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GB/T 19120-2015 English PDF (GBT19120-2015)

GB/T 19120-2015 English PDF (GBT19120-2015)

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GB/T 19120-2015: Tri-wheel vehicles and low-speed goods vehicles -- Braking system -- Structure, performance and test methods

This Standard specifies the structural requirements, performance requirements and test methods of the braking system of tri-wheel vehicles and low-speed goods vehicles. This Standard is applicable to the braking system of tri-wheel vehicles and low-speed goods vehicles.
GB/T 19120-2015
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 65.060
T 54
Replacing GB/T 19120-2003
Tri-wheel Vehicles and Low-speed Goods Vehicles -
Braking System - Structure, Performance and Test
Methods
ISSUED ON: MAY 15, 2015
IMPLEMENTED ON: OCTOBER 1, 2015
Issued by: General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine;
Standardization Administration of the PEOPLE Republic of
China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 5
2 Normative References ... 5
3 Terms and Definitions ... 5
4 Structural Requirements ... 7
5 Performance Requirements ... 12
6 Test Methods ... 18
Tri-wheel Vehicles and Low-speed Goods Vehicles -
Braking System - Structure, Performance and Test
Methods
1 Scope
This Standard specifies the structural requirements, performance requirements and test methods of the braking system of tri-wheel vehicles and low-speed goods vehicles. This Standard is applicable to the braking system of tri-wheel vehicles and low-speed goods vehicles (collectively referred to as low-speed vehicles).
2 Normative References
The following documents are indispensable to the application of this document. In terms of references with a specified date, only versions with a specified date are applicable to this document. In terms of references without a specified date, the latest version (including all the modifications) is applicable to this document. GB/T 5345 Road Vehicles - Labelling of Containers for Petroleum-based or Non- petroleum-based Brake Fluid
3 Terms and Definitions
The following terms and definitions are applicable to this document.
3.1 Braking Device
Braking device refers to a combination of parts and components that gradually decelerate a moving low-speed vehicle, or, stop a moving low-speed vehicle, or, maintain a stopped low-speed vehicle in a stationary state. Its functions are described in 4.1.6. This device is constituted of control device, energy transmission device and brake.
3.2 Control Device
Control device refers to a component directly driven by the driver to provide the energy transmission device with the energy required to brake or control a low-speed vehicle. This energy may be the energy of the driver?€?s muscle contraction or other energies from the driver?€?s control, or, a combination of these energies.
3.12 Maximum Design Total Mass
Maximum design total mass refers to the maximum mass specified by the
manufacturer of tri-wheel vehicles or low-speed goods vehicles.
4 Structural Requirements
4.1 Basic Requirements
4.1.1 The design, manufacture and assembly of the braking device shall ensure that low-speed vehicle can satisfy the requirements of this Standard under normal conditions of use, no matter what vibration it is subjected to.
4.1.2 The design, manufacture and assembly of the braking device shall ensure that the exposed part is resistant to corrosion and aging in the environment of normal use. 4.1.3 The brake linings shall not contain asbestos.
4.1.4 The various rod pieces of the braking system are not allowed to interfere or friction with other parts in relative displacement, so as to prevent deformation and damage of the rod pieces.
4.1.5 The braking line shall be a special-purpose corrosion-resistant high-pressure line. The installation of braking lines shall ensure that they have good continuity, sufficient length and flexibility to adapt to the normal movement required by the parts connected to them without causing any damage. They shall have proper safety protection, so as to avoid scratches, entanglement or other mechanical damages. Meanwhile, avoid installation in places where they might come into contact with low-speed vehicle exhaust pipes or any high-temperature sources. The flexible brake hoses are not allowed to interfere with other parts, and shall not manifest any phenomena of aging, cracking or flattened, etc. When other pneumatic devices fail, they are not allowed to affect the normal operation of the braking system.
