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GB/T 20042.2-2023 English PDF (GBT20042.2-2023)

GB/T 20042.2-2023 English PDF (GBT20042.2-2023)

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GB/T 20042.2-2023: Proton exchange membrane fuel cell -- Part 2: Ganeral technical spcecification of fuel cell stacks

This document specifies the requirements for safety, basic performance, test items, test methods, as well as marking and instructions, of proton exchange membrane fuel cell stacks (including direct alcohol fuel cell stacks, hereinafter referred to as fuel cell stacks). Note 1: The cell stack mentioned in this document is also called fuel cell stack. Note 2: A better material or a new structure ??C if any ??C which can pass the test specified in this document and meet th
GB/T 20042.2-2023
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 27.070
CCS K 82
Replacing GB/T 20042.2-2008
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell - Part 2: General
technical specification of fuel cell stacks
ISSUED ON: MARCH 17, 2023
IMPLEMENTED ON: OCTOBER 01, 2023
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the PEOPLE Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 4
Introduction ... 7
1 Scope ... 8
2 Normative references ... 8
3 Terms and definitions ... 9
4 Requirements ... 10
4.1 General safety measures ... 10
4.2 Design requirement ... 11
4.3 Technical requirements ... 14
4.4 Instruments and precision requirements ... 15
5 Test methods ... 16
5.1 General ... 16
5.2 Appearance inspection ... 17
5.3 Safety test ... 17
5.4 Gas leakage test ... 19
5.5 Blow-by test ... 20
5.6 Allowable working pressure test ... 22
5.7 Cooling system pressure test ... 24
5.8 Pressure difference test ... 24
5.9 Insulation test ... 25
5.10 Normal operation test ... 26
5.11 Rated power test ... 26
5.12 Electrical overload test ... 27
5.13 Flammable gas concentration test ... 28
5.14 Environmental adaptability test ... 29
5.15 Mass power density of fuel cell stack ... 32
5.16 Volumetric power density of fuel cell stack core ... 32
6 Marking and instructions ... 34
6.1 General provisions ... 34
6.2 Nameplate ... 34
6.3 Marking of connectors ... 34
6.4 Warning signs ... 34
6.5 Technical documents provided to users ... 35
Appendix A (Informative) Parameter reference information of fuel cell stack test sample ... 39
Appendix B (Informative) Fuel cell stack test result record sheet ... 41 Appendix C (Informative) Fuel cell stack electrical efficiency ... 42
References ... 43
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell - Part 2: General
technical specification of fuel cell stacks
1 Scope
This document specifies the requirements for safety, basic performance, test items, test methods, as well as marking and instructions, of proton exchange membrane fuel cell stacks (including direct alcohol fuel cell stacks, hereinafter referred to as fuel cell stacks).
Note 1: The cell stack mentioned in this document is also called fuel cell stack. Note 2: A better material or a new structure ?€? if any ?€? which can pass the test specified in this document and meet the relevant requirements can also be considered as conforming to this document.
This document is applicable to the design and testing of proton exchange membrane fuel cell stacks (including direct alcohol fuel cell stacks).
This document only deals with situations where harm may be caused to the human body and the external environment of the fuel cell stack. As long as the protection of the internal damage of the fuel cell stack does not affect the safety outside the fuel cell stack, no provisions are made in this document.
This document does not cover requirements for fuel and oxidizer storage and delivery arrangements.
2 Normative references
The following documents are referred to in the text in such a way that some or all of their content constitutes requirements of this document. For dated references, only the version corresponding to that date is applicable to this document; for undated references, the latest version (including all amendments) is applicable to this document. GB/T 2423.43, Environmental testing for electric and electronic products - Part 2: Test methods - Mounting of specimens for vibration impact and similar dynamic tests
GB/T 2423.56, Environmental testing - Part 2: Test methods - Test Fh: Vibration, broadband random and guidance
b) Passively control these energies (such as using pressure relief valves, heat insulation components, etc.) to ensure that the surrounding environment is not endangered when the energy is released.
c) Actively control these energies (e.g., by electronic control in fuel cells). In this case, the hazards caused by the failure of the control device shall be considered one by one, and the evaluation of functional safety shall comply with the provisions of IEC 61508 (all parts). On the other hand, the danger can be informed to the fuel cell system integrator manufacturer.
d) Provide appropriate safety markings related to residual hazards.
4.2 Design requirement
4.2.1 General requirements
Fuel cell stack manufacturers shall design based on risk assessment. The risk assessment shall comply with the provisions of GB/T 7826 and IEC 61508 (all parts). The fuel cell stack and all its components shall:
a) Be suitable for the range of temperature, pressure, flow, voltage and current in the intended use;
b) Be able to withstand various effects of the environment where the fuel cell stack is located, various operating processes and other conditions that have adverse effects on the fuel cell stack in the intended use.
