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GB/T 18851.1-2012 English PDF (GBT18851.1-2012)

GB/T 18851.1-2012 English PDF (GBT18851.1-2012)

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GB/T 18851.1-2012: Non-destructive testing -- Penetrant testing -- Part 1: General principles

GB/T 18851.1-2012
Non-destructive testing.Penetrant testing.Part 1. General principles
ICS 19.100
National Standards of People's Republic of China
Replacing GB/T 18851.1-2005, GB/T 18851.5-2005
Non-destructive testing - Penetration testing - Part 1. General
(ISO 3452-1.2008, IDT)
Published on.2012-09-03
2013-03-01 implementation
General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine of the People's Republic of China China National Standardization Administration issued
GB/T 18851 "Non-destructive testing penetration testing" is divided into the following parts. --- Part 1. General;
--- Part 2. Inspection of infiltration materials;
--- Part 3. Reference test block;
--- Part 4. Equipment.
This part is the first part of GB/T 18851.
This part is drafted in accordance with the rules given in GB/T 1.1-2009. This part replaces GB/T 18851.1-2005 "Non-destructive testing for penetration testing Part 1. General" and GB/T 18851.5- 2005 "Non-destructive testing for penetration testing Part 5. Verification methods". This part is based on GB/T 18851.1-2005 and integrates The main contents of GB/T 18851.5-2005, compared with GB/T 18851.1-2005, except for editorial changes, are as follows. ---Modified and added "normative references" (see Chapter 2, Chapter 2 of the.2005 edition); --- Added "terms and definitions" (see Chapter 3);
---Modified "safety warnings" (see Chapter 4, Chapter 4 of the.2005 edition); --- Revised the "General Provisions" (see Chapter 5, Chapter 3 of the.2005 edition); ---Modified "product, sensitivity and name" (see Chapter 6, Chapter 5 of the.2005 edition); --- Revised "the compatibility of test materials with the test piece" (see Chapter 7, Chapter 6 of the.2005 edition); ---Adjusted and revised the "Testing Procedures" (see Chapter 8, Chapters 7 through 12 of the.2005 edition); --- Removed "a set of instructions for penetration testing materials" (see Appendix A of the.2005 edition); --- Removed the "Permeability Testing Material Formulation Form" (see Appendix B of the.2005 edition); --- Removed the "Permeation Detection Process Card (example)" (see Appendix C of the.2005 edition); --- Added "main stage of penetration testing" (see Appendix A) and "international and European standards equivalent to each other in this section" (see Appendix B).
This section uses the translation method equivalent to ISO 3452-1.2008 "Non-destructive testing penetration testing Part 1. General" (English version). This section has made the following editorial changes.
--- Fixed a typographical error in the canonical Appendix C;
--- Change the EN standard in the normative reference document to the corresponding ISO standard (see Appendix C). This part is proposed and managed by the National Non-Destructive Testing Standardization Technical Committee (SAC/TC56). This section drafted by. Shanghai Materials Research Institute, Shanghai Chengyou Industrial Group Co., Ltd., Shanghai Xinmeida Testing Equipment Co., Ltd. Shanghai Baosteel Industrial Testing Company, Shanghai Weicheng Bangda Testing Technology Co., Ltd. The main drafters of this section. Jin Yufei, Luo Yundong, Zhao Cheng, Ding Minghua, Zhu Hao. The previous versions of the standards replaced by this section are.
---GB/T 18851.1-2005;
---GB/T 18851.5-2005.