4.1.6 The braking device shall be equipped with the following functions: a) Service braking: regardless of the speed, load, uphill and downhill, the service braking system shall be able to control the low-speed vehicle to safely and effectively decelerate and stop during the process of driving; service braking shall be controllable; it shall ensure that the driver can brake with both hands on his seat without leaving the steering wheel (handle).
b) Emergency braking (except for tri-wheel vehicles): emergency braking may be a service braking system with emergency characteristics, or a system separated from the service braking; the control device may be combined with the control device of service braking, or, it may be combined with the control device of parking braking. Emergency braking shall stop the low-speed
emergency braking system or the part of the service braking system not
affected by the failure shall be able to stop the low-speed vehicle in
accordance with the requirements of emergency braking.
f) When the service braking system and the emergency braking system share the same control design and the same energy transmission device:
---If the service braking system is operated by the driver with his physical strength, and is assisted by one or several energy storage devices, even when the assist fails, it can still ensure the implementation of emergency braking through the driver?€?s physical strength and the energy that is not affected by the failure, and the force acting on the control device shall not exceed the specified maximum value.
---If the braking force of the service braking system and energy transmission are merely provided by the energy storage device controlled by the driver, then, there shall be at least two completely independent energy storage devices; each energy storage device shall have an independent energy
transmission device, which shall function on two or more wheel brakes.
The selection shall enable the low-speed vehicle to achieve the specified emergency braking efficiency without affecting the stability of the low- speed vehicle during the braking process. In addition, each energy storage device shall be installed with the alarm device specified in 4.2.12.
g) For certain parts of the braking device, such as: the brake pedal and its bracket, the master brake cylinder and its piston, the master brake valve, the brake chamber, the wheel cylinder and its piston, and the connecting rod pieces between them, as well as the brake lever of a tri-wheel vehicle and its intermediate shaft shall be considered as parts that are not prone to failure. These parts shall be large enough in size, easy to access for maintenance, and at least have the same safety features as other important parts (for example, steering rod system) of the low-speed vehicle. If the failure of these parts and components would cause the low-speed vehicle to fail to meet the specified performance of emergency braking, then, these parts and
components shall all be made of metal materials or materials with equivalent performance as the metal materials. In addition, in the normal operation of the braking device, no obvious deformation shall be generated.
4.2.3 When the control devices of the service braking system and the emergency braking system are mutually independent, when the two sets of braking devices are normally working, or one of them is not properly working, and the two sets of control devices are simultaneously operated, the service braking and the emergency braking shall not be disabled at the same time.
4.2.4 In the case of partial failure of the energy transmission device of the service braking system, when operating the control device of the service braking system, a 4.2.8 Service braking shall act on all wheels of the low-speed vehicles, except for the tri-wheel vehicles that satisfy the performance requirements in 5.2.
4.2.9 The braking force of the service braking shall be reasonably distributed between axles (except for tri-wheel vehicles with only rear-wheel brakes).
4.2.10 The braking force of the service braking shall be symmetrically distributed relative to the longitudinal center plane of the low-speed vehicle between the left and right wheels on the same axle.
4.2.11 The service braking system and the parking braking system shall act on the braking surface that is permanently connected to the wheels through components with sufficient strength. Any braking surface shall not be disengaged from the wheels. However, for the service braking system and the emergency braking system, the braking surface is allowed to be briefly disengaged, for example, during gear-shifting; after that, the service braking system and the emergency braking system shall continue to achieve the stipulated efficiency. For the parking braking system, if it is merely controlled by the driver on the seat by means of a device that does not function through deflation, then, the braking surface is allowed to be disengaged.
4.2.12 After the brake is worn, the brake clearance shall be easily compensated by manual or automatic adjustment devices. Its control and energy transmission device, and the components of the brake shall have a certain reserve stroke. When necessary, there shall be appropriate compensation devices. When the brake heats up, or, the brake linings (blocks) reach a certain degree of wear, the braking efficiency can still be guaranteed without immediate adjustment of the brake clearance.
a) Service brake may choose to install an automatic wear adjustment device. After the brake is heated and cooled, the automatic wear adjustment device can still ensure effective braking performance. In particular, after Type-I test specified in 5.5, the low-speed vehicle can still normally run.
b) The wear of the service brake linings (blocks) shall make it convenient for inspection from the external part or lower part of the low-speed vehicle. During the inspection, only accompanying tools or equipment commonly used in low- speed vehicles (for example, with appropriate inspection holes or some other measures) shall be used. Or, an acoustic or optical alarm device may be adopted. When the linings (blocks) need to be replaced, the alarm device may alert the driver in the cab.
