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GB/T 18386.1-2021 English PDF (GBT18386.1-2021)

GB/T 18386.1-2021 English PDF (GBT18386.1-2021)

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GB/T 18386.1-2021: Test methods for energy consumption and range of electric vehicles -- Part 1: Light-duty vehicles

This document specifies the test methods for energy consumption and range of pure electric vehicles. This document is applicable to category N1 vehicles; categories M1 and M2 vehicles with the maximum design total mass not exceeding 3500 kg. Categories M1 and L5 vehicles with a maximum design total mass of more than 3500 kg may refer to it for implementation.
GB/T 18386.1-2021
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 43.020
CCS T 47
Partially replacing GB/T 18386-2017
Test methods for energy consumption and range of
electric vehicles - Part 1: Light-duty vehicles
ISSUED ON: MARCH 09, 2021
IMPLEMENTED ON: OCTOBER 01, 2021
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 4
Introduction ... 6
1 Scope ... 8
2 Normative references ... 8
3 Terms and definitions ... 8
4 Test conditions ... 9
4.1 Environmental requirements ... 9
4.2 Test equipment ... 9
4.3 Test vehicles ... 9
4.4 Test cycle ... 10
5 Test-related parameters and accuracy ... 10
6 Test procedure ... 11
6.1 General requirements ... 11
6.2 Conditions for termination of tests ... 12
6.3 Test code ... 12
7 Calculation of energy consumption and range ... 19
7.1 General ... 19
7.2 Energy consumption ... 20
7.3 Range ... 20
7.4 Determination of type certification value ... 23
8 Interpolation method for a certain vehicle ... 25
8.1 Interpolation family ... 25
8.2 Cycle energy demand of vehicles ... 26
8.3 Interpolation coefficient ... 26
8.4 Energy consumption of a certain vehicle ... 27
8.5 Range of a certain vehicle ... 27
8.6 Road load family and road load matrix family ... 27
9 Production conformity ... 28
9.1 General ... 28
9.2 Production conformity assurance plan ... 28
9.3 Production conformity requirements ... 29
Appendix A (Informative) Test method for energy consumption and range when heater is turned on in a low-temperature environment ... 31
Appendix B (Informative) Test method for energy consumption and range when air-conditioning refrigeration is turned on in a high-temperature environment 35 Appendix C (Normative) Selection of driving mode ... 39
Appendix D (Informative) REESS state-of-charge curve ... 42
Appendix E (Normative) Determination of REESS current and voltage ... 44 Appendix F (Informative) Location of temperature measuring point ... 46 Test methods for energy consumption and range of
electric vehicles - Part 1: Light-duty vehicles
1 Scope
This document specifies the test methods for energy consumption and range of pure electric vehicles.
This document is applicable to category N1 vehicles; categories M1 and M2 vehicles with the maximum design total mass not exceeding 3500 kg.
Categories M1 and L5 vehicles with a maximum design total mass of more than 3500 kg may refer to it for implementation.
2 Normative references
The contents of the following documents, through normative references in this text, constitute indispensable provisions of this document. Among them, for dated references, only the edition corresponding to that date applies to this document. For undated references, the latest edition (including all amendments) applies to this document.
GB/T 15089 Classification of power-driven vehicles and trailers
GB 18352.6-2016 Limits and measurement methods for emissions from
light-duty vehicles (CHINA 6)
GB/T 19233-2020 Measurement methods of fuel consumption for light-duty
vehicles
GB/T 19596 Terminology of electric vehicles
GB/T 38146.1-2019 China automotive test cycle - Part 1: Light-duty vehicles 3 Terms and definitions
The terms and definitions defined in GB/T 15089, GB/T 19596, GB 18352.6- 2016 and GB/T 38146.1-2019 apply to this document.
the interpolation family, it shall choose a representative vehicle in the interpolation family. The same test vehicle should be used to represent vehicle H and vehicle L through different road load settings.
4.3.3 The test vehicle can be run-in according to the needs of the vehicle manufacturer or its authorized agent. And ensure that the machinery is in good condition. At the same time, under the condition of installing REESS, a certain range shall be run-in. The range must be greater than 300 km. At the same time, REESS shall experience at least one process from full charge to the lowest value of the state of charge (SOC).
4.3.4 The lubricant, specified by the vehicle manufacturer, shall be used and indicated in the test result report.
4.3.5 Except for drive purposes, all energy storage systems shall be charged to the maximum values (electric energy, hydraulic pressure, air pressure, etc.), specified by the vehicle manufacturer.
