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GB/T 21437.2-2021 English PDF (GBT21437.2-2021)

GB/T 21437.2-2021 English PDF (GBT21437.2-2021)

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GB/T 21437.2-2021: Road vehicles -- Test method of electrical disturbances from conduction and coupling -- Part 2: Electrical transient conduction along supply lines only

This document specifies the test equipment, test methods, requirements for electrical transient conducted emission and immunity tests of automotive electrical/electronic components, along power lines. This document applies to electrical/electronic components, which have a nominal voltage of 12 V or 24 V, for vehicles of categories M, N, O, L (vehicle power systems are not limited, such as spark ignition engines, diesel engines, electric motors).
GB/T 21437.2-2021
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.040.10
CCS T 35
Replacing GB/T 21437.2-2008
Road vehicles - Test method of electrical disturbances from
conduction and coupling - Part 2: Electrical transient
conduction along supply lines only
(ISO 7637-2:2011, Road vehicles - Electrical disturbances from conduction and coupling - Part 2: Electrical transient conduction along supply lines only, MOD) ISSUED ON: DECEMBER 31, 2021
IMPLEMENTED ON: JULY 01, 2022
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
Introduction ... 6
1 Scope ... 7
2 Normative references ... 7
3 Terms and definitions... 7
4 Test procedures ... 7
4.1 General provisions ... 7
4.2 Test temperature and supply voltage ... 8
4.3 Voltage transient emission test ... 8
4.4 Transient immunity test ... 12
5 Test equipment and requirements ... 14
5.1 Artificial networks ... 14
5.2 Parallel resistor RS ... 15
5.3 Switch S ... 15
5.4 Power ... 17
5.5 Measuring instruments ... 17
5.6 Immunity test pulse generator ... 18
Appendix A (Informative) Example of test pulse severity levels ... 23
Appendix B (Normative) Transient emission assessment - Voltage waveforms ... 25 Appendix C (Normative) Verification procedure for test pulse generator ... 28 Appendix D (Informative) Determination of pulse generator energy ... 31 Appendix E (Informative) Sources of transients in road vehicle's electrical systems 35 Appendix F (Informative) Alternative transient test technique based on
electromechanical switching of inductive loads ... 38
Road vehicles - Test method of electrical disturbances from
conduction and coupling - Part 2: Electrical transient
conduction along supply lines only
1 Scope
This document specifies the test equipment, test methods, requirements for electrical transient conducted emission and immunity tests of automotive electrical/electronic components, along power lines.
This document applies to electrical/electronic components, which have a nominal voltage of 12 V or 24 V, for vehicles of categories M, N, O, L (vehicle power systems are not limited, such as spark ignition engines, diesel engines, electric motors). 2 Normative references
The contents of the following documents constitute essential provisions of this document through normative references in the text. Among them, for dated references, only the version corresponding to the date applies to this document; for undated references, the latest version (including all amendments) is applicable to this document. GB/T 21437.1 Road vehicles - Test method of electrical disturbances from conduction and coupling - Part 1: Definitions and general considerations (GB/T 21437.1-2021, ISO 7637-1:2015, MOD)
3 Terms and definitions
The terms and definitions, which are defined in GB/T 21437.1, apply to this document. 4 Test procedures
4.1 General provisions
The power line's transient emission and immunity tests, which are mentioned in this document, are carried out in the laboratory, as "bench tests". Some test methods require the use of artificial networks, to allow comparability of results from different shall be determined after the vehicle manufacturer and the supplier reach an agreement. For the grounding method of the DUT, it shall take into account the actual installation of the vehicle AND be defined in the test plan. If not specified in the test plan, the DUT shall be placed on a non-conductive material, which is 50 mm ?? 5 mm above the grounding plane.
Use voltage probes and oscilloscopes or waveform acquisition equipment, to measure supply voltage and disturbance voltage. See Appendix B, for voltage waveform parameters.
Special attention shall be paid to the fact, that the DUT is disconnected and switched between various operating modes, during the measurement. The DUT test condition requirements shall be as specified in the test plan.
Note: It is measured, when the DUT is turned on, in some cases.
An appropriate sampling rate and trigger level shall be selected, to obtain a complete transient waveform. Select sufficient resolution, to display the largest positive and negative values of the transient.
