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GB/T 19754-2015 English PDF (GBT19754-2015)

GB/T 19754-2015 English PDF (GBT19754-2015)

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GB/T 19754-2015: Test methods for energy consumption of heavy-duty hybrid electric vehicles

This Standard specifies the methods for energy consumption test of heavy-duty hybrid electric vehicles on chassis dynamometers or roads. This Standard applies to hybrid electric vehicles with a maximum total mass of more than 3500 kg.
GB/T 19754-2015
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.020
T 04
Replacing GB/T 19754-2005
Test methods for energy consumption
of heavy-duty hybrid electric vehicles
ISSUED ON. MAY 15, 2015
IMPLEMENTED ON. OCTOBER 1, 2015
Issued by. General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the PRC;
Standardization Administration of the PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 4
1 Scope ... 5
2 Normative references ... 5
3 Terms and definitions ... 6
4 Calculation method of net energy change (NEC) ... 7
4.1 Calculation theory of NEC ... 7
4.2 NEC calculation ... 7
4.3 Determination of NEC relative variation ... 9
5 Test cycle ... 11
5.1 Requirements for test cycle ... 11
5.2 Duration of test cycle ... 11
6 Test preparation ... 12
6.1 Test conditions ... 12
6.2 Pre-collection of vehicle data ... 12
6.3 Vehicle conditions ... 12
6.4 Preset of energy storing device ... 14
6.5 Technical conditions of chassis dynamometer ... 15
6.6 Test instruments ... 17
7 Test procedures ... 18
7.1 Start and restart of vehicle propulsion system ... 18
7.2 Pre-run ... 18
7.3 Test procedures for non-externally chargeable hybrid electric vehicles ... 18 7.4 Test procedures for externally chargeable hybrid electric vehicles ... 19 8 Data records and results ... 23
8.1 Environmental data ... 23
8.2 Fuel density ... 23
8.3 SOC, power battery voltage, super capacitor voltage, and NEC ... 23 8.4 Driving distance ... 23
8.5 Fuel consumption ... 23
8.6 Net energy change (NEC) of energy storing device ... 23
8.7 Energy consumption ... 23
8.8 Test validity ... 27
9 Final test report ... 27
Appendix A (Normative) Example OF determination procedure of NEC relative variation AND SOC correction procedure ... 28
Appendix B (Normative) Data of typical urban bus cycle in China ... 31 Appendix C (Informative) Driving cycle data recommended by fuel economy test of the US hybrid heavy-duty vehicle ... 40
Appendix D (Informative) Descriptions of driving cycles recommended by fuel economy test of the US heavy-duty hybrid electric vehicle ... 106
Appendix E (Informative) Form of parameters of test sample vehicle ... 110 Bibliography ... 114
Foreword
This Standard is drafted in accordance with the rules given in GB/T 1.1-2009. This Standard replaces GB/T 19754-2005 ?€?Test methods for energy
consumption of heavy-duty hybrid electric vehicles?€?. As compared with GB/T 19754-2005, in addition to editorial changes, the main technical changes are as follows.
- ADD measurement and evaluation methods for energy consumption of non- externally chargeable hybrid electric vehicles;
- Major changes in the method of converting electricity consumption and fuel consumption;
- Major changes in the calculation method of NEC, and ADD the calculation method for NEC of super capacitor;
- The test cycle has changed. ADD the C-WTVC driving cycle in GB/T 27840- 2011 as the test cycle for hybrid commercial vehicles and the urban bus cycle (expressway) in QC/T 759-2006;
- Significant changes in the test procedures and result evaluation.
This Standard was proposed by Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of the PRC.
This Standard shall be under the jurisdiction of National Technical Committee of Auto Standardization (SAC/TC 114).
Drafting organizations of this Standard. Dongfeng Motor Corporation, China Automotive Technology and Research Center Co., Ltd., Technical Center of China FAW Group Co., Ltd., Hunan CRRC Times Electric Vehicle Co., Ltd.. Main drafters of this Standard. Li Zheng, Yang Xiaolun, Xin Jixin, Duan Shengbo, Xu Pingxing, Deng Yuanfa, She Jianqiang, Peng Hongtao, Zhang
Chunlong, Qin Kongjian, He Yuntang, Zhang Yingnan, Yang Fang, Guo Shuying. The previous versions of the standard replaced by this Standard were released as follows.
- GB/T 19754-2005.