4.3.6 Other test vehicle settings shall be carried out in accordance with the requirements of C.1.2.4.2, C.1.2.4.4 and C.1.2.4.5 in GB 18352.6-2016.
4.4 Test cycle
4.4.1 The test cycle is in accordance with China light-duty vehicle test cycle described in Appendix A of GB/T 38146.1-2019 (CLTC, including CLTC-P and CLTC-C; where CLTC-P is suitable for category M1 vehicles; CLTC-C is suitable for category N1 vehicles; and category M2 vehicles with a maximum design total mass not exceeding 3500 kg). It includes 3 speed ranges: low speed (part 1), medium speed (part 2), and high speed (part 3).
4.4.2 If the maximum vehicle speed declared for the vehicle is less than the maximum speed of the CLTC, when the target vehicle speed is greater than the maximum vehicle speed declared, the test cycle shall be amended in
accordance with the provisions of CA.5 in GB 18352.6-2016.
5 Test-related parameters and accuracy
The related parameters and accuracy of the test results shall meet the
requirements of Table 2. When calculating in accordance with the provisions of Clause 7, unless otherwise specified, the process data shall not be rounded. 6.2 Conditions for termination of tests
6.2.1 When conducting the test specified in 6.3.3, when the following conditions occur, the test shall be stopped.
a) When testing in accordance with the conventional working condition
method specified in 6.3.3.3; if the maximum vehicle speed declared for
the vehicle is not less than the maximum vehicle speed of the CLTC and
cannot meet the tolerance requirements specified in 6.1.4; the test shall be stopped.
b) When testing in accordance with the conventional working condition
method specified in 6.3.3.3; if the maximum speed declared for the vehicle is less than the maximum speed of CLTC; for the part exceeding the
maximum speed declared for the vehicle, the test cycle shall be amended in accordance with the provisions of CA.5 in GB 18352.6-2016. At this time, the driver is required to depress the accelerator pedal to the end. The actual vehicle speed is allowed to exceed the upper tolerance limit
specified in 6.1.4. However, when the lower tolerance limit requirements specified in 6.1.4 cannot be met, the test shall be stopped. When the
target vehicle speed does not exceed the maximum speed declared for
the vehicle, and the tolerance requirements specified in 6.1.4 cannot be met, the test shall be stopped.
c) When testing in accordance with the shortening method specified in
6.3.3.4; in the constant-speed segment CSSE, if the vehicle fails to meet the lower tolerance limit requirements specified in 6.1.4 for 4 consecutive seconds; the test shall be stopped.
6.2.2 When the conditions for the end of the test are reached, the gear remains unchanged. The vehicle is allowed to coast to the lowest stable speed or 5 km/h. Then the brake pedal is depressed to stop.
6.3 Test code
6.3.1 Test steps
The same test procedure shall be used to determine energy consumption and range. The test procedure includes the following 3 steps:
a) Charge REESS for the first time (see 6.3.2);
b) Carry out tests for energy consumption and range (see 6.3.3);
c) After the test, recharge the REESS; measure the electric quantity charged from the outside (see 6.3.4).
The above charging procedures do not include any automatically or manually started special charging procedures, such as equalization charging mode or maintenance mode. Vehicle manufacturers shall declare that, no special
charging procedures are performed during the test. The charging strategy that does not require additional operations for vehicles actually sold is not considered a special charging procedure. Vehicle manufacturers shall provide relevant supporting documents.
6.3.2.3.2 Criteria for end of charging
When the on-board or external instrument shows that REESS is fully charged, it is judged that the charging is complete. If the on-board or external instrument sends out an obvious signal that REESS is not fully charged, in this case, the longest charging time is: 3??REESS energy (kWh)/supply power (kW), which is specified by the vehicle manufacturer.
6.3.3 Test process
6.3.3.1 Selection of driving mode
For vehicles equipped with a driving mode selection function, the selection shall be made in accordance with the provisions of Appendix C.
6.3.3.2 Test options
The test shall start within 12 h after the end of the charging specified in 6.3.2.3. If the vehicle manufacturer recommends, and determined by the inspection agency, the test can start within 36 h after the end of the charging specified in 6.3.2.3. For vehicles whose range does not exceed 8 test cycle ranges specified in 4.4, the test shall be carried out in accordance with the conventional working condition method specified in 6.3.3.3. For vehicles whose range exceeds 8 test cycle ranges specified in 4.4, the test shall be carried out in accordance with the shortening method specified in 6.3.3.4. During the arbitration test, the test shall be carried out in accordance with the conventional working condition method specified in 6.3.3.3.