Note: Unless otherwise specified, the gas pressure in this document refers to the gauge pressure.
If the fuel cell stack has an enclosed casing, the protection of the casing shall be based on the different use environments of the fuel cell stack, and an appropriate protection grade shall be selected and marked according to the requirements of GB/T 4208. 4.2.2 Characteristics under normal operating conditions
When the fuel cell stack is operated under all normal operating conditions specified in the manufacturer?€?s instructions, it shall not cause any damage.
4.2.3 Fire and ignition
Protective measures (e.g., ventilation, gas detection, etc.) shall be taken for the fuel cell stack to ensure that the gas leaking inside or outside the fuel cell stack will not reach its explosive concentration. The design specifications of these measures (e.g., the required ventilation rate) shall be provided by the fuel cell stack manufacturer and explained in the instructions so that the fuel cell system integration manufacturer can take prevention actions to ensure safety.
For products that are difficult to take protective measures (ventilation, gas detection, etc.), parts in explosive atmospheres or zones shall be made of flame-retardant materials that meet V-0, V-1 or V-2 specified in Table 2 of GB/T 5169.16-2017.
4.2.4 Piping and fitting assembly
4.2.4.1 General requirements
The size of piping shall meet the design requirements, and its material shall meet the temperature and pressure requirements of the expected transportation, and be free from the influence of the fluid medium on the mechanical properties of the pipe. The piping system shall meet the gas leakage test requirements specified in 5.4. The inner surface of the piping shall be thoroughly cleaned to remove particulate matter and organic contaminants, and the piping ports shall be carefully removed from obstructions and burrs.
The flexible pipes and related accessories used to transport gas shall comply with the provisions of GB/T 3512, GB/T 5563, GB/T 15329. Special consideration shall be given to the pipelines for transporting hydrogen.
4.2.4.2 Non-metallic piping systems
Plastic and rubber tubing, piping and assemblies may be used in the following situations. The non-metallic piping system shall adapt to the combined effect of the maximum operating temperature and the maximum operating pressure, shall not release substances harmful to the fuel cell stack, shall be compatible with other materials and chemicals that come into contact with it during use, repair and maintenance, and shall have sufficient mechanical strength to meet the requirements of 5.6 and 5.7. If necessary, a protection tube or enclosure shall be added to prevent the plastic or rubber pipes on the fuel cell stack from being mechanically damaged.
All chambers fitted with plastic or rubber fittings conveying flammable gases shall be protected against possible overheating. If there is such a possibility of overheating, the fuel cell system integrator manufacturer shall be informed of the maximum allowable temperature in this area so that they can provide a control system. The chamber temperature shall be 10 ??C lower than the lower limit of the minimum heat distortion temperature of the material used for fuel pipe fittings, otherwise the fuel input shall be cut off.
Plastic or rubber materials used in hazardous zones (such as explosive atmospheres) shall be conductive, unless the accumulation of electrostatic charges can be avoided from design. It shall meet the requirements of 7.4.2 in GB/T 3836.1-2021. 4.2.4.3 Metal piping systems
b) fuel cell stack and/or single cell voltage.
The location of the monitoring point is specified by the fuel cell stack manufacturer and explained to the fuel cell system integration manufacturer.
In the case that other methods are used to provide safe operation guarantee for the fuel cell stack, these methods shall have the same safety guarantee capability as temperature and voltage monitoring.
4.3 Technical requirements
4.3.1 Air tightness requirements
According to the test method in this document, carry out the air tightness test [gas leakage test (5.4), blow-by test (5.5)] of the fuel cell stack, where the results shall meet the requirements of the manufacturer on the leakage rate in the technical documents; For a fuel cell stack with an enclosed casing with a centralized safety ventilation system and purging procedures, the result of the flammable gas concentration test (5.13) shall be lower than 25% of the lower flammable limit.
4.3.2 Pressure withstand requirements
After the fuel cell stack is subjected to the allowable working pressure test (5.6), the cooling system pressure test (5.7) and the pressure difference test (5.8) specified in this document, the fuel cell stack and its components shall not be cracked, permanently deformed or otherwise physically damaged, and shall meet the requirements of 5.4 ~ 5.5.
4.3.3 Insulation performance requirements
The design of all insulation structures between the live part and the uncharged conductive part in the fuel cell stack shall meet the corresponding requirements of the relevant standards for electrical insulation structures. The mechanical properties (such as tensile strength) of the materials that affect the function of the structural parts shall be guaranteed. When the temperature of the part where it is located is 20 ??C higher than the maximum value of the normal operating temperature (but not lower than 80 ??C), it shall still meet the design requirements.
