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GB/T 18348-2022 English PDF (GBT18348-2022)

GB/T 18348-2022 English PDF (GBT18348-2022)

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GB/T 18348-2022: Bar code for commodity - Bar code symbol print quality verification

This document specifies the determination of sampling plan, verification conditions, verification items, verification methods, verification data processing, comprehensive determination of symbol quality, and verification report for bar code symbol print quality verification. This document applies to the quality verification of printed bar code symbol for commodity.
GB/T 18348-2022
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 35.040
CCS A 24
Replacing GB/T 18348-2008
Bar code for commodity - Bar code symbol print quality
verification
ISSUED ON: MARCH 09, 2022
IMPLEMENTED ON: OCTOBER 01, 2022
Issued by: State Administration for Market Regulation;
Standardization Administration of the PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 4
1 Scope ... 7
2 Normative references ... 7
3 Terms and definitions ... 8
4 Determination of sampling plan ... 10
5 Verification conditions ... 10
5.1 Environmental conditions ... 10
5.2 Verification equipment ... 11
5.3 Samples under verification ... 12
6 Verification items ... 12
7 Verification methods ... 13
7.1 Overview of verification methods ... 13
7.2 Scan measurement ... 13
7.3 Manual measurement ... 16
8 Verification data processing ... 18
8.1 Overview of verification data processing ... 18
8.2 Individual parameter grades of scan reflectance profile ... 18
8.3 Individual parameter average grade of scan reflectance profile ... 20 8.4 Grade of scan reflectance profile ... 21
8.5 Data processing of manual measurement parameters ... 21
8.6 Symbol grade ... 22
9 Comprehensive determination of symbol quality ... 23
10 Verification report ... 23
Appendix A (Informative) Verification methods for bar/space reflectance, print contrast, and bar/space dimensional deviation ... 25
A.1 Verification method for bar/space reflectance and print contrast ... 25 A.2 Verification method for bar/space dimensional deviation ... 26
A.3 Verification method for average bar width deviation ... 26
Appendix B (Normative) Determination of optical characteristic parameter values .. 28 B.1 Overview ... 28
B.2 Minimum reflectance ... 28
B.3 Symbol contrast ... 28
B.4 Minimum edge contrast... 28
B.5 Modulation ratio ... 28
B.6 Defects ... 29
Appendix C (Informative) Description of defects algorithm improvement ... 31 Appendix D (Normative) Determination of decodability ... 33
D.1 General rules ... 33
D.2 EAN-13, EAN-8, UPC-A, UPC-E bar codes ... 33
D.3 ITF-14 bar code ... 36
D.4 GS1-128 bar code ... 38
Appendix E (Normative) Measurement of Z dimension and wide to narrow ratio ... 41 E.1 Measurement of Z dimension ... 41
E.2 Measurement of wide to narrow ratio ... 42
Appendix F (Normative) Parameters for determination of scan reflectance profile grade and symbol grade value of different code systems ... 43
F.1 Parameters for determination of scan reflectance profile grade of different code systems ... 43
F.2 Parameters for determination of symbol grade value of different code systems ... 43 Bar code for commodity - Bar code symbol print quality
verification
1 Scope
This document specifies the determination of sampling plan, verification conditions, verification items, verification methods, verification data processing, comprehensive determination of symbol quality, and verification report for bar code symbol print quality verification.
This document applies to the quality verification of printed bar code symbol for commodity.