6.3.3.3 Conventional working condition method
For the test process of the conventional working condition method and the corresponding REESS state-of-charge curve, refer to D.2.1 of Appendix D. On the chassis dynamometer, use the test cycle specified in 4.4 to continuously test.
Unless otherwise specified, the vehicle is allowed to be immersed once every 4 test cycles. The immersion time shall not exceed 10 min. During the
b) In accordance with 6.1.1, the road loads of vehicle H and vehicle L are tested. And according to the relevant regulations of
CC.4.2.1.2~CC.4.2.1.4 in GB 18352.6-2016, calculate the road load of all vehicle models in the road load family and road load matrix family.
9 Production conformity
9.1 General
9.1.1 Vehicle manufacturers shall, in accordance with 9.2, establish and implement a production conformity assurance plan.
9.1.2 It shall be determined according to 9.3 whether the production conformity meets the requirements. If a certain model cannot meet any of the requirements of the production conformity inspection, it is determined that, this model does not meet the production conformity requirements specified in this document. 9.1.3 The determination of production conformity is only applicable to the room- temperature test specified in Clause 7. The tests, under the special ambient temperatures specified in Appendix A and Appendix B, may refer to it for implementation, as needed.
9.1.4 For vehicles undergoing production conformity inspection, the running-in range does not need to meet the REESS minimum running-in range
requirements specified in 4.3.3. Other production conformity test settings shall be consistent with the type certification tests specified in Clause 7. The vehicle preparation before the test shall be carried out, in accordance with the recommendations of the vehicle manufacturer.
9.1.5 If a certain model has several extended models or interpolation family models, the production conformity test shall be carried out on the basic model, which is described in the application materials for the first type test. If the basic model for the first type test has been discontinued, the production conformity test shall be carried out on the extended models or the interpolation family models.
9.2 Production conformity assurance plan
9.2.1 Vehicle manufacturers shall randomly select multiple vehicles from the same batch of products; in accordance with 9.2.2, check the production
conformity of the products.
9.2.2 Carry out the test in accordance with the provisions of 6.3.3.3 or 6.3.3.4. This test only carries out the first test cycle. According to formula (2), determine the energy consumption of this cycle, ECDC,first CLTC. Based on the energy Appendix A
(Informative)
Test method for energy consumption and range when heater is turned
on in a low-temperature environment
A.1 Overview
This appendix describes the test method for energy consumption and range when the heater is turned on in a low-temperature environment. In accordance with the requirements of A.2 and A.3, carry out the test; record the test vehicle parameters and test data. In accordance with the requirements of A.4, calculate the test results. The accuracy of the test results of energy consumption and range shall be processed, in accordance with the requirements of Table 2. A.2 Test conditions
A.2.1 Test room and test equipment
A.2.1.1 Low-temperature environment simulation test system
Chassis dynamometer, analysis equipment and their calibration shall meet the requirements of Attachment CD of GB 18352.6-2016.
A.2.1.2 Additional equipment
The equipment for measuring temperature and pressure shall meet the
requirements of Attachment CD of GB 18352.6-2016.
A.2.1.3 Other
Other unspecified test equipment and test room requirements shall be
implemented in accordance with the relevant provisions of GB 18352.6-2016. A.2.2 Environmental conditions
A.2.2.1 The average temperature of the environment shall be (-7??3)??C.
A.2.2.2 During the test, the temperature of the test room shall be monitored. The temperature shall be measured at the outlet of the cooling fan. The ambient temperature in the report shall be the arithmetic mean of the temperature of the test room, measured at a fixed interval of no more than 1 min.
A.2.3 Vehicle preparation
temperature measuring points. Record the time when the average temperature first reaches 20 ??C. After that, until the end of the test, the average value of the average temperature per 10 min shall be kept within the range of 20 ??C~24 ??C. The average value of every 1 min shall be kept within the range of 17 ??C~25 ??C. A.3 Test code
A.3.1 Test cycle
On the chassis dynamometer, use the test cycle specified in 4.4 for testing. A.3.2 Pretreatment
A.3.2.1 The environmental requirements and parameters of the test shall meet the requirements of 4.1.
