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GB/T 18883-2022 English PDF (GBT18883-2022)

GB/T 18883-2022 English PDF (GBT18883-2022)

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GB/T 18883-2022: Standards for indoor air quality

This document specifies the physical, chemical, biological and radioactive indicators and requirements of indoor air quality, and describes the determination methods of each indicator. This document is applicable to residential and office buildings. Other indoor environments may take this document as a reference.
GB/T 18883-2022
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 13.040.01
CCS C 51
Replacing GB/T 18883-2002
Standards for Indoor Air Quality
ISSUED ON: JULY 11, 2022
IMPLEMENTED ON: FEBRUARY 1, 2023
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the PEOPLE Republic of China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 5
2 Normative References ... 5
3 Terms and Definitions ... 6
4 Requirements for Indoor Air Quality ... 7
5 Determination and Evaluation of Indoor Air Quality Indicators ... 8
Appendix A (normative) Technical Guideline for Indoor Air Quality Indicator Testing ... 10
Appendix B (normative) Determination of Formaldehyde ... 18
Appendix C (normative) Determination of Benzene, Toluene and Xylene ... 23 Appendix D (normative) Determination of Total Volatile Organic Compounds (TVOC) ... 39
Appendix E (normative) Determination of Benzo [a] pyrene in Inhalable Particulate Matter ... 48
Appendix F (normative) Determination of Inhalable Particulate Matter and Fine Particulate Matter ... 53
Appendix G (normative) Determination of Total Number of Bacteria ... 57 Appendix H (normative) Determination of Radon ... 59
Bibliography ... 68
Standards for Indoor Air Quality
1 Scope
This document specifies the physical, chemical, biological and radioactive indicators and requirements of indoor air quality, and describes the determination methods of each indicator. This document is applicable to residential and office buildings. Other indoor environments may take this document as a reference.
2 Normative References
The contents of the following documents constitute indispensable clauses of this document through the normative references in this text. In terms of references with a specified date, only versions with a specified date are applicable to this document. In terms of references without a specified date, the latest version (including all the modifications) is applicable to this document. GB 3095-2012 Ambient Air Quality Standard
GB/T 12372 Standard Method for Examination of Nitrogen Dioxide in Air of Residential Areas - Modified Saltzman Method
GB/T 14669 Air Quality - Determination of Ammonia - Ion Selective Electrode Method GB/T 15435 Ambient Air - Determination of Nitrogen Dioxide - Saltzman Method GB/T 16128 Standard Method for Hygienic Examination of Sulfur Dioxide in Air of Residential Areas - Formaldehyde Solution Sampling - Pararosaniline Hydrochloride Spectrophotometric Method
GB/T 16129 Standard Method for Hygienic Examination of Formaldehyde in Air of Residential Areas - Spectrophotometric Method
GB/T 18204.1 Examination Methods for Public Places - Part 1: Physical Parameters GB/T 18204.2 Examination Methods for Public Places - Part 2: Chemical Pollutants GB/T 27476.5 Safety in Testing Laboratories - Part 5: Chemical Aspects
GB/T 32465 Requirements for Verification and Validation of Detection Methods and Internal Quality Control on Chemical Analysis
HJ 93 Specifications and Test Procedures for PM10 and PM2.5 Sampler
Appendix A
(normative)
Technical Guideline for Indoor Air Quality Indicator Testing
A.1 Overview
This guideline specifies the point layout, sampling time and frequency, sampling instruments, sampling methods, sampling records, sample transportation and storage, inspection methods, quality assurance measures, result calculation and expression, and laboratory safety of indoor air quality indicator testing. If there are clarified requirements in the determination methods of the various indoor air quality indicators, the determination methods shall prevail; if there are no requirements, this guideline may be taken as a reference.
A.2 Point Layout
A.2.1 Environmental requirements
Before sampling, the doors and windows, air purification equipment and fresh air system shall be closed for at least 12 h. During sampling, the doors and windows, air purification equipment and fresh air system shall remain closed. In the indoor environment where the air conditioner is used, the air conditioner shall be kept in normal operation. The measurement of physical indicators and indoor radon measurement (solid nuclear track measurement method), as well as other measurements that fail to satisfy the aforementioned requirements shall be carried out under the normal use of the house.