2 Normative references
The contents of the following documents, through normative references in this text, constitute indispensable provisions of this document. Among them, for dated references, only the edition corresponding to that date applies to this document. For undated references, the latest edition (including all amendments) applies to this document. GB/T 2828.1 Sampling procedures for inspection by attributes - Part 1: Sampling schemes indexed by acceptance quality limit (AQL) for lot-by-lot inspection GB/T 2828.4 Sampling procedures for inspection by attributes - Part 4: Procedures for assessment of declared quality levels
GB/T 2828.11 Sampling procedures for inspection by attributes - Part 11: Procedures for assessment of declared quality levels for small population
GB/T 2829 Sampling procedures and tables for periodic inspection by attributes (apply to inspection of process stability)
GB 12904-2008 Bar code for commodity - Retail commodity numbering and bar code marking
GB/T 12905-2019 Bar code terminology
GB/T 13262 Single sampling procedures and tables for inspection having desired operating characteristics by attributes for percent nonconforming
GB/T 14257 Commodity bar code symbol location
GB/T 14258 Information technology - Automatic identification and data capture techniques - Verification of print quality of bar code symbols
GB/T 15425 Commodity bar code - 128 bar code
GB/T 16306 Re-inspection and re-test procedures for assessment of declared quality levels
GB/T 16830 Bar code for commodity - Dispatch commodity numbering and bar code marking
GB/T 26228.1 Information technology - Automatic identification and data capture techniques - Bar code verifier conformance specification - Part 1: Linear symbols ISO/IEC 15416:2016 Automatic identification and data capture techniques - Bar code print quality test specification - Linear symbols
GS1 General specifications
3 Terms and definitions
The terms and definitions defined in GB 12904-2008 and GB/T 12905-2019 and the following ones apply to this document.
3.1
Bar code for commodity
A universal bar code symbol used to identify commodities and their attributes, including the numbering and bar code marking of retail commodities, dispatch commodities, logistics units, assets, service relationships, and locations of participants, etc. [Source: GB/T 12905-2019, 2.70, modified]
3.2
Element reflectance nonuniformity; ERN
The difference between the highest peak and the lowest valley of reflectance corrected by the algorithm in an element (including clear area) on the scan reflectance profile. [Source: GB/T 12905-2019, 6.30, modified]
3.3
Defects
Z dimension
The arithmetic mean of measured values of narrow element or module size. [Source: GB/T 14258-2003, 3.24, modified]
3.10
Encoded data
The data to be represented in the bar code symbol.
4 Determination of sampling plan
In the verification of commodity bar code print quality, the sampling plan shall be determined according to the verification category and applicable sampling standards: a) For successive batches of purchase inspections with several manufacturers to choose from and exit-factory verifications with definite users, use GB/T 2828.1 to determine the sampling plan;
b) For the purchase, process, and exit-factory verification of a single batch, use GB/T 13262 to determine the sampling plan;
c) For the inspection of the stability of production process, use GB/T 2829 to determine the sampling plan;
d) For quality supervision and verification, where the total amount of supervision is large, use GB/T 2828.4 to determine the sampling plan;
e) For quality supervision and verification, where the total amount of supervision is small, use GB/T 2828.11 to determine the sampling plan;
f) For quality supervision and re-inspection, use GB/T 16306 to determine the sampling plan;
g) For the acceptance verification of both the supplier and the purchaser, if there is a sampling agreement in the contract, it shall determine the sampling plan according to the agreement.
5 Verification conditions
5.1 Environmental conditions
5.1.1 Temperature and humidity
5.2.1.5 Measuring optical path
The measuring optical path shall comply with the regulations in GB/T 14258. 5.2.1.6 Reflectance benchmark
Use magnesium oxide (MgO) or barium sulfate (BaSO4) as the benchmark for 100% reflectance.
5.2.2 Length measuring instruments
5.2.2.1 Measuring instrument for clear area
A length measuring instrument with a minimum division value of not more than 0.1 mm OR a bar code verifier with a minimum division value of not more than 0.01 mm. 5.2.2.2 Measuring instrument for bar height and printing location
A length measuring instrument with a minimum division value not greater than 0.5 mm, which is suitable for manual measurement.
5.2.2.3 Measuring instrument for the width of bearer bar and the physical length of bar code symbol
A length measuring instrument with a minimum division value not greater than 0.1 mm, which is suitable for manual measurement.
5.3 Samples under verification
As far as possible, the bar code symbol under verification shall be in the state of being scanned when it is applied, that is, the state of physical packaging.
For samples that cannot be verified in the form of physical packaging, as well as samples of bar code symbols on labels, stickers, and packaging materials: - Appropriate processing can be carried out, so that the sample is flat; and the size is suitable for verification. Sufficient fixed size shall be retained around the bar code symbol;
- For the symbol print carrier with opacity less than 0.85, during verification, a dark plane with reflectance less than 5% shall be lined at the bottom of the symbol. For the measurement of opacity, see GB/T 14258.
6 Verification items
The verification items are shown in Table 2.
in each bar area is defined as the reflectance (Rb) of this bar.