Select the appropriate sampling rate and trigger level. Operate the DUT, according to the test plan. Record the voltage amplitude. Other transient parameters, such as rise time, fall time, duration width, etc., shall also be recorded. Unless otherwise specified, it shall collect at least 10 waveforms; record the waveform containing the maximum positive and negative amplitudes, as well as their associated parameters. It shall evaluate the measured transients, in accordance with Appendix B; record all relevant information and test results. If required by the test plan, it shall include the transient evaluation results, which are related to the performance indicators, as specified in the test plan.
4.3.2 Arrangement for slow pulse test
The test arrangement is as shown in Figure 1a).
The disturbance source is connected to the parallel resistor RS, the switch S, the power supply, through the artificial network. Switch S represents the DUT power supply's main switch (e.g., ignition switch, relay, etc.), which may be located several meters away from the DUT.
In the case where the DUT uses an internal mechanical switch and/or an electronic switch, to control the inductive load, the test arrangement of the closure of the internal switch of DUT (when the switch S is opened, the DUT is powered by the inductive load) is as shown in Figure 1a).
Given the type of switches inside the DUT [relays, electronic switches, insulated gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs), etc.], it may not be possible to ensure a controlled closure Description of index number:
1 - Oscilloscope or equivalent equipment; 2 - Voltage probe; 3 - Artificial network; 4 - DUT (transient source); 5 - Grounding plane; 6 - Power supply; 7 - Grounding connection (length < 100 mm); RS - Parallel resistor; S - Switch; UA - Supply voltage.
Note: A, B, P are as shown in Figure 3.
a Optional, which has an inductive load as driven by an internal switch. b It has internal load and switch.
Figure 1 -- Test arrangement for transient emission (continued)
4.4 Transient immunity test
4.4.1 DUT Location
The DUT shall be placed on a non-conductive support, which has a low relative permittivity (??r ??? 1.4) AND a thickness of (50 ?? 5) mm.
The grounding method of the DUT shell and the grounding plane shall conform to the actual connection of the vehicle. It shall be specified in the test plan. 4.4.2 Power cord location
For test pulses 3a and 3b, the power line, between the test pulse generator and the DUT port, shall be placed straight and parallel on a non-conductive support, which has low relative permittivity (??r ??? 1.4) AND a thickness of 50 mm ?? 5 mm; its length is 500 mm ?? 100 mm.
4.4.3 Load simulator location
The load simulator should be placed directly on the grounding plane. If the load simulator has a metal shell, the shell shall be overlapped with the grounding plane. The load simulator can be placed adjacent to the grounding plane; its shell is overlapped with the grounding plane.
4.4.4 Test arrangement
Before the DUT test, without the DUT, adjust the test pulse generator [see Figure 2a)], to generate the specific pulse polarity, amplitude, width, impedance, which are described in 5.6. The peak voltage Us shall be adjusted to the level, which is required for the test, with an error of 0% ~ +10%.
Then disconnect the oscilloscope. Connect the DUT to the test pulse generator, as vehicle's practical applications, if the line, between the switch and the load, is long (several meters), a slow pulse arrangement shall be used. Otherwise, it should use a fast pulse arrangement. In either case, only the fast pulse arrangement is suitable for measuring fast transient pulses, due to relay opening.
Fast transients (td on the order of ns to ??s) are measured, by controlling switches, on the DUT side of the artificial network. Slow transients (td on the order of ms) are measured, by controlling switches, on the power side of the artificial network.
When switch S significantly affects the disturbance's transient characteristics, the recommended switching characteristics are as follows:
a) To measure high-voltage transients (amplitude over 400 V), the switching device shall be a standard product switch, which is used by the DUT, on the vehicle. If this device cannot be used, it shall use an automotive relay with the following characteristics:
- Contact current rating: I = 30 A, continuous resistive load;
- High-purity silver contact material;
- Relay contacts not inhibited;
- Single/double position contacts are electrically isolated from the coil circuit; - Coils with transient suppression (minimum effect on the measured transient). Note: Switching relays, that are degraded due to frequent use, need to be replaced. b) The use of reproducible switches facilitates accurate assessment of disturbances. Electronic switches are recommended. The magnitude of the disturbance is likely to be greater than that of conventional switches (arcing), which are commonly used; it shall be considered when evaluating the test results. Electronic switches are suitable for controlling DUTs, which have suppressors. When measuring low- voltage transients (less than 400 V in magnitude), such as those generated by sources containing transient suppressors, it is recommended to use the electronic switches, which have the following characteristics:
- Rated voltage: The maximum voltage Umax = 400 V at 25 A;
- Rated current: The continuous maximum current Imax = 25 A; it is 100 A when ??t ??? 1 s;
- Voltage drop: The voltage drop ??U ??? 2 V, at 25 A;
- Supply voltage: See Table 1;
- Switching time: ??ts = 300 (1 ?? 20%) ns, which is measured at 13.5 V, reference load R = 0.6 ??, L = 50 ??H (1 kHz);
- Triggers: Internal and external;
- Voltage probe: 1:100.
