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GB/T 20721-2022 English PDF (GBT20721-2022)

GB/T 20721-2022 English PDF (GBT20721-2022)

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GB/T 20721-2022: Automatic guided vehicles -- General specifications
This Standard specifies product classification, technical requirements, test methods, inspection rules and marking, packaging, transportation, storage for automatic guided vehicles. This Standard is applicable to the design, manufacture and inspection of automated guided vehicles in the fields of warehousing, production lines, transportation, and manufacturing.
GB/T 20721-2022
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 25.040.30
CCS J 28
Replacing GB/T 20721-2006
Automatic guided vehicles - General specifications
ISSUED ON: APRIL 15, 2022
IMPLEMENTED ON: NOVEMBER 01, 2022
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the People's Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 4
1 Scope ... 6
2 Normative references ... 6
3 Terms and definitions... 7
4 Product classification ... 8
4.1 Classification based on navigation mode ... 8
4.2 Classification based on drive mode ... 9
4.3 Classification based on drive structure ... 9
4.4 Classification based on loading mode ... 9
5 System composition ... 9
6 Technical requirements ... 10
6.1 Appearance and structural requirements ... 10
6.2 Interface requirements ... 11
6.3 Functional requirements ... 12
6.4 Performance requirements ... 22
6.5 Power adaptability requirements ... 22
6.6 Electromagnetic compatibility requirements ... 22
6.7 Environmental adaptability requirements ... 22
6.8 Security requirements ... 24
6.9 Reliability requirements ... 25
7 Test methods ... 25
7.1 Test conditions ... 25
7.2 Appearance and structure tests ... 26
7.3 Interface test ... 26
7.4 Functional tests ... 27
7.5 Performance tests ... 33
7.6 Power adaptability test ... 34
7.7 Electromagnetic compatibility test ... 34
7.8 Environmental adaptability tests ... 34
7.9 Safety tests ... 37
8 Inspection rules ... 37
8.1 Inspection classification ... 37
8.2 Type inspection ... 37
8.3 Exit-factory inspection ... 38
9 Marking, packaging, transportation and storage ... 39
9.1 Marking ... 39
9.2 Packaging ... 40
9.3 Transportation ... 40
9.4 Storage ... 40
Annex A (Normative) Loading system ... 42
Annex B (Normative) Application safety ... 44
Annex C (Normative) Ground conditions and hazardous areas ... 45
Bibliography... 46
Automatic guided vehicles - General specifications
1 Scope
This Standard specifies product classification, technical requirements, test methods, inspection rules and marking, packaging, transportation, storage for automatic guided vehicles.
This Standard is applicable to the design, manufacture and inspection of automated guided vehicles in the fields of warehousing, production lines, transportation, and manufacturing.
2 Normative references
The following referenced documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only the edition cited applies. For undated references, the latest edition of the referenced document (including any amendments) applies. GB/T 191, Packaging and storage marks
GB/T 2423.55, Environmental testing for electric and electronic products - Part 2: Test method - Test Eh: Hammer tests
GB/T 4208, Degrees of protection provided by enclosure (IP code)
GB/T 5226.1-2019, Electrical safety of machinery - Electrical equipment of machines - Part 1: General requirements
GB/T 10827.1-2014, Industrial trucks - Safety requirements and verification - Part 1: Self-propelled industrial trucks, other than driverless trucks, variable-reach trucks and burden-carrier trucks
GB/T 15706, Safety of machinery - General principles for design - Risk assessment and risk reduction
GB/T 16855.1, Safety of machinery - Safety-related parts of control systems - Part 1: General principles for design
GB/T 17626.2, Electromagnetic compatibility - Testing and measurement techniques - Electrostatic discharge immunity test
GB/T 17626.3, Electromagnetic compatibility - Testing and measurement techniques - Radiated, radio-frequency, electromagnetic field immunity test
of connectors of good and reliable.
d) There is no loosening of all fastening parts. Mark the key fastening parts. The moving parts are well lubricated and running. The vibration reduction is reliable. The hydraulic connection is reliable.
e) The structural safety protection device is connected reliably, functioning normally. f) It has sufficient strength. Static load can withstand 1.25 times rated load. g) There are no dangerous sharp edges or corners.
h) The positions of switches, buttons, handles and other devices are reasonable and easy to operate.