Non-destructive testing - Penetration testing - Part 1. General
1 Scope
This part of GB/T 18851 specifies the discontinuity of the surface opening of the tested material (eg cracks, heavy skin, folds, pores and not Penetration detection method for fusion, etc.). This method is mainly used for metal materials, but can also be used for other materials as long as these materials are not porous. And it is inert with respect to the detection medium. Examples of the material to be inspected include castings, forgings, welds, ceramics, and the like. The term "discontinuous" as used in this section includes all acceptable or unacceptable meanings that have not been assessed. GB/T 18851.2 and GB/T 18851.3 specify the measurement and monitoring methods for the practical performance of penetration testing products. 2 Normative references
The following documents are indispensable for the application of this document. For dated references, only dated versions apply to this article. Pieces. For undated references, the latest edition (including all amendments) applies to this document. GB/T 5097 Non-destructive testing for penetration testing and magnetic particle testing conditions (ISO 3059.2001, IDT) GB/T 9445 Non-destructive testing personnel qualification and certification (ISO 9712.2005, IDT) GB/T 12604.3 Non-destructive testing terminology penetration test (ISO 12706.2000, IDT) GB/T 18851.2 Non-destructive testing - Part 2. Examination of osmotic materials (ISO 3452-2.2006, IDT) GB/T 18851.3 Non-destructive testing - Penetration testing - Part 3. Reference test blocks (ISO 3452-3.1998, IDT) GB/T 18851.4 Non-destructive testing - Part 2. Equipment (ISO 3452-4.1998, IDT) 3 Terms and definitions
The terms and definitions defined in GB/T 12604.3 apply to this document. 4 safety warning
Penetration testing techniques often use hazardous, flammable, and/or volatile materials, so care should be taken. Long-term and repeated contact of these materials with skin or mucous membranes should be avoided. The work area should be adequately ventilated and kept away from heat, sparks and unobstructed open flames as required by relevant regulations. Always use permeation testing products and equipment in accordance with the instructions provided by the manufacturer. When using a UV-A (ultraviolet) source, care should be taken to ensure that unfiltered radiation from the UV-A source does not directly strike the operator's eye. eye. Whether the lamp is integral or split, the UV-A filter should always be in good condition. Pay attention to laws and regulations regarding hygiene, safety, environmental protection and storage. 5 General
5.1 personnel
Testing shall be carried out or supervised by qualified personnel, and if required, shall be funded in accordance with GB/T 9445 or the system agreed by the parties to the contract. Identification and certification.
5.2 Method summary
The surface to be inspected should be cleaned and dried before the penetration test. Then apply the appropriate penetrant to the test area to allow it to penetrate into the Check for discontinuities in the opening on the surface. After a suitable penetration time, the excess penetrant on the surface is removed and the developer is applied. Thus sucking out Penetrants that penetrate and remain in discontinuities provide a clear, easy-to-see and magnified discontinuous display. It is advisable to stipulate the coordination of non-destructive testing, unless the parties to the contract agree, in order to prevent the contaminants from blocking the discontinuity of the opening, the penetration test Should be implemented first. If the penetration test is performed after any other non-destructive testing technique, the surface to be inspected should be applied prior to the application of the penetrant. Carefully clean to remove contaminants.
5.3 Sequence of operations
The general sequence of operations is listed in Appendix A.
The usual detection process is.
a) preparation and pre-cleaning (see 8.2);
b) applying a penetrant (see 8.3);
c) remove excess penetrant (see 8.4);
d) applying a developer (see 8.5);
e) observation (see 8.6);
f) records (see 8.7);
g) Post-cleaning (see 8.8).
5.4 Equipment
The equipment used for penetration testing is related to the number, size and shape of the objects being inspected. See GB/T 18851.4 for equipment requirements. 5.5 Effectiveness
The effectiveness of penetration testing is related to many factors, such as. a) the type of infiltration material and testing equipment;
b) surface preparation and condition;
c) the material being inspected and the expected discontinuity;
d) the temperature of the surface being inspected;
e) penetration and development time;
f) Observation conditions, etc.
6 product, sensitivity and name
6.1 Product Family
Penetration testing has a variety of detection systems.
The product family is a combination of the following permeation-detecting materials known. penetrants, removers, and imaging agents. Manufacturer should press GB/T 18851.2 Inspection of penetrants and removers.
Approved product families should be used.
6.2 Testing products
The test products are given in Table 1.
6.3 Sensitivity
The sensitivity level of the product family shall be determined using the Type 1 reference test block described in GB/T 18851.3. The grade being assessed is usually Refers to the method used by the approved product family for type testing. 6.4 Name
Approved product family for penetration testing, giving the name of the type, method and method of testing the product, and A display diagram of the sensitivity level obtained by detecting the type 1 reference test block described in GB/T 18851.3. Example.
When the permeation detection system is GB/T 18851.1 and GB/T 18851.2, a family has been approved, including fluorescent penetrants. (I), water (A) as a remover, dry powder imaging agent (a) and level 2 system sensitivity, the name of this product family is expressed as GB/T 18851 (ISO 3452) - IAa - 2.