7.2.2.3.2 Determine element edges
The edge is the boundary between two adjacent elements (including the clear area) on the scan reflectance profile. Its position is at the abscissa of the intermediate value [(i.e. the point of (Rs + Rb)/2] of the space reflectance (Rs) and bar reflectance (Rb) of two adjacent elements.
7.2.2.4 Reference decoding
After determining each element according to the method specified in 7.2.2.3, according to the code system of the bar code symbol under verification, select the appropriate reference decoding algorithm in GB 12904, GB/T 15425 or GB/T 16830 to decode the bar code symbol.
7.2.2.5 Optical characteristic parameters
The method for determining the values of optical characteristic parameters shall comply with the provisions of Appendix B. Record the values of minimum reflectance, symbol contrast, minimum edge contrast, modulation ratio, and defects given by the bar code verifier after scanning.
7.2.2.6 Decodability
According to the code system of the bar code symbol under verification, it is determined according to the method specified in Appendix D. Record the decodability given by the bar code verifier after scanning.
7.2.2.7 Z dimension
According to the code system of the bar code symbol under verification, it is determined according to the method specified in E.1 in Appendix E.
7.2.2.8 Wide to narrow ratio
See E.2 for the method for determining the wide to narrow ratio of ITF-14 bar code symbol (GB/T 16830).
7.2.2.9 Width of clear area
Use a bar code verifier with the function of clear area verification to scan and measure. When manual measurement is required, see 7.3.2.
7.3 Manual measurement
7.3.1 Bar height
Use a length measuring instrument that meets the requirements of 5.2.2.2 to measure. The bar height value is rounded to an integer in millimeters.
7.3.2 Width of clear area
Use a length measuring instrument that meets the requirements of 5.2.2.1 TO measure the width of the clear area at its narrowest point. The result of manual measurement can be used as the clear area width parameter value of the reflectance profile of each scan. Note: When the visually-inspected clear area is much larger than the required value, the " > minimum clear area width specified by the symbol standard" is used as the measured value. 7.3.3 Human readable character
Manually read and record the human readable character of bar code symbol. 7.3.4 Decoded data correctness
Compare the consistency of the scan reflectance profile reference decoded data and the encoded data.
7.3.5 Printing location
According to GB/T 14257 or the provisions of the application specification, carry out visual inspection; or use a length measuring instrument that meets the requirements of 5.2.2.2 to measure.
7.3.6 Width of bearer bar
Use a length measuring instrument that meets the requirements of 5.2.2.3 to measure. 7.3.7 Number of data characters
Manually read and record the number of data characters of the GS1-128 bar code symbol (GB/T 15425); including the application identifier and the applicable FNC1 character as a separating character, but excluding auxiliary characters and check characters.
7.3.8 Physical length of bar code symbol
Use a length measuring instrument that meets the requirements of 5.2.2.3 TO measure the physical length of the GS1-128 bar code symbol (GB/T 15425) including the clear area.
8.5.3 Determination of decoded data correctness
When the reference decoded data of the scan reflectance profile is consistent with the encoded data, it is determined to be grade 4.0; otherwise it is grade 0.0. 8.5.4 Determination of printing location
When the printing location of bar code symbol is consistent with the provisions of GB/T 14257 or the corresponding application specification, it is determined to pass; otherwise, it is determined to fail.
8.5.5 Determination of width of bearer bar
When the ITF-14 bar code symbol (GB/T 16830) uses the printing method of platemaking printing, the nominal value of the width of bearer bar is 4.83 mm. When the method of platemaking printing is not used, the minimum value of the width of bearer bar is 2X. The vertical lines of the bearer bar can be defaulted. When the measured value is greater than or equal to the required value, it is determined to pass; otherwise, it is determined to fail.
8.5.6 Determination of number of data characters
For GS1-128 bar code symbol (GB/T 15425), the maximum number of data characters that can be encoded is 48. When the number of data characters is less than or equal to 48, it is determined to be grade 4.0; otherwise it is grade 0.0.
8.5.7 Determination of physical length of bar code symbol
For GS1-128 bar code symbol (GB/T 15425), the physical length including clear area shall not exceed 165 mm. When the physical length is less than or equal to 165 mm, it is determined to be grade 4.0; otherwise it is grade 0.0.