6.1.3 Protection capability requirements
6.1.3.1 Enclosure protection level
It shall meet the requirements of GB/T 4208. The protection level of the indoor electric control part shall not be lower than IP3X. The protection level of the outdoor electric control part shall not be lower than IP54.
6.1.3.2 Housing damage resistance
The non-metallic shell shall meet the requirements of IK03 in GB/T 20138. 6.1.3.3 Components
The protection level of electrical components shall meet the requirements of GB/T 4208. 6.2 Interface requirements
6.2.1 Power interface
The output interface of the battery pack shall be connected by plugging. Soldering or wire bonding is not permitted. The interface protection level shall not be lower than IP2X.
6.2.2 External communication interface
Communication interfaces such as wireless serial port, optical, Ethernet, cellular mobile shall be used.
6.2.3 Other interfaces
There shall be several debugging interfaces, wireless or wired manual operating device interfaces.
6.3 Functional requirements
6.3.1 Mechanical body
6.3.1.1 The automatic guided vehicle body shall ensure that the distortion and deformation during normal operation are small enough. Avoid malfunctions. 6.3.1.2 Body coverings shall be shaped to avoid possible hazards. The cover shall have a strong structure to prevent functional failure due to collision with other items. 6.3.2 Control system
6.3.2.1 Control device
The control device shall have anti-vibration function. Avoid the resulting vibrations that could cause damage to the device or malfunction.
The operation panel shall adopt an easy-to-observe and easy-to-operate structure. Avoid operator mis-operation.
6.3.2.2 Running mode
The running mode can have automatic mode, manual mode, offline automatic mode to execute motion commands. Mode switching is in accordance with the requirements of GB/T 5226.1-2019. It shall be prevented that the operator accidentally touches and causes the mode switch. The safety-related part shall at least meet the requirements of PLb in GB/T 16855.1. The running modes mainly include the following modes. a) Automatic mode: In the automatic operation mode, the automatic guided vehicle shall be able to receive the management and command distribution of the system. Follow the planned path to execute the task.
b) Manual mode: In manual control mode, the automatic guided vehicle shall be able to move on the ground that meets the requirements. Manual control shall use the operation panel or special manual control device provided by the manufacturer (including wired or wireless). Wireless manual controls shall be industrial grade products. There is no risk to the operator in this way. Risk analysis shall be carried out in accordance with GB/T 15706.
NOTE: This mode is suitable for the maintenance, debugging and emergency state of automatic guided vehicles.
c) Offline automatic mode: In the offline automatic mode, the automatic guided vehicle uses a single machine as the running unit and is not managed by the dispatching system. Within the specified scope, complete the corresponding tasks according to the planned path. When the automatic guided vehicle does not accept the management of the dispatching system, if conditions permit, it shall accept b) Manual charging;
c) Battery exchange.
6.3.3.3 Function
The power system shall have the following functions:
a) With automatic charging function.
b) When the battery power is lower than the preset threshold, the automatic guided vehicle stops. Prompt to charge and alarm. Operation can only be restored by manual operation.
c) To avoid the danger of personnel due to accidental contact with the battery and the charging connection of the charging system, the automatic charging system (excluding the busbar preventing personnel access) is designed to be activated only when the automatic guided vehicle is connected to the charging system. d) In the open alternating magnetic field power supply mode, the manufacturer provides the user with the relevant safety data of the magnetic field generated by the power supply. Ensure no hazards to people in the environment.
e) Manufacturers shall choose appropriate batteries and charging equipment according to user needs. Specifically, the following requirements shall be met: - The automatic charging method is adopted to ensure a certain charging time in the operating environment, and it can work continuously for 24h.
- Using manual charging method, the battery can be fully charged each time to meet the requirements of at least one working shift.