Table 1 Test products
Penetrant remover imaging agent
Type name method name mode name
Fluorescent penetrant
Coloring penetrant
Dual-purpose (fluorescent coloring) penetrant
Lipophilic emulsifier
Oil-based emulsifier
2. Flowing water rinse
Solvent (liquid)
Hydrophilic emulsifier
1. Optional pre-flush (water)
2. Emulsifier (water dilution)
3. Final rinse (water)
Water and solvent
Dry powder
Water soluble
Water suspension
Solvent type (non-water wet type)
Water or solvent type for special applications
(Example. peelable imaging agent)
Note. For permeation testing products used in special occasions, it is necessary to meet special requirements related to fire resistance, sulfur, halogen and sodium content and other contaminants. See, see GB/T 18851.2.
7 Detecting the compatibility of materials with the tested parts
7.1 Overview
The penetration test product should be compatible with the intended use of the material being tested and the workpiece. 7.2 Compatibility of penetration testing products
The penetration testing materials should be compatible with each other. Permeable materials from different manufacturers should not be mixed when filling the container. When loss occurs, it should not be used by different manufacturers. The materials are complemented by each other.
7.3 Compatibility of the infiltration test material with the test piece 7.3.1 In most cases, the compatibility of the product is evaluated by the corrosion test method specified in GB/T 18851.2. 7.3.2 Penetration testing materials may adversely affect the chemical or physical properties of certain non-metallic materials, and therefore in the inspection of shaped parts and Confirm the compatibility of the assembled parts (including materials, etc.) before they are confirmed. 7.3.3 In locations where contamination may occur, it must be ensured that the infiltration test material does not adversely affect fuel, lubricants, liquid fluids, etc. 7.3.4 In the case of peroxide rocket fuel, explosive containers (including all explosive propulsion, engine or combustion chamber materials connected to it), liquid oxygen Penetration testing materials are used on related workpieces such as equipment or nuclear reactors, and their compatibility should have special requirements. 7.3.5 After the post-cleaning, if the permeation test material remains on the test piece, corrosion may occur (such as stress corrosion or fatigue corrosion). The possibility of waiting).
8 Test procedure
8.1 Written testing procedures
If required by the contract, an approved written test procedure should be prepared prior to testing. 8.2 Preparation and pre-cleaning
Contaminants such as dirt, rust, oil, grease or paint should be removed. Mechanical or chemical methods, or both, if necessary The method is used.
The pre-cleaning should ensure that there is no residue on the surface to be inspected so that the penetrant can easily penetrate into any discontinuity. The cleaning area should be large enough to prevent Interference from the area near the actual surface being inspected.
8.2.1 Mechanical pre-cleaning
Suitable methods such as brushing, rubbing, grinding, spraying, high-pressure water jetting, etc. should be used to remove dirt, slag, rust, and the like. These methods can remove the surface Contaminants, but for the removal of contaminants from surface discontinuities, there is usually no power. In all cases, especially in shot peening, It should be ensured that the discontinuities are not obstructed by plastic deformation or blocked by abrasive materials. If necessary, after the subsequent surface etching treatment, it should be carried out as appropriate Rinse and dry to ensure that the discontinuities are open.
8.2.2 Chemical pre-cleaning
Chemical pre-cleaning should use a suitable chemical cleaner to remove residues such as grease, oil, paint or etched materials. The residue produced by the chemical pre-cleaning process reacts with the penetrant and thereby causes its sensitivity to decrease. Especially acid and chromic acid The salt can greatly reduce the fluorescence intensity of the fluorescent penetrant and the color of the coloring penetrant. Therefore, the chemical agent on the surface to be inspected should be removed, that is, in the clear After the washing process, a suitable washing method including washing with water or the like can be used. 8.2.3 Drying
As a final step of pre-cleaning, the test piece should be thoroughly dried so that no moisture or solvent remains in the discontinuity. 8.3 Application of penetrant
8.3.1 Method of application
The penetrant can be applied by spraying, brushing, pouring, dipping or the like. During the entire infiltration time, it should be ensured that the surface to be inspected is always sufficiently wetted. 8.3.2 Temperature
The temperature of the surface to be inspected should generally be between 10 ° C and 50 ° C. In special cases, it can also be used at temperatures not lower than 5 °C. When the temperature is lower than 10 ° C or higher than 50 ° C, the infiltration product family and process specifications should be specifically confirmed according to GB/T 18851.2. Note. At low temperatures, water vapor freezes on the surface and discontinuously, which will prevent the penetrant from entering discontinuities. 8.3.3 Penetration time
The appropriate permeation time is related to the performance of the penetrant, the temperature at the time of application, the material of the test piece, and the discontinuity to be inspected. The penetration time is preferably between 5 min and 60 min. The permeation time should be at least as long as the time taken to determine the sensitivity (see 6.3). Otherwise, the actual penetration time should be recorded in the written test procedure. In any case, the penetrant should not be allowed during the infiltration time. dry.