Test methods for energy consumption
of heavy-duty hybrid electric vehicles
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the methods for energy consumption test of heavy-duty hybrid electric vehicles on chassis dynamometers or roads.
This Standard applies to hybrid electric vehicles with a maximum total mass of more than 3500 kg.
2 Normative references
The following documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For the dated references, only the versions with the dates indicated are applicable to this document. For the undated references, the latest version (including all the amendments) are applicable to this document.
GB/T 12534 Motor vehicles - General rules of road test method
GB 18352.3-2005 Limits and measurement methods for emissions from
light-duty vehicles (III, IV)
GB/T 18386 Electric vehicles - Energy consumption and range - Test
procedures
GB/T 19596 Terminology of electric vehicles
GB/T 19753 Test Methods for Energy Consumption of Light-duty Hybrid
Electric Vehicles
GB/T 27840-2011 Fuel consumption test methods for heavy-duty commercial vehicles
QC/T 741 Ultra-capacitor for Electric Vehicles
QC/T 759-2006 City Driving Cycle for Vehicle Testing
QC/T 837 Types of hybrid electric vehicles
3 Terms and definitions
The terms and definitions defined in GB/T 19596, QC/T 741, QC/T 837, GB/T 19753, and GB/T 27840 and the following are applicable to this document. 3.1 Super capacitor state of charge; SOC
The difference BETWEEN the squared value of the capacitor voltage based on actual measurement AND the squared value of allowed lower limit voltage of capacitor specified by the manufacturer (Uact2-Umin2), which is expressed as a percentage of the difference BETWEEN the squared value of the maximum
nominal voltage of capacitor AND the squared value of allowed lower limit voltage of capacitor specified by the manufacturer (Umax2-Umin2).
3.2 Net energy change; NEC
The net change in energy of energy storing device.
Note. The unit is kilowatt-hour (kW ?? h).
3.3 Propulsion energy
The energy obtained from the fuel consumed by the vehicle and/or energy storing device for driving the vehicle. If the energy is only supplied to the vehicle accessories (such as 12 V/24 V auxiliary batteries in conventional vehicles), it shall not be treated as propulsion energy.
3.4 Propulsion system
The system which can provide the propulsion force to the vehicle based on the driver?€?s operating instructions after the vehicle is started.
3.5 Regenerative braking
The system which converts or partially converts the kinetic energy and potential energy of a vehicle during its running to the energy stored in the energy storing device when the vehicle slows down or goes downhill.
3.6 Total fuel energy
The total fuel energy calculated based on the low calorific value of the fuel. Note. The unit is kilowatt-hour (kW ?? h).
Uend - The voltage of super capacitor bus at the end of the test cycle, in volts (V);
Ustart - The voltage of super capacitor bus at the start of the test cycle, in volts (V).
4.3 Determination of NEC relative variation
4.3.1 Total cycle propulsion energy
4.3.1.1 Calculation method of total cycle propulsion energy
This Standard uses the total cycle propulsion energy instead of the total fuel propulsion energy to determine the relative variation of NEC; because for the same test cycle, the total cycle propulsion energy does not change substantially. However, the latter may vary with the energy stored in the energy storing device; and fuel propulsion energy and the electric-energy propulsion energy form a complementary relationship, and the fuel propulsion energy changes in a plurality of tests.
The total cycle propulsion energy can be calculated by one of the following two methods. Method 1 is to calculate the total cycle propulsion energy through the data collected by the chassis dynamometer. Method 2 is to calculate the total fuel propulsion energy by the amount of fuel consumed in the test, and then to calculate the total cycle propulsion energy according to the NEC during the test. 4.3.1.2 Determination of total cycle propulsion energy by chassis
dynamometer test method
When the vehicle is tested on the chassis dynamometer, the chassis
dynamometer can measure the actual propulsion force of the vehicle on the wheel edge during the test in real time, and the actual vehicle speed. The total cycle propulsion energy (unit. kW ?? h) can be calculated by formula (5). Where.
k3 - Unit conversion factor, (3.62??106)-1, in kilowatt-hours per joule (kW ?? h/J); F - The vehicle propulsion force on wheel edge measured in real time, the force is positive. When the vehicle propulsion force is negative, 0 is taken, in newtons (N);
V - Vehicle speed measured in real time, in kilometers per hour (km/h); Total cycle propulsion energy
Before the test, the vehicle shall be subjected to mileage running-in in accordance with the regulations of the vehicle manufacturer, or run for 3000 km. 6.3.2 Vehicle state
Before the test, the vehicle state shall be checked.