A.2.2 Number of sampling points
The number of sampling points shall be determined in accordance with the indoor area and site conditions being monitored to correctly reflect the level of indoor air pollutants. For a single room with an area less than 25 m2, 1 point shall be set; for a single room with an area 25 m2 ~ 50 m2 (not included), 2 ~ 3 points shall be set; for a single room with an area 50 m2 ~ 100 m2 (not included), 3 ~ 5 points shall be set; for a single room 100 m2 and above, at least 5 points shall be set.
A.2.3 Layout mode
For single-point sampling, lay out the point in the center of the house; for multi-point sampling, the points shall be evenly distributed diagonally or in a quincunx pattern. The sampling point shall avoid ventilation openings and heat sources; the distance from the wall shall be greater than 0.5 m; the distance from the doors and windows shall be greater than 1 m. A.2.4 Height of sampling point
In principle, it shall be consistent with the height of the adult?€?s breathing zone, and the relative height shall be between 0.5 m ~ 1.5 m. If conditions permit, in consideration of the breathing height of the sitting and lying state and the child?€?s height, the sampling at a relative height of 0.3 m ~ 0.6 m shall be added.
A.3 Sampling Time and Frequency
For the annual average concentration (for example, radon), conduct the sampling for at least 3 months (including winter); for the 24-hour average concentration (such as: benzo [a] pyrene, PM2.5 and PM10, etc.), conduct the sampling for at least 20 h; for the 8-h average concentration, conduct the sampling for at least 6 h; for the 1-h average concentration, conduct the sampling for 45 min; in accordance with different determination methods, continuous or interval sampling can be conducted.
A.4 Sampling Instrument
In accordance with the existence of the various indicators in the indoor air, select an appropriate equipment. The noise of the instrument and equipment shall generally be less than 50 dB(A); if the noise is too loud, the indoor noise shall be reduced through the mode of installing sound- absorbing boxes.
A.5 Sampling Methods
A.5.1 General requirements
The sampling methods of the various indicators shall take the specific stipulations in the determination method as a reference. On the basis of the method applicability verification, the sampling method parameters, including sampling volume, sampling flow rate and sampling time, can be appropriately adjusted to satisfy the testing requirements for the indoor air quality indicators. The annual average and 8-hour average indicators are required. If the determination method allows, the screening method can be adopted first for the sampling. If the test results comply with the requirements of the indicators, they can be directly evaluated; if they fail to comply with the requirements, the cumulative method shall be adopted for the sampling. For benzo [a] pyrene, PM2.5 and PM10 that adopt the 24-h average, due to the limitation of the determination method, the screening method cannot be adopted, and the cumulative method needs to be directly adopted.
A.5.2 Sampling with screening method
For the screening method, the sampling should be conducted for 45 min. If a direct-reading instrument is used, the sampling interval is 10 min ~ 15 min; each point is monitored at least 4 ~ 5 times; the final result is expressed as a time-weighted average. Under special circumstances (for example, radon), in accordance with the requirements of different determination methods, the sampling shall be conducted for at least 24 h (consecutive measurement method) or 2 d ~ 7 d (activated carbon box measurement method).
A.5.3 Sampling with cumulative method
The on-site instruments shall comply with relevant national standards and technical requirements. Before use, they shall be verified or calibrated in accordance with the instructions. The flow rate of the sampling system shall be kept constant. Before and after sampling, it is necessary to calibrate with a qualified flowmeter under load conditions; the relative deviation between the two calibrations shall not exceed 5%, and the average value of the two results shall be taken as the actual value of the sampling flow. The samplers shall be calibrated on the site of sampling.
A.9.3 On-site blank inspection
During on-site sampling, at least two sampling tubes (membranes) and one group (six pieces) of culture plates shall be kept without sampling, and shall be treated the same as other sampling tubes (membranes) and culture plates as on-site blank during the sampling process; after sampling, they shall be sent to the laboratory together with other samples. During sample analysis, the on-site blank shall be determined at the same time. If the inspection result of the blank sample exceeds the quantification limit of the determination method, or if there are colonies growing on the culture plate of the blank sample, then, the batch of samples shall be invalid.