8.4 Removal of excess penetrant
8.4.1 Overview
Avoid removing the penetrant from the discontinuity when applying the remover. 8.4.2 Water
Excess penetrant should be removed using a suitable rinsing technique. For example. jet rinsing or wiping with a damp cloth. Use the flushing method, pay attention to Reduce the effects of mechanical action. The temperature of the water should not exceed 50 °C. 8.4.3 Solvent
Usually, first remove the excess penetrant with a clean, lint-free cloth, then use a clean, lint-free cloth with a little solvent. Clear. Any other removal technique should be agreed by the parties to the contract, especially if the solvent remover is sprayed directly onto the test piece. 8.4.4 Emulsifier Hydrophilic (water dilutable)
The emulsifier is applied such that the post-emulsified penetrant becomes washable to facilitate removal from the surface to be inspected. To remove the surface to be inspected Most of the excess penetrant and the subsequent application of a hydrophilic emulsifier produce a uniform effect, before applying the emulsifier, it is advisable Washed.
The emulsifier should be applied using an immersion or foaming device. Emulsifier concentration and contact time should be approved by the user according to the manufacturer's instructions. Test to assess. The emulsifier contact time should not exceed the time measured by the pretest. After emulsification, the final water wash should be carried out in accordance with 8.4.2. lipophilic (oil based)
The emulsifier is applied such that the post-emulsified penetrant becomes washable to facilitate removal from the surface to be inspected. It can only use immersion technology Apply. The emulsifier contact time should be assessed by the user through pre-test according to the manufacturer's instructions. The contact time should be sufficient as long as the excess penetrant on the surface to be inspected can be removed during subsequent washing. The emulsification time should not be too long. emulsification After that, it should be washed with water according to 8.4.2.
8.4.5 Water and solvent
First, water should be used to remove excess water-washing penetrant (see 8.4.2). Then use a clean, lint-free cloth with a little solvent Line clear.
8.4.6 Excess penetrant removal effect check
When removing excess penetrant from the surface to be inspected, visual inspection of the penetrant residue should be performed. For fluorescent penetrants, should be in the UV-A source Go on. The minimum irradiance of UV-A on the surface to be inspected should not be less than 3 W/m 2 (300 μW/cm 2 ). After removing excess penetrant, if there is excessive background on the surface of the specimen, it should be decided by appropriately qualified personnel. deal with.
8.4.7 Drying
To facilitate rapid drying of excess moisture, any water droplets and accumulated water on the specimen should be removed. In addition to the use of water-based imaging agents, the surface to be inspected should be removed as quickly as possible after removal of excess penetrant. dry.
a) wipe with a clean, dry, lint-free cloth;
b) evaporating at ambient temperature after hot water immersion;
c) evaporating at elevated temperature;
d) circulating air;
e) A combination of the methods listed in a)~d).
If compressed air is used, special care should be taken to ensure that the gas is free of moisture and oil and that the surface of the specimen is kept as low as possible. Hit the pressure.
The method of drying the test piece should ensure that the penetrant that has entered the discontinuity is not dried. The surface temperature should not exceed 50 ° C when dry, unless otherwise agreed. 8.5 Applying imaging agent
8.5.1 Overview
The developer during use should be kept in a uniform state and applied uniformly to the surface to be inspected. Application of the developer should be carried out as soon as possible after removal of excess penetrant. 8.5.2 Dry powder
Dry powder imaging agents can only be used with fluorescent penetrants. Such developers should be sprayed, electrostatically sprayed, bunched, fluidized or sprayed A technique such as a powder tank is uniformly applied to the surface to be inspected. Th...

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