The switch shall be able to withstand short circuit current.
Some electronic switches may contain artificial networks, which are specified in 5.1 and Figures 3 and 4. In this case, it shall be possible to bypass the internal artificial network AND use the external artificial network.
The switch selected for the test shall be specified in the test plan AND recorded in the test report.
5.4 Power
The DC internal resistance Ri of the continuous power supply shall be less than 0.01 ??; the frequency shall be lower than the internal impedance Zi = Ri of 400 Hz. When the load changes from the minimum to the maximum (including surge current), the deviation of the output voltage shall be no more than 1 V; it shall recover to 63% of the maximum amplitude, within 100 ??s. The peak-to-peak value of the superimposed ripple voltage Ur shall not exceed 0.2 V. If a standard power supply (with sufficient current capacity) is used to simulate the battery, it shall ensure the low internal resistance of the simulated battery.
When using a battery, a charging power supply can be used, to achieve the specified supply voltage UA (see Table 1).
5.5 Measuring instruments
A digital oscilloscope, or an equivalent waveform acquisition device with a voltage probe: the parameters of the measuring instrument shall meet the following requirements:
- Bandwidth: From DC to at least 400 MHz;
- Sampling rate: At least 2 GS/s (single-channel sampling mode).
Probe features:
- Attenuation: 10:1 (if necessary, 100:1);
- Maximum input voltage: 500 V (if necessary, 1000 V);
- Bandwidth: from DC to at least 400 MHz;
Appendix C
(Normative)
Verification procedure for test pulse generator
C.1 Overview
This Appendix provides a method for verifying the output characteristics of the test pulse generator.
See 5.5 for the requirements of measuring instrument.
The verification specified in C.2 shall determine the performance of the pulse generator, under two different load conditions:
- No load state;
- Matched load state.
C.2 Verification
C.2.1 General
The generator must be verified, to ensure that the parameters required for both open circuit and load conditions are met (see Table C.1, Table C.2, Table C.3, Table C.4, Table C.5, Table C.6). Pulse energy can significantly affect test results. The pulse energy actually used shall be stated in the test report (see Appendix D -- Determination of the pulse generator energy).
The UA for this verification procedure is set to 0 V.
Resistors shall be selected reasonably. Resistors, which are used to verify pulsed and DC power ratings, shall have adequate power dissipation. Also, the resistors shall be non-inductive. The tolerance of the matching resistor shall be ??1%. The source impedance selected shall match the load resistance, which is specified for each test pulse.
C.2.2 Test pulse 1
C.2.2.1 Test pulse 1 (12 V system)
Appendix F
(Informative)
Alternative transient test technique based on electromechanical switching of inductive loads
F.1 Overview
Voltage transients are often arcs, that occur during electromechanical switching of inductive loads. The arc phenomenon produces complex voltage waveforms, whose characteristics (e.g., voltage, pulse duration) are significantly affected by reactive and resistive loads, in the same circuit as the inductive loads.
The characteristics of the test pulses (e.g., pulse 1), which are described in this document, are selected, to reflect the transient waveforms on the DUT power supply circuit, which has an impedance less than 100 ??; it is mainly related to the input filter capacitance of the circuit. Many microprocessor-based electronic devices have high- impedance power and input circuits, that produce significantly different voltage transient characteristics, when connected to switched inductive loads. In addition, the actual voltage transient characteristics are essentially non-repeating, which have obvious differences between successive transient phenomena. This pseudo-random behavior often causes DUT software to malfunction.
To simulate these complex waveforms, this Appendix provides alternative test methods, that is, an alternative transient test technique based on electromechanical switching of inductive loads. The waveforms, which are described in this Appendix, are typical transients produced by the transient generator circuits, as defined in this Appendix. These waveforms can be used as a reference, for the waveforms produced by the transient generator. Unless otherwise specified, all waveforms shall be measured, under open circuit conditions.
The selected components, which are used for the transient generator, can cause slight differences between the waveforms in this Appendix and the actual waveforms (e.g., waveform amplitude, time characteristics). These differences shall not significantly alter the DUT determination, during the test.
F.2 Description of transient waveform
F.2.1 Overview
There are 3 main types of transient waveforms: A, B, C.
F.2.2 Waveforms A1, A2

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