- The performance of the test vehicle shall comply with the regulations of the vehicle manufacturer. The vehicle shall be able to drive normally;
- The engine, motor, and vehicle controls shall be adjusted in accordance with the regulations of the vehicle manufacturer;
- If the vehicle?€?s cooling fan is temperature-controlled, it shall be kept in a normal working condition. The air conditioning system of passenger
compartment shall be closed.
6.3.3 Load of test vehicle
Except for special regulations, the load of M2 and M3 urban buses, according to the selected test cycle, is 65% or full load of the loading mass. Other vehicles are fully loaded. The occupant mass and loading requirements shall be in accordance with GB/T 12534.
6.3.4 Tire pressure
For chassis dynamometer test, before the start of the test, the tire pressure shall be set to the pressure value when the vehicle establishes the road drag coefficient on the chassis dynamometer; and shall not exceed the
manufacturer?€?s specified value range.
6.3.5 Shift
The driver shall, by using the appropriate operation of accelerator pedal or/and the accurate selection of shifting speed, achieve the corresponding relationship between the vehicle speed and the time specified by driving cycle. It shall be avoided that the vehicle speed changes more slowly than the theoretical speed, or there is excessive disturbance by accelerator pedal, so as not to cause the invalidity of the test.
The acceleration process shall be smooth according to the manufacturer?€?s recommendations. For manual transmissions, the driver shall, in the shortest amount of time, complete the shifting process. If the vehicle cannot accelerate at the specified speed, the vehicle shall run at the maximum accelerator pedal until the speed reaches the theoretical speed requirement.
6.3.6 Speed and tolerance
6.5 Technical conditions of chassis dynamometer
6.5.1 General requirements of chassis dynamometer
If testing on a chassis dynamometer, heavy-duty hybrid electric vehicles shall be tested using a laboratory equipped with the following facilities. The chassis dynamometer shall be able to simulate transient inertial load, air resistance, and rolling resistance during normal operation of heavy-duty vehicles. At this time, road grade is not considered in the driving cycle. Transient inertial load shall be simulated using appropriately sized flywheels or electrically controlled power absorption devices. Air resistance and rolling resistance can be achieved by applying a certain absorbed power by the corresponding computer control system. Air resistance and rolling resistance shall be obtained by simulating a road taxi curve on a chassis dynamometer. The road taxi procedure is detailed in the relevant part of Annex CC of GB 18352.3-2005. Unless the rotational inertia of propulsion system of hybrid vehicle can be accurately calculated, the road taxi curve is not allowed to be obtained by numerical calculation. The actual mass for vehicle road taxi shall be consistent with the mass of the vehicle on the chassis dynamometer to be tested. The vehicle shall be mounted on the chassis dynamometer, so that it can be driven according to the test cycle. The driver shall be provided with an assistant driver display screen which shows the theoretical vehicle speed and the actual vehicle speed, to ensure that the driver can operate the vehicle according to the theoretical cycle.
6.5.2 Capacity of chassis dynamometer
The capacity of chassis dynamometer shall be able to ensure the accurate reproduction of the inertial force, rolling resistance, and air resistance during actual driving of vehicle. It is necessary to consider the damping inside the chassis dynamometer, to avoid the side effect of mechanical action of chassis dynamometer on the energy consumption of vehicle.
6.5.3 Calibration of chassis dynamometer
The chassis dynamometer laboratory shall provide calibration procedures recommended by the chassis dynamometer manufacturer.
6.5.4 Inertial load
The inertial load of the vehicle starting from a complete stop state needs to be correctly simulated (e.g., the theoretical calculating value of the energy for accelerating vehicle plus rolling resistance and air resistance shall be consistent with the results of the actual road taxi test).
6.5.5 Road resistance
shall be shielded, and other components of the vehicle shall be in the same state (e.g., air conditioning off, etc.).
6.6 Test instruments
6.6.1 Test instruments
The test equipment required and recommended for use is as follows.
- Test instrument for measuring vehicle speed and distance (such as non- contact vehicle speedometer). The measurement accuracy of the vehicle
speed shall be ??0.2 km/h; and the measurement accuracy of time shall be ??0.1 s. The measuring devices for fuel consumption, energy consumption, vehicle speed, and time shall be started synchronously.
