qualified solid waste receiver organization);
f) Dryer?€?s regeneration condensation wastewater or oily wastewater from equipment; g) Hydrocarbon-containing sewage, which is produced due to leakage of heat exchangers, in cooling water equipment;
h) Solid waste (including waste oil and chlorine-containing organic compounds); i) Vaporizer drainage;
j) Odor-generating chemicals.
4.2.4 Flaring and venting
The design principle of the station is that there is no continuous discharge of flare gas or vent air to the flare or venting system, under normal operating conditions. Design reasonable measures, to ensure that the waste gas generated during normal operation is recovered as much as possible AND shall not be discharged to the flare or vent system. 4.2.5 Noise
Station design shall take measures, to control noise, to reduce the impact on people exposed to the station and the communities surrounding the station. Unfavorable geology shall be avoided, when selecting the site location. When it is unavoidable, effective measures shall be taken to resolve potential problems. 4.3.3 Climate
Climate studies shall include:
a) Wind force and direction (frequency and intensity of hurricanes, etc.); b) Temperature;
c) Atmospheric stability;
d) Range and rate of changes in atmospheric pressure;
e) Rain, snow, ice;
f) Corrosiveness of air;
g) Flood hazard;
h) Lightning strike frequency;
i) Relative humidity.
Climate studies shall include local climate change trends.
4.3.4 Earthquakes Earthquakes are divided into horizontal earthquakes and vertical earthquakes. Acceleration shall be described, according to GB 50011, as follows:
a) Earthquake influence coefficient curve;
b) Maximum value of earthquake influence coefficient. It shall assess the probability of seismic activity at the engineering site; form a seismic safety assessment report for the site where the storage tank is located. The report shall include an assessment of hazard risks, such as earthquakes, tsunamis, landslides, volcanic activity. The report shall present the seismic ground motion characteristics of the tank and surrounding areas, as well as all seismic parameters required for tank design. The scope of the area to be surveyed shall be determined, based on the site geological survey report. A detailed survey (regional seismic survey) of the area, which is away from the site and surrounding areas, shall be conducted, to find out whether there are faults and earthquake sources. Investigate historical earthquake records, that have or may have an impact on the site; conduct detailed research, review, evaluation of them. In the case of earthquake faults in the immediate vicinity of the site, further research shall be conducted on the engineering site. It shall assess the seismic activity probability of the engineering site, to determine the following acceleration response spectrum:
a) Safety shutdown earthquake (SSE);
b) Operational baseline earthquake (OBE). The return period for an SSE earthquake is 2475 a (50 a exceedance probability is 2%); the return period for an OBE earthquake is 475 a (50 a exceedance probability is 10%).
4.3.5 Location During the feasibility study stage of the project, it shall finish the project site location evaluation, to ensure that the site selection plan is compatible with regional development. The evaluation shall include at least the following factors: a) Residential development;
b) Retail and leisure development;
c) Industrial development;
d) Transportation infrastructure;
e) Sensitive projects (schools, hospitals, social welfare facilities, gymnasiums, cultural facilities, etc.). After site selection, a detailed site selection evaluation shall be conducted. The method and scope of site selection evaluation shall consider the total amount and scale of hazardous materials, in the proposed station and surrounding built and planned projects.
4.4 Hazard assessment
4.4.1 Assessment Method Deterministic method and/or probabilistic method can be used, for hazard assessment. External hazard sources
It should identify hazards external to the station, that may be caused by the following situations:
a) The LNG ship enters the berth, at excessive speed or at a large angle; b) The possibility of collision between heavy ships and terminals and/or LNG ships when passing the berth;
c) Impact of vehicle collisions (ships, vehicles, aircraft, etc.) and projectiles; d) Natural events (thunder, flood, earthquake, tide, iceberg, tsunami, etc.); e) High energy radio waves;
f) "Secondary accidents", which are caused by fires and/or explosions in nearby facilities;
g) Flammable, toxic or asphyxiating vapor clouds;
h) Permanent ignition sources, such as high-voltage power lines (corona effect); i) External uncontrolled point ignition sources close to the station. Internal hazard sources Liquefied natural gas
Hazard source identification shall include leakage accident scenarios for all equipment in the station, including but not limited to flash evaporation, aerosol formation, liquid injection, liquid pool formation and overflow, steam gas diffusion, jet fire, flash fire, steam cloud explosion, fireballs, pool fires, pressure vessel explosions and, boiling liquids expanding vapor cloud explosions. The leakage accident scenario can be determined according to the following principles:
a) The possibility of hazards;
b) Leakage location;
c) Fluid physical state;
d) Leakage flow rate and duration;
e) Meteorological conditions (wind speed, wind direction, atmospheric stability, ambient temperature, relative humidity, etc.);
f) Thermal conductivity and topography of the ground (including impoundment areas);
m) Port facilities related to LNG stations;
n) Security (intrusion, destruction, etc.);
o) Accidents during construction and maintenance;
p) Secondary accidents. Probability calculation
The frequency of equipment leakage of LNG and other hazardous materials can be determined, according to GB/T 20368, OR an enterprise historical database and corrected leakage frequency with sufficient data and statistical significance can be selected. Consequence calculation Gasification of spilled LNG A generally recognized and applied model shall be used, for calculation. The calculation includes the following factors:
a) LNG leakage flow rate and duration;
b) LNG components;
c) Ground characteristics (heat conduction, specific heat, density, terrain characteristics, etc.);
d) Ground temperature or water temperature;
e) Meteorological conditions (ambient temperature, humidity, wind speed, etc.); f) Atmospheric stability or temperature gradient;
g) Instant gasification phenomenon (flash evaporation, including possible aerosol formation). The model shall be able to determine the following:
a) The expansion speed of the liquid pool;
b) The area wetted per unit time, especially the maximum wetted area;
c) The amount of gasification per unit time, especially the maximum gasification amount. Atmospheric diffusion of LNG vapor

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