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GB/T 18569.1-2020 English PDF (GBT18569.1-2020)

GB/T 18569.1-2020 English PDF (GBT18569.1-2020)

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GB/T 18569.1-2020: Safety of machinery -- Reduction of risks to health resulting from hazardous substances emitted by machinery -- Part 1: Principles and specifications for machinery manufacturers
This Part of GB/T 18569 specifies the principles and specifications for the control of risks to health, which are caused by hazardous substances emitted by machinery. This Part applies to machinery, that poses a risk to human health, due to the emission of hazardous substances.
GB/T 18569.1-2020
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 13.110
J 09
GB/T 18569.1-2020 / ISO 14123-1.2015
Replacing 18569.1-2001
Safety of machinery - Reduction of risks to health resulting
from hazardous substances emitted by machinery - Part 1.
Principles and specifications for machinery manufacturers
(ISO 14123-1.2015, IDT)
ISSUED ON. JUNE 02, 2020
IMPLEMENTED ON. DECEMBER 01, 2020
Issued by. State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword... 3
Introduction... 5
1 Scope... 7
2 Normative references... 7
3 Terms and definitions... 7
4 Risk assessment... 8
5 Emission types... 9
5.1 Airborne emissions... 9
5.2 Non-airborne emissions... 10
6 Requirements and/or protective measures to eliminate and/or reduce risks... 12 7 Usage information and maintenance information... 12
7.1 Usage information... 12
7.2 Maintenance information... 13
8 Verification of safety requirements and/or protective measures... 13 Appendix A (Informative) Examples of protective measures to reduce exposure to hazardous substances... 15
References... 18
Safety of machinery - Reduction of risks to health resulting
from hazardous substances emitted by machinery - Part 1.
Principles and specifications for machinery manufacturers
1 Scope
This Part of GB/T 18569 specifies the principles and specifications for the control of risks to health, which are caused by hazardous substances emitted by machinery. This Part applies to machinery, that poses a risk to human health, due to the emission of hazardous substances.
This Part does not apply to substances, that are harmful to health only because of their explosion, combustion, radioactivity, OR because they are in a state of extreme temperature or pressure.
2 Normative references
The following documents are essential to the application of this document. For the dated documents, only the versions with the dates indicated are applicable to this document; for the undated documents, only the latest version (including all the amendments) is applicable to this standard.
GB/T 15706-2012 Safety of machinery - General principles for design - Risk assessment and risk reduction (ISO 12100.2010, IDT)
3 Terms and definitions
The terms and definitions, which are defined in GB/T 15706-2012, as well as the following terms and definitions, apply to this document.
3.1
Intended use
Use the machine according to the information provided in the instruction manual. [GB/T 15706-2012, 3.23]
3.2
Hazardous substance
Chemical or biological substances or preparations, which are harmful to health. Example. Substances or preparations, which are classified as highly toxic, toxic, harmful, corrosive, irritating, allergic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, pathogenic, suffocating. Note. For the definitions of "chemical preparations" and "biological preparations ", see EN 1540.
4 Risk assessment
4.1 Machinery manufacturers shall identify hazards and assess foreseeable risks to health from hazardous substances. This process shall, as far as possible, cover any potential hazards arising from the exposure of personnel to the machine, at all stages of the machine's entire life cycle.
Note. The detailed risk assessment method is given in GB/T 15706.
4.2 The level of risk depends on the nature of the hazardous substance, the likelihood of personal exposure, the degree of exposure. The health effects of harmful substances can be.
- Short-term or long-term;
- Reversible or irreversible.
4.3 Hazardous substances can be in any physical state (gaseous, liquid, solid) AND can affect the human body in the following ways.
- Inhalation;
- Ingestion;
- Contact with skin, eyes, mucous membranes;
- Penetrates through the skin.
4.4 Hazardous substances can be produced from.
- Any part of the machine;
- Substances present in the machine;
- Machine-processed or machine-used materials and/or substances, which are derived directly or indirectly from materials.
4.5 The life cycle of a machine may include the following stages (see 5.4 of GB/T - Maintenance, such as emptying the filter bags;
- Dismantling, such as dismantling lead-acid battery packs, removing asbestos insulation;
- Fuel combustion, such as exhaust gas from internal combustion engines; - Food mixing utensils;
- Metalworking, such as nitrosamines from water-soluble metalworking lubricants. 5.1.3 Some examples of airborne hazardous substances are as follows.
- Respiratory irritants, such as sulfur dioxide, chlorine, cadmium fumes; - Sensitizers, such as isocyanates, enzymes, turpentine gas;
- Carcinogens, such as asbestos, chromium(VI), benzene, polyethylene monomers; - Fibrous dust, such as free crystalline silicon, asbestos, cobalt;
- Asphyxiants, such as nitrogen, argon, methane;
- Biological preparations, such as Legionella pneumophila, dust from fermented hay; - Harmful substances, that affect specific parts of the body, such as mercury (affects the nervous system and kidneys), lead (affects the nervous system and blood), carbon tetrachloride (affects the nervous system and liver), carbon monoxide (affects the blood).