A.3.2.2 According to the requirements of 6.1.1, set the chassis dynamometer. The resistance setting of the chassis dynamometer shall be adjusted, to simulate the running condition of the vehicle on the road at -7 ??C. This adjustment can be based on the change in road driving resistance determined at -7 ??C. The resistance, which is obtained after the slipping time of the driving resistance determined in accordance with 6.1.1 is reduced by 10%, can also be used as the substituted road driving resistance for the setting.
A.3.2.3 In accordance with the requirements of 6.3.2.2, discharge REESS. A.3.2.4 During REESS discharge, the temperature of the test room shall remain relatively stable; shall not be higher than 28 ??C.
A.3.2.5 After the discharging is completed, according to the requirements of 6.3.2.3, the REESS is charged for the first time. And within 12 h after the end of charging, in accordance with the requirements of A.3.3, the vehicle shall be immersed.
A.3.2.6 Move the vehicle into the test room; place it on the chassis
dynamometer; connect the test equipment.
A.3.3 Vehicle immersion
A.3.3.1 Move the vehicle to the immersion room. If passing through other temperature zones during this period, the duration shall not exceed 10 min. A.3.3.2 With all windows closed, the vehicle shall be immersed for 12 h~15 h in the environmental conditions specified in A.2.2. During the immersion period, the hourly average ambient temperature shall be kept within the range of (- 7??3)??C. The instantaneous temperature shall be kept within the range of (- 7??6)??C; and, shall not be outside (-7??3)??C for 3 consecutive minutes.
Appendix B
(Informative)
Test method for energy consumption and range when air-conditioning
refrigeration is turned on in a high-temperature environment
B.1 Overview
This appendix describes the test method for energy consumption and range when air-conditioning refrigeration is turned on in a high-temperature
environment. In accordance with the requirements of B.2 and B.3, carry out the test; record the test vehicle parameters and test data. In accordance with the requirements of B.4, calculate the test results. The accuracy of the test results of energy consumption and range shall be processed, in accordance with the requirements of Table 2.
B.2 Test conditions
B.2.1 Test room and test equipment
B.2.1.1 High-temperature environment simulation test system
Chassis dynamometer, analysis equipment and their calibration shall meet the requirements of Attachment CD of GB 18352.6-2016.
B.2.1.2 Additional equipment
The equipment for measuring temperature and pressure shall meet the
requirements of Attachment CD of GB 18352.6-2016.
B.2.1.3 Other
Other unspecified test equipment and test room requirements shall be
implemented in accordance with the relevant provisions of GB 18352.6-2016. B.2.2 Environmental conditions
B.2.2.1 The average temperature of the environment shall be (30??2)??C.
B.2.2.2 During the test, the temperature of the test room shall be monitored. The temperature shall be measured at the outlet of the fan. The ambient temperature in the report shall be the arithmetic mean of the temperature of the test room, measured at a fixed interval of no more than 1 min.
direction of the air outlet is set to the middle position.
During the test, at a sampling frequency of not less than 1 Hz, the temperature change of the temperature measuring point in the vehicle is continuously recorded in real time. Calculate and monitor the average temperature of all temperature measuring points. Record the time when the average temperature first reaches 25 ??C. After that, until the end of the test, the average value of the average temperature per 10 min shall be kept within the range of 21 ??C~25 ??C. The average value of every 1 min shall be kept within the range of 20 ??C~28 ??C. B.3 Test code
B.3.1 Test cycle
On the chassis dynamometer, use the test cycle specified in 4.4 for testing. B.3.2 Pretreatment
B.3.2.1 The environmental requirements and parameters of the test shall meet the requirements of 4.1.
B.3.2.2 According to the requirements of 6.1.1, set the chassis dynamometer. B.3.2.3 In accordance with the requirements of 6.3.2.2, discharge REESS. B.3.2.4 During REESS discharge, the temperature of the test room shall remain relatively stable; shall not be higher than 28 ??C.
B.3.2.5 After the discharging is completed, according to the requirements of 6.3.2.3, the REESS is charged for the first time. And within 12 h after the end of charging, in accordance with the requirements of B.3.3, the vehicle shall be immersed.
B.3.2.6 Move the vehicle into the test room; place it on the chassis
dynamometer; connect the test equipment.
B.3.3 Vehicle immersion
With all windows closed, the vehicle shall be immersed in the environmental conditions specified in B.2.2 for at least 0.5 h.
B.3.4 Determination of vehicle energy consumption and range...

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