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GB/T 22669-2008 English PDF (GBT22669-2008)

GB/T 22669-2008 English PDF (GBT22669-2008)

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GB/T 22669-2008: Test procedures for three-phase permanent magnet synchronous machines

This Standard specifies the test procedures for three-phase permanent magnet synchronous machines. This Standard is applicable to self-starting three-phase permanent magnet synchronous machines. The test for synchronous machines powered by static variable frequency power supply may refer to use. It is not applicable to synchronous machines with DC excitation winding.
GB/T 22669-2008
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 29.160.30
K 21
Test procedures for three-phase permanent magnet
synchronous machines
ISSUED ON: DECEMBER 31, 2008
IMPLEMENTED ON: NOVEMBER 01, 2009
Issued by: General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine;
Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of
China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 4
2 Normative references ... 4
3 Main symbols ... 5
4 Test requirements ... 7
5 Test preparation ... 11
6 No-load test ... 14
7 Stall test ... 16
8 Load test ... 19
9 Determination of various losses ... 20
10 Determination of efficiency ... 25
11 Thermal test ... 27
12 Measurement of out-of-step torque ... 34
13 Determination of pull-in torque ... 35
14 Determination of minimum torque ... 40
15 Other tests ... 43
16 Calculation method ... 47
Annex A (normative) Correction of dynamometer torque reading ... 53
Annex B (informative) Linear regression analysis ... 55
Annex C (informative) Measurement and separation calculation method of iron consumption and wind abrasion ... 57
Test procedures for three-phase permanent magnet
synchronous machines
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the test procedures for three-phase permanent magnet synchronous machines.
This Standard is applicable to self-starting three-phase permanent magnet synchronous machines. The test for synchronous machines powered by static variable frequency power supply may refer to use. It is not applicable to synchronous machines with DC excitation winding.
2 Normative references
The provisions in following documents become the provisions of this Standard through reference in this Standard. For dated references, the subsequent amendments (excluding corrigendum) or revisions do not apply to this Standard, however, parties who reach an agreement based on this Standard are
encouraged to study if the latest versions of these documents are applicable. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document applies. GB 755-2008, Rotating Electrical Machines - Rating and Performance (IEC 60034-1:2004, IDT)
GB/T 1029-2005, Test procedures for three-phase synchronous machines
GB/T 1032-2005, Test procedures for three-phase induction motors
GB 10068-2008, Mechanical vibration of certain machines with shaft heights 56 mm and higher-measurement evaluation and limits of vibration severity (IEC 60034-14:2003, IDT)
GB/T 10069.1-2006, Measurement of airborne noise emitted by rotating
electrical machines and the noise limits - Part 1: Method for the
measurement of airborne noise emitted by rotating electrical machines (ISO 1680:1999, MOD)
GB/T 13958-2008, Test procedures for non-direct current excitation winding synchronous motor
PS0 - No-load stray loss (W);
P0 - No-load input power (W);
PK - Input power during stall (W);
Pcu1 - I2R loss of stator winding at test temperature (W);
P0cu1 - I2R loss of stator winding under test temperature at no load (W); Pcu1S - I2R loss of stator winding at specified temperature (??s), (W);
R1 - Initial resistance of the stator winding at a temperature of ??1 (??); RN - End resistance of stator winding at the end of rated load thermal test (??); Rt - Measured (or obtained) resistance of the stator winding end at the test temperature (??);
RS - Stator winding end resistance (??) converted to a specified temperature (??s); R0 - Stator winding end resistance of no-load test (each voltage point) (??); Td - Torque reading (N??m);
Td0 - No-load (connected to the dynamometer) torque reading (N??m);
T - Corrected torque (N??m);
TK - Torque at stall (N??m);
Tp0 - Out-of-step torque measured under the test voltage UT (N??M);
Tp0N - Out-of-step torque at rated voltage (N??m);
Tmin - Minimum torque (N??m);
Tpi - Pull-in torque measured at test voltage Ut (N??m);
TpiN - Nominal pull-in torque at rated voltage (N??m);
Ta - Asynchronous torque (N??m);
TN - Permanent magnet braking torque (N??m);
U - Terminal voltage (V);
U0 - No-load test terminal voltage (V);
UK - Stalling test terminal voltage (V);
4.1.2.2 Frequency stability
No rapid changes in frequency are allowed during the test because the rapid frequency change affects not only the motor under test, but also the output measurement device. The frequency change during the measurement shall be less than 0.1%.