4.2.13 For the service braking system that uses energy storage to take actions, when the specified emergency braking performance cannot be achieved without using the stored energy of the energy storage device, in addition to the installation of a pressure gauge, an alarm device shall also be installed. When the energy stored in any part of the system drops to a certain value, the alarm device shall be able to send out a light signal or an acoustic signal. Under this circumstance, regardless of the load of the low- 5.7.2.2 For the vacuum braking system, starting from the ambient air pressure, in accordance with the conditions specified in 6.11.2, the energy supply device shall enable the energy storage device to have the initial energy for the service braking system to reach the performance specified in 5.2 within 3 min.
5.7.2.3 For the hydraulic braking system equipped with an energy storage device, when braking is not actuated, the time required for the pressure in the energy storage device to rise from the initial value (without replenishing energy to the energy storage device, starting from the maximum factory-set working pressure, after 4 full-stroke braking of the service braking, the pressure in the energy storage device) to the maximum working pressure of the energy storage device shall not exceed 20 s. 6 Test Methods
6.1 Test Site
6.1.1 The test road surface shall be dry and smooth concrete, or, other road surfaces with the same adhesion coefficient. No loose debris is allowed on the road surface. 6.1.2 The longitudinal gradient of the test road surface shall not exceed 2%. The parking test gradient shall comply with the stipulations of relevant provisions. 6.1.3 The gradient of road camber shall be less than 2%.
6.2 Climatic Conditions
6.2.1 Wind speed: it shall be less than 5 m/s.
6.2.2 Temperature: it shall not exceed 35 ??C.
6.3 Test Load
6.3.1 Fully loaded: the low-speed vehicle being tested is in the state of maximum design total mass; its load shall be evenly distributed. When the low-speed vehicle is fully loaded, the distribution of axle load mass shall comply with the manufacturer?€?s stipulations. If there are several schemes for the distribution of the load mass among the various axles (bridges), then, the distribution of the maximum total mass of the low- speed vehicle among the various axles (bridges) shall ensure that the ratio of the load mass of the various axles (bridges) to the maximum allowable load mass is the same. 6.3.2 Unloaded: fill the fuel tank to 90% of the factory-set volume; fill it up with coolant and lubricant; bring along with the accompanying tools and spare tyres. In addition, it also includes a mass of 200 kg (the mass of the driver, a tester and instruments). 6.4 Test Preparation
6.5.3 If the test fails, or, other types of brake components are to be appraised, when it is necessary to re-test in whole or in part, it shall comply with the test sequence of this Standard.
6.5.4 The pedal force shall act quickly and remain stable during the process of braking. 6.5.5 It is not allowed to use pedal drive.
6.5.6 During the test, the deviation and abnormal vibration of the low-speed vehicle shall be observed and recorded.
6.6 Performance Test of Service Braking System
6.6.1 Test procedures
6.6.1.1 In accordance with the specified load and test speed, disengage the engine; conduct the tests in sequence.
6.6.1.2 It is allowed to conduct 5 preliminary tests, so as to familiarize yourself with the optimum braking performance when the wheels are not locked, and the low-speed vehicle is not severely deviated.
6.6.1.3 Each test is conducted 4 times. The tests shall be carried out back and forth. 6.6.1.4 Before each braking, the brake is cold-state. In other words, the initial temperature measured on the outer surface of the brake drum (disk) does not exceed 100 ??C.