Carry out the test according to the method in 5.9. When the fuel cell stack is filled with coolant and the coolant is in a cold state without circulation, the insulation specific resistance of the positive and negative electrodes to the ground shall not be lower than 100 ??/V. If the requirements cannot be met during the insulation test, the subsequent test shall be stopped, and the test data shall be provided to the system integrator, who shall take measures to reduce the risk.
4.3.4 Output performance requirements
When the fuel cell stack operates according to the technical conditions given by the manufacturer, its performance output index [normal operation test (5.10) and rated power test (5.11)] shall not be lower than the value specified by the manufacturer in the technical documents.
After the electrical overload test (5.12), the fuel cell stack shall not have cracking, permanent deformation or other physical damage.
4.3.5 Environmental adaptability requirements
4.3.5.1 High and low temperature environment storage requirements
After the fuel cell stack is subjected to the low-temperature storage test (5.14.2) or the high-temperature storage test (5.14.3) under the temperature conditions specified by the manufacturer, there shall be no cracking, fragmentation, permanent deformation or other physical damage.
The airtightness and performance test results shall meet the manufacturer?€?s specifications in the technical documents.
4.3.5.2 Vibration and shock resistance requirements
The tested sample shall not cause any hazard or functional failure when subjected to the same or similar shock and vibration environment [vibration and shock resistance test (5.14.4)] during the intended use.
The airtightness, insulation and performance tests shall all meet the manufacturer?€?s specifications in the technical documentation.
4.4 Instruments and precision requirements
The instruments used for the test shall at least include:
a) Instruments for measuring environmental conditions: barometer, hygrometer; b) Instruments for measuring fuel conditions: fuel flowmeter, pressure measuring instrument, temperature measuring instrument, humidity measuring
instrument/dew point thermometer;
c) Instruments for measuring oxidant: oxidant flowmeter, pressure measuring instrument, temperature measuring instrument, humidity measuring
instrument/dew point thermometer;
d) Instruments for measuring circulating water (coolant): liquid flowmeter, pressure measuring instrument, temperature measuring instrument;
e) Instruments for measuring electrical energy output: voltage measuring instrument, current measuring instrument, and other accessories;
The allowable working pressure test of the fuel cell stack shall be carried out at the highest and lowest operating temperature respectively, and the test medium shall be nitrogen.
If the manufacturer provides a severity, perform the test in accordance with the conditions of high severity provided by the manufacturer; if not, perform the test according to the following requirements.
If the internal pressure of the anode chamber and cathode chamber of the fuel cell stack is the same or the pressure difference is ???30 kPa during normal operation, they can be connected to each other during the test. If the fuel cell stack has a cooling channel and the working pressure is the same as that of the anode chamber and the cathode chamber or the pressure difference is ??? 30 kPa, the channel can also be tested for the allowable working pressure in the same way at the same time.
During the test, the average heating and cooling rate of the environment shall not exceed 2 ??C/min.
5.6.2 High temperature pressure test
Place the fuel cell stack in an environment with the highest operating temperature specified by the manufacturer, and let it stand for more than 12 hours; The fuel cell stack (anode and cathode channels, coolant channels) shall be gradually pressurized until the pressure reaches 1.3 times the maximum allowable working pressure (gauge pressure) at the temperature specified by the manufacturer; the pressure shall be kept stable for at least 5 minutes, and the pressure fluctuation during the process shall not exceed 2 kPa.
Lower the temperature of the test environment to 25 ??C, and let it stand for more than 12 hours.
The test pressure value, pressure stabilization time and test environment conditions shall be indicated in the test report.
During the test, the fuel cell stack shall not have cracking, permanent deformation or other physical damage.
After the test, repeat the gas leakage test (5.4) and blow-by test (5.5), where the test results shall meet the manufacturer?€?s specifications in the technical documents. 5.6.3 Low temperature pressure test
Place the fuel cell stack in an environment with the lowest operating temperature specified by the manufacturer, and let it stand for more than 12 hours. The fuel cell stack (anode and cathode channels, coolant channels) shall be gradually pressurized until the pressure reaches 1.3 times the maximum allowable working pressure (gauge pressure) at the temperature specified by the manufacturer; the pressure shall be kept stable for at least 5 minutes, and the pressure fluctuation during the process shall not exceed 2 kPa.
Rise the temperature of the test environment to 25 ??C, and let it stand for more than 12 hours.
The test pressure value, pressure stabilization time and test environment conditions shall be indicated in the test report.
During the test, the fuel cell stack shall not have cracking, permanent deformation or other physical damage.
After the test, repeat the gas leakage test (5.4) and blow-by test (5.5), where the test results shall meet the manufacturer?€?s specifications in the technical documents. 5.7 Cooling system pressure test
If the cooling system is not tested in the allowable working pressure test, the cooling system shall be subjected to a pressure test. If the manufacturer provides a severity, perform the test in accordance with the conditions of high severity provided by the manufacturer. Otherwise, it shall be carried out at the maximum operating temperature and the minimum operating temperature specified by the manufacturer respectively, and the test medium shall be nitrogen.