4.2 Measuring instrument
4.2.1 Overview
The accuracy level of most instruments is usually expressed as a percentage of full scale. Therefore, try to select low-range meters according to the actual reading needs.
Factors that affect the accuracy of instrument measurement results:
a) Signal source load;
b) Lead wire correction;
c) Instrument range, operating conditions and calibration.
4.2.2 Electricity measuring instrument
In general, the accuracy of electricity measuring instruments shall not be less than 0.5 (full scale, except megohmmeter). When using method B to measure the motor efficiency, in order to maintain the accuracy and repeatability of the test results, it is required that the accuracy level of the instrument is not less than 0.2 (full scale).
Generally speaking, electronic instruments are versatile. Compared with passive instruments (non-electronic type), it has a very large input impedance, so there is no need to correct the reading due to the instrument's own losses. But high input impedance instruments are more sensitive to interference. Measures to reduce interference shall be taken based on practical experience. The accuracy level of the instrument transformer used for measurement shall not be lower than level 0.2 (full scale).
4.2.3 Torque measuring instrument
The accuracy level of torque tester (including dynamometer and sensor) for general test should not be lower than level 0.5.
When method B (see 10.2.2) is used to determine efficiency, the accuracy level of the torque measuring instrument shall not be lower than level 0.2 (full scale). the insulation resistance of each phase winding to the chassis and to each other shall be measured separately. If the three-phase winding has been connected inside the motor and only leads to three outlets, then measure the insulation resistance of all windings to the chassis.
After the measurement, the winding shall be discharged to ground.
5.2 Measurement of DC resistance of the winding in the initial (cold) state 5.2.1 Measurement of winding temperature in the initial state
Use a thermometer to measure the winding temperature. The motor shall be placed indoors for a period of time before the test. The difference between the winding temperature measured by a thermometer (or embedded thermometer) and the cooling medium temperature shall not exceed 2K. For large and
medium-sized motors, the placement time of the thermometer shall not be less than 15min.
5.2.2 Measurement methods
5.2.2.1 The DC resistance of the winding is measured with a double-arm bridge or a single-arm bridge. When the resistance is 1?? or less, it must be measured with a double-arm bridge or an instrument of equivalent accuracy and capable of eliminating the influence of the measuring wire and contact resistance. 5.2.2.2 When using an automatic detection device or a digital micro-ohmmeter to measure the resistance of the winding end, the test current through the tested winding shall not exceed 10% of its current during normal operation, and the power-on time shall not exceed 1min. If the resistance is less than 0.01??, the current through the tested winding shall not be too small.
5.2.2.3 During measurement, the rotor of the motor is stationary. The resistance of the stator winding end shall be measured on the outlet end of the motor. Measure 3 times for each resistance. The difference between each reading and the average of 3 readings shall be within ??0.5% of the average. Take the arithmetic average as the actual value of the resistance.
During the inspection test, each resistance can be measured only once.
5.2.3 If each phase winding of the motor has a beginning-end terminal to lead out, the resistance of each phase winding shall be measured. If the three-phase winding has been connected inside the motor and only three outlets are led out, the resistance can be measured between every two outlets. According to the measured resistance, the resistance value (??) of each phase is calculated according to formula (2) to formula (7):
6 No-load test
6.1 Determination of no-load current and no-load loss
6.1.1 It is recommended that the no-load test be carried out after the load test (if carried out). The input power shall be stable before reading and recording test data. The difference between the two readings where the input power is 30min apart shall not be greater than 3% of the previous reading. For water-air cooling motors, the water flow shall be cut off immediately after the load test. During the inspection test, the time of no-load operation can be shortened appropriately.