A.9.4 Inspection of parallel samples
During the collection of each batch of samples, parallel samples shall be collected, and the number of parallel samples shall not be less than 10%. When the number of samples is less than 10, at least one parallel sample shall be collected. The ratio of the absolute difference of the determined values of the parallel samples to the average value shall not exceed 20%. A.9.5 Other quality assurance measures
The quality assurance measures shall run through the entire process of indoor air quality inspection. The aforementioned clauses mainly focus on chemical indicators and indoor air sampling. For other content that is not covered, refer to the determination methods of specific indicators and comply with the relevant national standards and technical requirements. A.10 Result Calculation and Expression
A.10.1 Concentration correction
The final concentration of gaseous pollutants (such as: sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and ozone, etc.) refers to the corrected concentration under the reference state (when the atmospheric temperature is 298.15 K and the atmospheric pressure is 101.325 kPa). The concentration of other pollutants (such as: PM10, PM2.5 and benzo [a] pyrene, etc.) is the concentration under the atmospheric pressure and temperature at the time of monitoring. For gaseous pollutants, the sampling volume is converted into the volume under the reference state in accordance with Formula (A.1), and the final pollutant concentration is calculated. Appendix B
(normative)
Determination of Formaldehyde
B.1 Principle
Use a sampling tube packed with coated 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) to collect a certain volume of air samples. Formaldehyde in the sample is catalyzed by strong acid and reacts with DNPH coated on silica gel to generate stable and colored formaldehyde-2,4- dinitrophenylhydrazone. After elution with acetonitrile, use a high-performance liquid chromatograph with a UV detector or a diode array detector to conduct the analysis; use the external standard method to quantify it.
B.2 Reagents and Materials
The reagents and materials used in this method are as follows:
---Acetonitrile (CH3CN): chromatographically pure; the content of formaldehyde shall be less than 1.5 ???g/L; keep it away from light;
---Blank reagent water: deionized water; after inspection, the content of formaldehyde shall be less than 1.5 ???g/L;
---Standard stock solution (100 ???g/mL, calculated by formaldehyde): directly use commercially available certified formaldehyde-2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone standard solution (which shall be sealed after opening and stored at a low temperature of 4 ???C in the dark; the shelf life is 2 months); alternatively, it can also be prepared with commercially available standard substance and diluted with acetonitrile to the required mass concentration;
---Standard service solution (10 ???g/mL, calculated by formaldehyde): accurately transfer- take 1.00 mL of standard stock solution into a 10 mL volumetric flask; use acetonitrile to dilute to the scale; mix it well;
---DNPH sampling tube: DNPH-coated packed column sampling tube, commercially available product, one-time use (filler: 1,000 mg, particle size: 10 ???m); the sampling tube shall be stored at a low temperature of 4 ???C and kept away from light; the storage time shall be minimized, so as to avoid excessively high blank value;
---Ozone removal column: commercially available product, one-time use (filler: granular potassium iodide); when the ozone-containing air passes through the device, iodide ions are oxidized to iodine, and meanwhile, the ozone in it is consumed;
---Disposable syringe: 5 mL medical sterile syringe;
---Syringe filter: 0.45 ???m organic membrane.
B.3 Instruments and Equipment
The instruments and equipment used in this method are as follows:
---Gas sampler: select a sampler with a suitable flow range to satisfy the sampling flow requirements and ensure a stable flow;
---High-performance liquid chromatograph: equipped with a UV detector or a diode array detector, with gradient elution function;
---Chromatographic column: C18 column, 4.6 mm ??? 250 mm, particle size: 5 ???m, or equivalent chromatographic column.
B.4 Sample Collection and Storage
B.4.1 Sample collection
The sample collection system generally consists of gas sampler, sampling conduit, DNPH sampling tube and ozone removal column, etc. The recommended sampling method parameters are consecutive sampling time of at least 45 min and sampling flow rate of 1 L/min. B.4.2 Sample storage
The sampling tube shall be sealed with sealing caps at both ends and tightly wrapped with aluminum foil, stored and transported at a low temperature of 4 ???C in the dark. If it cannot be analyzed in time, it shall be stored at a low temperature of 4 ???C and kept away from light; the duration should not exceed 30 d.
B.5 Analytical Procedures
B.5.1 Recommended analysis conditions
Mobile phase: gradient elution, 60% acetonitrile, maintain for 20 min; within 20 min ~ 30 min, acetonitrile linearly increases from 60% to 100%; within 30 min ~ 32 min, acetonitrile decreases to 60% and maintain for 8 min. The recommended analysis conditions are applicable to the simultaneous determination of ketones and aldehydes. If formaldehyde is separately determined and there is no interference from other ketones and aldehydes, isocratic elution can be adopted to shorten the analysis time. Detection wavelength: 360 nm, flow rate: 1.0 mL/min, injection volume: 20 ???L, column temperature: 30 ???C.