6.6.2 Test sequence
6.6.2.1 The unloaded braking test shall be carried out in accordance with the following sequence:
a) The initial braking speed is the test speed specified in 5.2.1; the engine brake is disengaged.
b) On the test road surface, draw the sideline of the test lane with a width corresponding to the requirements for braking stability specified in Table 1. Along the centerline of the test lane, drive to higher than the specified initial speed. Place the transmission in neutral gear. When the vehicle taxies to the specified initial speed, quickly step on the brake pedal to stop the low-speed vehicle.
6.6.2.2 The fully loaded braking test shall be conducted in accordance with the following sequence:
---The initial braking speed is the test vehicle speed specified in 5.2.1; the engine brake is disengaged.
---The test method is the same as 6.6.2.1 b).
6.6.2.3 Test record
Record the actual initial braking speed, the braking distance and the actual control force, etc.
6.6.3 Bench-test inspection
Drive the low-speed vehicle on a brake test bench roller with a dry surface, and no loose substances or oil stains. Properly position it, then, actuate the roller; use the brake. Measure the parameter values required by 5.2.2 and 5.6.4. In addition, record whether the wheels are locked up.
When measuring braking, in order to obtain sufficient adhesion to avoid wheel locking, it is allowed to add sufficient mass or drag an acting force equivalent to the additional mass on the low-speed vehicle (the additional mass or acting force is not included in the axle load). Or, measures may also be taken to prevent the low-speed vehicle from moving (for example, by adding triangular pads or using tractions).
After the above-mentioned method is adopted, when the wheels are still locked up and slippery on the roller, or, the complete-vehicle moves backward with the roller, and the braking force still does not reach the requirements of qualification, then, the method of road-test inspection shall be adopted for determination and judgment.
6.7 Emergency Braking Performance Test and Service Braking Partial
Failure Test
6.7.1 General rules of test
For low-speed goods vehicles with a combination of emergency braking system and service braking system, partial failure test of the service braking system shall be carried out. For low-speed goods vehicles with an independent emergency braking system, or a combination of emergency braking system and parking braking system, emergency braking test and residual braking performance test of partial failure of the service braking shall be respectively conducted.
6.7.2 Test procedure
6.7.2.1 In accordance with the structure of the braking device, determine the test items and the mode of failures.
6.7.2.2 In the simulation of brake failures, the method of disconnecting the pipeline may be used. For the pneumatic braking system, the air pressure may be directly discharged into the atmosphere. For the hydraulic braking system, the brake fluid may be connected to another pipeline and returned to the reservoir.
maintain for 5 min. Then, the test is performed once in the opposite direction. 6.9.2.2 Traction test
The test vehicle is in stationary state (not braked); in accordance with the control force specified in 5.6, carry out a parking braking. Then, use a traction device for the traction; maintain the low-speed vehicle being tested stationary for 5 min.
When the traction increment is less than 20% of the total mass of the test vehicle, the test vehicle shall remain stationary.
Then, the test is performed once in the opposite direction.
6.9.2.3 Bench test
In accordance with the stipulations of 5.6.4, conduct the test.
6.9.2.4 Test record and test result
Record the test gradient, the control force and its method, the total mass of the low- speed vehicle, and the initial and final values of traction.
6.9.3 Dynamic test
6.9.3.1 The low-speed vehicle is fully loaded and accelerated to the initial speed specified in 5.6.5. Then, disengage the engine; carry out a parking braking; the control force shall not exceed the value specified in 5.6.2.
6.9.3.2 Record the braking control force, the mean fully developed deceleration and the deceleration within 1 s before the low-speed vehicle stops.
6.10 Test of Energy Storage Device
6.10.1 Determination of capacity of energy storage device
6.10.1.1 Test requirements
6.10.1.1.1 The initial energy of the energy storage device is determined by the manufacturer. The initial energy shall enable the service braking system to achieve the specified braking performance, but it cannot exceed 90% of the energy provided by the energy supply device.
6.10.1.1.2 During the test, the energy storage device shall not be replenished with energy; the energy supply of the auxiliary device shall be disconnected; the engine shall be stopped.
6.10.1.1.3 The load sensing device shall be in the ?€?fully loaded?€? position (if installed).

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