6.1.2 The voltage of the rated frequency is applied to the motor under test. The voltage variation range gradually decreases from 125% of the rated voltage, of which it shall include 100% rated voltage test points. As the voltage decreases, the current gradually decreases. When the current has an inflection point, the voltage shall continue to be reduced. Until the current value appears when the current rises to more than 100% of the rated voltage, take 10 to 12 voltage points (approximately evenly distributed). However, at the inflection point of the current, the measuring point shall be properly encrypted.
At each voltage point, measure I0, U0, P0, and it shall measure ??0 or R0. According to the proportional relationship between temperature and resistance, use the initial resistance R1 of the winding measured before the test, the initial temperature ??1 and the measured temperature at each point, the terminal resistance R0 at each voltage point can be determined.
When measuring motor efficiency according to method B (see 10.2.2), ??0 or R0 must be measured at each point;
The terminal resistance of the stator winding can also be determined by a) or b) of this article.
During the inspection test, only I0 and P0 can be measured when U0=UN.
a) The resistance value of the stator winding at each voltage point can be determined by linear interpolation. The starting point is the resistance value before the highest voltage point reading. The end point is the
resistance value after the lowest voltage point reading.
b) After no-load test, immediately measure the resistance of the stator winding end. Use this resistance as the resistance value at each voltage point.
6.2 Determination of the sum of iron consumption PFe and wind abrasion
drives the motor under test as a generator running at no load at synchronous speed. Measure the outlet voltage Uab, Ubc, Uca of the tested motor separately. Take the average value as the no-load back EMF line voltage value. Record the temperature and ambient temperature of the stator core of the motor at this time. 6.3.2 Minimum current method
The motor runs stably under no-load operation at rated voltage and rated frequency. Adjust the external terminal voltage of the motor to minimize the no- load current. The applied terminal voltage at this time can be approximated as the no-load back EMF of the motor. Respectively measure the outlet voltage Uab, Ubc, Uca of the tested motor. Take the average value as the approximate value of the no-load back EMF line voltage value. Record the temperature and ambient temperature of the motor core at this time.
7 Stall test
7.1 Measurement of current, torque and power during stall
Stalling test is conducted when the motor is close to the actual cold state. Before the test, the rotor position corresponding to the maximum stalled-rotor current and the minimum stalled-rotor torque shall be determined with a low voltage in advance as much as possible. During the test, the rotor shall be blocked.
The rotor oscillates greatly when the motor is stalled. It shall consider measures to reduce fluctuations. During the test, it can first adjust the power supply voltage to less than 20% of the rated value. Connect to the motor under test. Maintain the rated frequency. Increase the power supply voltage as soon as possible. After electrical stabilization, quickly read stable readings of voltage, current, input power and torque simultaneously. To avoid overheating of the motor, the test must be carried out quickly.
7.1.1 Measure the characteristic curve of stalled rotor, that is, the relationship between the current IK, torque TK and the applied voltage UK during stalling, as shown in Figure 2.
the reading is to first read the reading at the maximum load, then read the reading at the lower load.
8.2 Rated voltage load test
The test shall be conducted at rated voltage and rated frequency. Before starting to read the test data, the difference between the stator winding temperature and the temperature measured during the rated load thermal test shall not exceed 5??C.
Load the motor with suitable equipment (such as dynamometer, accompanying test motor). Use a torque measuring instrument that meets the requirements of 4.2.3 to measure the torque.
Load the motor at 6 load points. 4 load points are roughly evenly distributed between not less than 25% ~ 100% of rated load (including 100% of rated load). Choose 2 load points between 100% but not more than 150% of rated load. The process of loading the motor starts from the maximum load. Gradually reduce to the minimum load in sequence. The test shall be carried out as quickly as possible to reduce the temperature change of the motor during the test. At each load point, measure U, I1, P1, Td, f (or n), ??t (or Rt) and ??f. It is recommended to use a temperature sensor (embedded at the end of the stator coil) to measure the temperature of the winding.
When measuring the motor efficiency according to method B, it must measure ??t or Rt at each point.