B.5.2 Calibration
B.5.2.1 Preparation of standard series
Respectively and accurately transfer-take 0.02 mL, 0.2 mL, 0.5 mL, 1 mL and 2 mL of the standard service solution into a 10 mL volumetric flask; use acetonitrile to reach a constant Appendix C
(normative)
Determination of Benzene, Toluene and Xylene
C.1 Solid Adsorption - Thermal Desorption - Gas Chromatography
C.1.1 Principle
Use a sampling tube to collect benzene, toluene and xylene in the indoor air. Place the sampling tube in a thermal desorption instrument for desorption; use a gas chromatographic column to separate it; use a hydrogen flame ionization detector for analysis; use the external standard method to quantify it.
C.1.2 Reagents and materials
The reagents and materials used in this method are as follows:
---Methanol (CH3OH): chromatographically pure;
---Carrier gas: nitrogen (N2), with a purity of 99.999%, purified with a purification tube; ---Combustion gas: hydrogen (H2), with a purity of 99.99%;
---Combustion-supporting gas: air, purified with a purification tube;
---Standard stock solution (2,000 ???g/mL): directly use commercially available certified standard solutions of benzene, toluene, o-xylene, m-xylene and p-xylene; alternatively, they can also be prepared with commercially available standard substances and diluted with methanol to the required mass concentration;
---Sampling tube: made of stainless steel or hard glass, with an outer diameter of 6.3 mm, an inner diameter of 5 mm and a length of 90 mm (or 180 mm); filled with at least 200 mg of poly-2,6-diphenyl-p-phenylene ether (Tenax TA) absorbent with a particle size of 0.18 mm ~ 0.25 mm (60 mesh ~ 80 mesh). The safe sampling volume of benzene, toluene and xylene in a sampling tube filled with 200 mg of Tenax TA is respectively: 6.2 L, 38 L and 300 L.
C.1.3 Instruments and equipment
The instruments and equipment used in this method are as follows:
---Gas sampler: within the range of 0.02 L/min ~ 0.5 L/min, the flow error shall be less than 5%;
---Aging device: the maximum temperature shall be able to reach above 350 ???C and the maximum carrier gas flow rate shall be able to reach at least 100 mL/min; ---Thermal desorption instrument: it is able to carry out secondary thermal desorption on the sampling tube and carry the desorbed gas into the gas chromatograph with inert gas. The desorption temperature, time and carrier gas flow rate are adjustable, and the desorption samples can be concentrated by cold trap;
---Gas chromatograph: equipped with hydrogen flame ionization detector; ---Chromatographic column: capillary column with polyethylene glycol as the stationary phase, 0.25 mm ??? 30 m, membrane thickness 0.25 ???m, or equivalent capillary column; ---Micro-syringe: 1 ???L ~ 10 ???L, with a precision of 0.1 ???L.
C.1.4 Sample collection and storage
C.1.4.1 Sample collection
C.1.4.1.1 Preparation of sampling tube
The newly filled sampling tube shall be aged by passing inert gas through an aging device or a thermal desorption instrument with the aging function. The aging flow rate is 100 mL/min; the temperature is 270 ???C; the time is 120 min. The used sampling tube shall be aged at 270 ???C by passing inert gas for more than 30 min. The aged sampling tube shall be immediately sealed with a polytetrafluoroethylene cap and stored in a sealed bag or a protective tube. Store the sealed bag or protective tube in a box or desiccator that contains activated carbon at 4 ???C. The aged sampling tube shall be used within two weeks.
C.1.4.1.2 Flow calibration
On the site of sampling, connect a sampling tube to the gas sampler and adjust the flow rate. This sampling tube is only used to adjust the flow rate, not for sampling or analysis. C.1.4.1.3 On-site sample collection
Connect the aged sampling tube to the gas sampler. The recommended sampling method parameters are consecutive sampling time of at least 45 min and sampling flow rate of 0.1 L/min. C.1.4.1.4 Collection of blank samples
Every time a sample is collected, at least one on-site blank sample shall be collected. The mode of collecting on-site blank samples is to transport the aged sampling tube to the sampling site, remove the sealing caps and re-seal them; do not participate in sample collection and store them together with the sampling tubes, in which, the samples are already collected. C.1.4.2 Sample storage
After sampling, immediately use sealing caps to seal both ends of the sampling tube; store it at C.1.7.3 Precision and recovery rate
When the mass concentration of benzene, toluene, p-xylene, m-xylene an...

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