Before the test, the fuel cell stack shall be placed at the target test temperature for more than 12 hours.
During the test, pressurize the cooling system of the fuel cell stack gradually until the pressure reaches 1.3 times the allowable working pressure at the temperature specified by the manufacturer; keep the pressure stable for at least 5 minutes. The pressure fluctuation during the process shall not exceed 2 kPa.
After the test is completed, return the ambient temperature to 25 ??C and let it stand for more than 12 hours before proceeding to the follow-up test.
The test pressure value, pressure stabilization time and test environment conditions shall be indicated in the test report. The fuel cell stack shall not have cracking, permanent deformation or other physical damage.
After the test, repeat the gas leakage test (5.4) and blow-by test (5.5), where the test results shall meet the manufacturer?€?s specifications in the technical documents. 5.8 Pressure difference test
For fuel cell stacks with different working pressures in the anode and cathode channels, a pressure difference test shall be carried out. If the manufacturer provides a severity, perform the test in accordance with the conditions of high severity provided by the Calculate the insulation specific resistance value according to Formula (1). The insulation specific resistance value shall be above 100 ??/V. If the requirements cannot be met, the test data shall be provided to the fuel cell system integration manufacturer. The temperature and conductivity of the coolant shall be indicated in the test report. 5.10 Normal operation test
Before the normal operation test, use a voltmeter to check whether the polarity of the sample terminal is correct, and activate the fuel cell stack according to the activation method provided by the manufacturer.
The normal operation test steps are as follows:
a) Load according to the method specified by the manufacturer; adjust the parameters of the test platform so that the operating conditions of the fuel cell stack reach the range specified by the manufacturer; then, continue to operate at each operating point for more than 5 minutes. The steady-state operating points shall include at least 10 operating points;
b) Run it continuously at the rated current point for at least 10 minutes. During the continuous operation, the voltage fluctuation at the fuel cell stack terminal shall not exceed 3%, that is, the fuel cell stack terminal voltage during this time period shall always be 97% ~ 103% of the average voltage;
c) Shutdown in accordance with the normal shutdown procedures specified by the manufacturer;
d) Re-perform the test if it is interrupted.
Refer to Appendix B to record the parameters of the fuel cell stack during normal operation. The results of each operating point shall be the average value within 1 min before the current loading step. Except for the single-chip voltage (V) which retains three decimal places downwards, all other parameters retain one decimal place downwards.
In the test report, the cathode and anode operating pressure (gauge pressure), excess coefficient, temperature, humidity, coolant temperature, and the maximum surface temperature of the stack shall be clearly defined for each working point. 5.11 Rated power test
The steps of the rated power test are as follows:
a) Load according to the conditions specified by the manufacturer. After the operating conditions at the specified operating point reach the range specified by the manufacturer, run stably for 1 minute, and then directly load to the rated current point;
b) Run it continuously at the rated current point for at least 60 minutes. During the continuous operation, the voltage fluctuation at the fuel cell stack terminal shall not exceed 3%, that is, the fuel cell stack terminal voltage during this time period shall always be 97% ~ 103% of the average voltage;
c) Shutdown in accordance with the normal shutdown procedures specified by the manufacturer;
d) Re-perform the test if it is interrupted.
Refer to Appendix B to record the parameters of the fuel cell stack during the rated power test; take the average value within the last 1 min of the current stable operation stage as the result. Take the average value of the power within the last 1 minute under the rated current as the rated power. Except for the single-chip voltage (V) which retains three decimal places downwards, all other parameters retain one decimal place downwards.
Refer to Appendix C to calculate the electrical efficiency of the fuel cell stack. In the test report, the cathode and anode operating pressure (gauge pressure), excess coefficient, temperature, humidity, voltage efficiency and coolant temperature corresponding to the rated current point shall be specified.
Under the condition of ensuring that the running time is not less than 60 min, this test can be carried out simultaneously with b) in (5.10), the normal operation test. 5.12 Electrical overload test
In order to check whether the fuel cell stack has the specified overload capacity, an electrical overload test shall be carried out.
Electrical overload test steps are as follows:
a) Load according to the conditions specified by the manufacturer. After the operating conditions at the specified working point reach the range specified by the manufacturer, run stably for 1 minute; directly load to the rated current point, and continue to run at the rated current point for at least 10 minutes; b) According to the loading method specified by the manufacturer, gradually increase the current to the value specified in t) in 6.5.1, and maintain the maximum overload time allowed by the manufacturer, during which the voltage fluctuation shall not exceed 3%;
c) Shutdown in accordance with the normal shutdown procedures specified by the manufacturer;
d) Re-perform the test if it is interrupted.

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