The resistance value of the stator winding at each load point can also be determined by the method specified in a) or b) below.
a) The resistance value at each load point of 100% rated load and above is the resistance value before the maximum load point reading. The
resistance value of each point of less than 100% rated load is determined according to the linear relationship with the load. The starting point is the resistance value at 100% rated load. The end point is the resistance value after the minimum load reading.
b) After the load test, immediately measure the resistance of the stator winding end. Use this resistance as the resistance value of each load point. 9 Determination of various losses
9.1 I2R loss of stator winding at specified temperature [see formula (15)] calculate efficiency.
10.2.1.1 Test process
During the test, the motor under test shall reach thermal stability under the rated load. Carry out the load test according to the method specified in 8.2. 10.2.1.2 Calculation format
Calculate the motor performance according to format A given in 16.1.
10.2.2 Method B: Loss analysis and indirect measurement of stray loss by input-output method
Measure electric power (including instrument transformer). The accuracy level of the instrument used for torque and speed shall meet the requirements of 4.2.2, 4.2.3, 4.2.4 and 4.2.5. This is particularly important for measuring the efficiency of the motor by using method B.
10.2.2.1 Test procedures
Method B test is mainly composed of three parts: rated load thermal test (see 11.7.1), load test (see 8.2) and no-load test (see 6.1). It is recommended to conduct thermal test first, which is conducive to the stability of motor friction loss. Immediately conduct the load test after. Conduct the no-load test at last. If the test cannot be carried out continuously in the above order, the motor must reach the thermal stability of the rated load thermal test before the load test. 10.2.2.1.1 Load test
The test shall be conducted in accordance with the requirements of 8.2 and relevant data shall be measured. Before starting to record the test data, the difference between the stator winding temperature and the maximum
temperature recorded in the rated load thermal test shall not exceed 5??C. The test shall be carried out as quickly as possible to reduce the temperature change of the motor during the test.
According to the method proposed in Annex A, obtain the torque reading
correction value kd. The dynamometer or torque sensor shall be calibrated in the same direction as the load test.
10.2.2.1.2 No-load test
See 6.1 for the no-load test. Before starting to record the test data, the motor shall be run without load until the input power is stable (see 6.1).
10.2.2.2 Determination of various losses
Since the small error in measuring resistance shall cause a large error in determining the temperature, the instrument required in 4.2.5 shall be used to measure the winding resistance. If possible, the second instrument can be used for inspection. The initial resistance and the resistance at the end of the test shall be measured by using the same instrument.
11.3.3 Embedded thermometer method
This method measures the temperature with a thermocouple or resistance
thermometer installed in the motor.
Specially designed meters shall be used with resistance thermometers, so as to prevent the introduction of significant errors or damage to the instrument due to the heating of the resistance thermometer during measurement. Many
common resistive measurement devices may not be suitable because there
may be a considerable current flowing through the resistance element during measurement.
11.4 Temperature reading
11.4.1 General instructions
The following clauses introduce 3 methods of temperature measurement, used to measure the temperature of the winding of the motor, the stator core, the cooling medium entering, and the cooling medium discharged after being
heated. Each measurement method has its own characteristics, suitable for measuring the temperature of specific parts of the motor.
11.4.2 Thermometer method
During the thermal test, use the thermometer method (see 11.3.1) to measure the temperature of the following components. If required, it can be measured after shutdown.
a) Stator coil, at least in 2 places;
b) Stator core, for large and medium-sized motors, at least in 2 places; c) Ambient temperature;
d) The air discharged from the base or exhaust vent or the internal cooling medium discharged from the motor with a circulating cooling system to the inlet of the cooler;
e) Machine base;
f) Bearing (if it belongs to motor parts).
11.6.1 Determination of winding temperature
The temperature of the motor winding is measured by the resistance method. If the motor has a buried thermometer, use a thermometer.
11.6.2 Determination of core temperature
The core temperature is measured with a temperature detector or thermometer. For large and medium-sized motors, the thermometer shall be no less than 2. Take the highest value as the core temperature.
11.6.3 Determination of bearing temperature
Bearing temperature is measured with a thermometer. For sliding bearings, the thermometer is placed in the temperature measuring hole of the bearing or near the surface of the bea...

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