6.3.4 Positioning and navigation system
6.3.4.1 Navigation mode
It includes but not limited to the following navigation methods.
a) Electromagnetic navigation: Pre-embed metal wires on the driving path of automatic guided vehicles. Load currents with a certain frequency to the metal wires. Through the electromagnetic induction coil on the automatic guided vehicle, the strength of the magnetic field on the metal wire is sensed for identification and tracking.
b) Magnetic navigation: Lay or pre-embed tape and magnetic nails on the driving path of the automatic guided vehicle. The magnetic field strength of the ground magnetic medium is sensed through the magnetic navigation sensor on the automatic guided vehicle for identification and tracking.
c) Optical navigation: During the movement of the automatic guided vehicle, via its own optical sensor, with methods of physical optical measurement, obtain the degree of relative motion (speed and distance) between the navigation device and the reference surface. Then determine the relative position and attitude information, such as navigation through ribbons and lines.
d) Radio navigation: Using radio technology, the receiving end obtains its own relative position and attitude information by measuring parameters such as the angle and distance between itself and several transmitting ends, such as satellite navigation, terrestrial radio navigation, and ultra-wideband navigation. e) Laser navigation: Use a 2D or 3D laser scanning sensor to measure the beam reflected by surrounding objects. Calculate the angle and distance between itself and surrounding objects to obtain its relative position. Laser navigation includes reflector and non-reflector methods.
f) Inertial navigation: Use inertial elements to measure the acceleration of the automated guided vehicle itself. The speed and position are obtained through integration and operation.
g) Visual navigation: Use two-dimensional or three-dimensional vision sensors to obtain information such as images or videos of surrounding scenes. The
corresponding features are extracted by filtering, transformation and other methods, so as to obtain their relative position.
h) Hybrid navigation: Mixed use of two or more navigation methods from a) to g) above.
6.3.4.2 Positioning and navigation
Different functional modules in the positioning and navigation of automatic guided vehicles shall meet the following requirements.
a) Initial positioning: According to different navigation methods, the automatic guided vehicle can obtain the initial position information automatically/manually at the current position point, OR automatically/manually obtain the initial position information after running for a certain distance at low speed. b) Autonomous positioning: Automatic guided vehicles can perform initial positioning. It shall be able to locate in real time during operation, and timely report the current position, direction and other information to the dispatching system.
c) Path planning: The automatic guided vehicle shall be able to perform trajectory planning and motion control according to the positioning information.
d) Recovery of positioning loss: In the case of loss of positioning, the automatic a) When the power supply of the brake is cut off, the automatic guided vehicle starts to brake.
b) Considering factors such as load, speed, friction, gradient and wear, when obstacles appear within the detection range, the automatic guided vehicle stops. c) On the maximum gradient specified by the manufacturer, the automatic guided vehicle can be maintained at the maximum allowable load state without moving when powered on or off.
d) When speed control or steering control is lost, the automatic guided vehicle starts braking.
e) The brakes of automatic guided vehicles shall meet the requirements of GB/T 18849.
f) When the automatic guided vehicle brakes during operation, it shall be able to maintain a moving posture without losing control.
6.3.6 Loading system
The loading system shall comply with the relevant provisions of Annex A. 6.3.7 Security system
6.3.7.1 Obstacle detection
Obstacle detection devices are divided into contact and non-contact. The application safety of obstacle detection for automatic guided vehicles shall comply with the relevant provisions of Annex B.
The obstacle detection device of the automatic guided vehicle shall meet the following requirements.
a) Automatic guided vehicles shall be equipped with obstacle detection devices in the main running direction. These obstacle detection devices shall meet the following requirements:
- When the automatic guided vehicle is in operation, the detection range of the obstacle detection device shall at least cover the entire width of the vehicle body itself and its load.
- If using a non-contact obstacle detection device, ensure that the automated guided vehicle stops before contacting a person or other obstacle.
- Non-contact obstacle detection device can have deceleration area and
emergency stop area. However, when people or other obstacles enter the
deceleration area, the control system is used to control the deceleration or stop. When people or other obstacles enter the emergency stop area, use emergency stop.