- An assistant driver display screen for real-time display of test cycle theoretical vehicle speed and actual vehicle speed to guide the driver to adjust the driving speed. Moreover, the actual driving speed and the
theoretical speed shall be able to be recorded. The recording frequency shall not be lower than 1Hz.
- The fuel consumption meter for measuring fuel consumption; the accuracy shall not exceed ??0.5% of the measured value. Or the balance for
measuring fuel consumption using the weighing method; the accuracy shall not exceed ??0.5% of the measured value.
- Instrument for measuring current. The accuracy shall not exceed ??0.5% of the maximum measured value, or ??0.2% FS. The operating frequency shall
not be lower than 20 Hz.
- Instrument for measuring voltage. The accuracy shall not exceed ??0.5% of the maximum measured value, or ??0.2% FS. The operating frequency shall
not be lower than 20 Hz.
- Other instruments which can meet the requirements of function for the electric energy consumption test, approved by technical supervision
department, can be used for testing; but the accuracy shall not exceed ??0.5% of the measured value.
6.6.2 Test accuracy of the instrument for taxi test measured parameters The test accuracy of the instrument for taxi test measured parameters is specified as follows.
- Time. The accuracy is ??0.1 s;
- Vehicle speed. The accuracy is ??0.2 km/h;
The vehicle is preheated and pre-treated on the road or chassis dynamometer using a complete test cycle. At the end of the cycle, the ignition lock is turned off for 15 min, and vehicle preset is performed.
7.3.3 Operation of energy consumption test
The vehicle is tested on the road or chassis dynamometer according to the driving cycle. Each time the test is completed, the ignition lock needs to be turned off for 15 min to preset the thermal state of the vehicle. Continuous testing does not require pre-cycle operation. If non-test driving activity is carried out before three test operations are completed, the pre-cycle operation shall be resumed before the next test, and then the formal test is started.
7.3.4 Number of test cycles and its treatment
At least three tests are required. The tester, according to the provisions of 8.8, judges whether the test results are valid and the number of tests is sufficient, and then decides to end the test.
7.4 Test procedures for externally chargeable hybrid electric vehicles
7.4.1 Preset of vehicle state of charge
For externally chargeable hybrid electric vehicles, before the first test, the vehicle is required to be charged to the upper limit of state of charge required by the vehicle manufacturer.
7.4.2 Test procedures for externally chargeable hybrid electric vehicle including pure electric operating mode
7.4.2.1 General
Externally chargeable hybrid electric vehicle including a pure electric operating mode refers to a vehicle which can complete the ?€?typical urban bus cycle in China?€? in a pure electric operating mode. If a vehicle?€?s hybrid design or control strategy is set to use a pure motor when below a certain speed and use a hybrid operation when above a certain speed, it is not an externally chargeable hybrid electric vehicle including a pure electric operating mode specified in this Standard. This type of vehicle is implemented in accordance with the test procedures described in 7.4.3.
The pure electric operating mode may be arranged on the instrument desk with the manual switch as a button; and the accelerator pedal is depressed and the powertrain does not output power, as the end of the pure electric operating mode. Or it may rely on the automatic transition of the vehicle controller, with In other cases as described in Table 2, the division of working stage and the number of tests are determined according to Table 2.
If the change in the NEC variation in the test results is irregular, and no consecutive three test results in the six tests have the absolute value of NEC variation no more than 5%, the six tests are regarded as Stage 2 (energy adjustment of energy storing device). The test is over.
If necessary, the testing authority may appropriately increase the number of tests according to the circumstances, but when the irregular change in NEC variation described in the previous paragraph occurs, at least six tests are required.
In principle, it is best to complete the three-stage test in succession at one time. If it is impossible, the non-test vehicle driving shall be carried out. After the start of Stage 2 test, at least three tests shall be conducted before a temporary interruption of the test is allowed. Charging or energy adjustment of the vehicle?€?s energy storing device is not allowed until the start of the next test. When the test is started again, the pre-cycle operation is performed in accordance with the requirements of 7.3.2, and then the formal test operation is started.
7.4.3 Test procedures for externally chargeable hybrid electric vehicle not including pure electric operating mode
7.4.3.1 Vehicle movement
If the road test is carried out and the parking position where vehicle charging is completed is not at the same place as the test site, the vehicle is required to move to the test site at a constant speed of not more than 30 km/h. The maximum distance from the vehicle preset location to the test location shall not exceed 3 km. Then POWER off, TURN off the ignition lock for 15 min; and CARRY out vehic...

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