8.6 Symbol grade
8.6.1 Determination of symbol grade value
The symbol grade value is the arithmetic mean of the scan reflectance profile grades (see 8.4) of multiple scan measurements (see 7.2.1.2 for the number of scan measurements) AND the minimum value among the manual measurement parameter grades determined by the code system specification to participate in the grade determination. When the reference decoded data of the reflectance profile of any two scans are different, the symbol grade value is 0.0.
For commodity bar code symbols of different code systems, it shall, according to F.2, select the parameters for the determination of symbol grade value.
8.6.2 Representation method of symbol grade
A.2 Verification method for bar/space dimensional deviation
A.2.1 Measurement and calculation of deviation
Measure the actual width of each bar, space and bar-space combination in the bar code symbol; calculate the difference between the actual width and the corresponding nominal width dimension, that is, the deviation.
For (n,k) symbology, the nominal width dimension shall be determined according to the measured Z dimension (see E.1) and the bar code characters to which the tested bar, space or bar-space combination belongs, and in accordance with the corresponding bar code system specification. For two-element width bar codes, the nominal width dimension shall be determined according to the measured Z dimension and wide to narrow ratio (see E.2), as well as the bar code characters to which the measured bar and space belong, and in accordance with the corresponding bar code system specification. A.2.2 Verification procedure
Use a length measuring instrument with a resolution of not less than 0.01 mm for verification. Take five measuring positions evenly in the bar height direction of the bar code symbol. From the start character to the stop character, measure the dimension of each bar/space one by one. Repeat the above steps for each height position measurement. A.2.3 Data processing
A.2.3.1 Take the maximum and minimum value of each bar/space dimensional deviation at the same height position AS the maximum and minimum value of bar/space dimensional deviation at this height position.
A.2.3.2 Take the maximum and minimum value of each bar/space dimensional deviation at five different height positions AS the bar/space dimensional deviation of the bar code symbol.
A.2.4 Determination method
According to the verification results, EAN/UPC bar codes are based on the provisions of F.1 in GB 12904-2008; GS1-128 and ITF-14 bar codes can refer to this provision; determine whether the bar/space dimensional deviation of bar code symbol can meet the requirements.
A.3 Verification method for average bar width deviation
Measure the actual width of each bar in the bar code symbol. Use formula (A.2) to calculate the average deviation of the bar.
Appendix C
(Informative)
Description of defects algorithm improvement
Defects are usually caused by smears in the space or clear area of the bar code symbol, ink peeling or voids in the bar. Take the bar element as an example; when voids appear in the bar, its scan reflectance profiles are shown in b) and c) in Figure C.1. The element reflectance nonuniformity specified in the traditional defects algorithm is the difference between the highest peak value and the lowest valley value of reflectance in an element (including clear area). The element reflectance nonuniformity in Figure C.1 b) is the difference between the reflectance at point E and point D. The element reflectance nonuniformity in Figure C.1 c) is the difference between the reflectance at point L and point W. However, in the actual scanning process, tiny voids and even "noise" may appear in the edges of the bars and spaces. It is not a real defect. Its scan reflectance profile is shown in a) in Figure C.1. The element reflectance nonuniformity calculated according to the traditional defects algorithm is the difference between point B and point C; so this calculation amplifies the value of defects.
According to the improved defects algorithm, the ERN?€? in Figure C.1 a) is extremely small, less than the defect adjustment factor "c". The parameter F is less than 1. The obtained element reflectance nonuniformity value is smaller than that in the traditional defects algorithm. Therefore, the defects calculated by the improved defects algorithm are smaller than those calculated by the traditional defects algorithm. ERN?€? in Figure C.1 b) and c) is greater than the defect adjustment factor "c". The parameter F is equal to 1. The obtained element reflectance nonuniformity value is equal to that before improvement. Therefore, the defects calculated by the improved defects algorithm are the same as those obtained by the traditional defects algorithm.
The setting of defect adjustment factor "c" can reduce the influence of tiny voids or smears at the bar-space edge, so as to eliminate the instability of the measurement; and to make the verifier ignore the influence of the extremely small reflectance difference on the calculation of defects.
Appendix D
(Normative)
Determination of decodability
D.1 General rules
D.1.1 According to the code system of the bar code symbol under verification, according to the method specified in D.2, D.3 or D.4, determine the decodability o...

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