- For the non-contact obstacle detection device, according to the actual situation of the field application, laser, infrared, ultrasonic or other detection sensors can be selected. When the speed is greater than 0.3m/s or the load exceeds 200kg, the safety-related part of the control system shall at least meet the requirements of PLc in GB/T 16855.1.
- The non-contact obstacle detection device has a sufficient detection range for objects of all materials in the application environment.
- Contact obstacle detection prevents injury or malfunction when AGV collides with people or other obstacles. When the automatic guided vehicle collides with people or other obstacles, the maximum trigger force of the collision bar shall not exceed 22N. When a collision occurs, if the automatic resumption of operation is allowed. The operation shall be resumed after the obstacle has left for at least 2s. - Non-contact obstacle detection sensors monitor the driving path. At the same time, the area is detected before the automatic guided vehicle starts, so that people and objects entering the driving path can be detected before moving.
- The effective sensing distance of the emergency stop area of the non-contact obstacle detection sensor is greater than the distance required for the emergency stop of the automatic guided vehicle.
b) Safety-related parts of other obstacle detection devices (such as side protection for turning) shall at least meet the requirements of PLc in GB/T 16855.1. c) When the running mode is automatic or offline automatic, the obstacle detection device shall not be turned off in any way under any circumstances.
d) When the automated guided vehicle cannot meet the requirements of a) (such as an automated guided vehicle equipped with a fork arm, an automated guided vehicle close to the loading and storage station), and there are trapped people who cannot escape, the maximum speed in this direction shall be limited to 0.3m/s. Provide parking measures within 600mm of the corresponding side. The safety- related parts of this device shall at least meet the requirements of PLc in GB/T 16855.1.
e) If the obstacle detection device cannot guarantee the safety of people and objects under the foreseeable working conditions (such as the stroke of the side bumper of the automatic guided vehicle is too short), add other methods (such as by designating a danger zone) to ensure the safety of people and objects security. f) In the case of manual operation, the restraint obstacle detection device shall not be lower than the PL level requirement of the obstacle detection device. - Speed control is lost.
- Other control system failures require qualified operator intervention. g) Battery alarm: When the battery is low, the automatic guided vehicle shall have a sound and light warning (including in the non-automatic running state). 6.3.7.4 Stall protection
When the running speed of the automatic guided vehicle exceeds the controllable range, it is a stall state. An automatic guided vehicle in a stalled state shall automatically stop running. end out an alarm message. Wait for manual intervention.
6.3.7.5 Communication interruption protection
When the automatic guided vehicle and the communication network system are interrupted for more than a certain period of time, the automatic guided vehicle shall automatically stop running. Send an alert message. If the communication is interrupted and restored within a certain period of time, the automatic guided vehicle shall resume operation by itself.
NOTE: The duration of communication interruption is set by the manufacturer. 6.3.7.6 Navigation loss protection
Navigation loss protection includes navigation error overrun protection and landmark loss protection.
The navigation error over-limit protection refers to the protection mechanism of the automatic guided vehicle when the position and attitude of the vehicle body exceeds the maximum position deviation value of the actual planning and monitoring under the automatic operation state. The maximum position deviation value is set by the manufacturer according to the application environment.
Landmark loss protection refers to the protection mechanism in which the automatic guided vehicle does not detect the landmark information in the road segment it passes through in the navigation method with landmark attributes. The deviation value is set by the manufacturer according to the application environment.
When the automatic guided vehicle has navigation loss protection during operation, the automatic guided vehicle shall stop running immediately. Send out an alarm message. Wait for manual intervention.
6.3.7.7 Protection circuit and system safety analysis
The protection circuit and system safety analysis shall comply with:
a) In the system design of automatic guided vehicles, it is necessary to analyze the potential danger caused by the failure of control components or program failure. Appropriately add protective circuits to verify all potential hazards associated with the design.
b) The reverse electromotive force and reverse current of the automatic guided vehicle during emergency stop will not affect itself.
c) For battery management systems, protection circuitry keeps the battery within its normal operating volta...
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