5.1.4 Airborne emissions can be assessed by measuring the concentration of the substance, in the breathing zone of the person. Measurements are often compared to corresponding benchmarks.
5.1.5 For airborne contaminants, there are many methods of air sampling and sample analysis. Sampling methods and analytical techniques should be selected, according to the nature of airborne contaminants.
5.2 Non-airborne emissions
5.2.1 Non-airborne emissions can be the primary source of exposure to hazardous substances, through ingestion, contact with the skin, eyes or mucous membranes, or penetration through the skin (see 4.3).
5.2.2 Non-airborne emissions can occur, under a variety of conditions, including. - Migration from open sources, such as splash and evaporation/condensation leading to secondary emissions;
- Opening machinery, e.g. for maintenance;
- Access to machinery, e.g. for inspection;
- Material handling, such as loading, sampling, cleaning;
- Handling parts of the machine, such as dismantling;
- Incorrect operation, such as overfilling;
- Leaks, e.g. at pump seals, flanges;
- Rupture.
5.2.3 Exposure to non-airborne emissions can cause health damage, due to the effects of various hazardous properties associated with different materials. Examples of these materials include.
- Corrosives, such as sulfuric acid;
- Irritants, such as wet cement;
- Sensitizers, such as chromates, epoxy resins;
- Carcinogens, such as used quenching oils, beryllium oxide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons;
- Biological preparations, such as contaminated cutting oils, contaminated blood. Damage to health can be located at the point of contact of the body OR the result of action on a part of the body (systemic or organ-specific). For some substances, both conditions may occur, such as benzene.
5.2.4 Non-airborne emissions cannot be assessed, by measuring the concentrations of substances in the air, nor can a benchmark based on these concentrations be used. Other benchmarks can be set, such as limits on microbial concentrations in cutting oils. 5.2.5 In some cases, a quantitative assessment of surface contamination is appropriate. Applicable benchmarks should be determined, based on both toxicity and practical considerations. Measurement techniques for such pollutants include.
- Swab chemical analysis;
- Use of fluorescent tracers;
- Colorimetric indication;
health, the machine manufacturer shall provide information on its correct use and information on factors, that may have adverse effects on its performance. 7.1.3 In the absence of measures to reduce risks to health, the manufacturer shall specify appropriate and proven reduction and/or test methods.
7.1.4 If the leakage, overflow or uncontrolled release of hazardous substances can be foreseen, the manufacturer shall provide information to limit the spread of risks endangering health and restore control as soon as possible. This information shall include emergency procedures, safe disposal of substances. suitable protective equipment, so that the source of the emission can be safely identified and repaired. 7.1.5 The manufacturer shall provide the necessary personal protective equipment information and sanitary facility information.
7.2 Maintenance information
Machinery manufacturers shall provide adequate instructions, to ensure that there is no risk to health, when performing machine maintenance.
Note. This description may include necessary maintenance, to ensure continuous and effective reduction of hazardous emissions. This can be carried out by the user, through a structured maintenance program, i.e., various functional and performance checks are carried out at appropriate intervals, where feasible.
Example. For users of mechanical vibrating screens, this structured maintenance program may include periodic inspections of.
- The physical condition of the hardware, including screen covers, inspection holes, etc., which are required to maintain closure integrity;
- Gaskets and seals for hoods and holes, to ensure that they are undamaged and functional; - Flexible couplings on feed and production lines, to ensure that couplings are kept and in good condition;
- Extraction ventilation, including visual inspection, routine mechanical inspection, ventilation performance testing;
- Accumulation of materials.
8 Verification of safety requirements and/or protective
Appendix A
(Informative)
Examples of protective measures to reduce exposure to hazardous substances Note. These examples can be used for mechanical design. They can also be provided to users as usage information.
A.1 Elimination of hazards and prevention of risks
Examples of protective measures to eliminate hazards and prevent risks are as follows. - Eliminate emissions-generating operations;
- Select alternative production process;
- Select the alternative actions;
- Do not use harmful substances;
- Use less harmful substances, such as cadmium-free silver solder;
- Use completely closed process and delivery systems, such as sealed pumps; - Use remote control and automatic crafting.
A.2 Risk reduction
A.2.1 Reducing emissions
Examples of protective measures to reduce emissions are as follows.
- Use a steam return system, such as piping, to return the displaced gas to the supply tank;
- Use the form of dust suppression, such as pellets, granules, flakes or ingots instead of powder;
- Seal the material conveying system;
- Use humidification for dust suppression;
- Maintenance of valves, pumps, flanges;
- Protection against spills and leaks;
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