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GB/T 18204.1-2013 English PDF (GBT18204.1-2013)

GB/T 18204.1-2013 English PDF (GBT18204.1-2013)

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GB/T 18204.1-2013: Examination methods for public places -- Part 1: Physical parameters

This part of GB/T 18204 specifies the measurement method of physical factors in public places. This part applies to the determination of physical factors in public places, other places, rooms and other indoor environments can be implemented with reference to this part.
GB/T 18204.1-2013
GB
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 13.060
C 51
Replacing GB/T 18204.13 ~ 18204.22-2000, GB/T 18204.28-2000
Partially replacing GB/T 17220-1998
Examination methods for public places - Part 1:
Physical parameters
ISSUED ON: DECEMBER 31, 2013
IMPLEMENTED ON: DECEMBER 01, 2014
Issued by: General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine;
Standardization Administration of PRC.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
1 Scope ... 6
2 Normative references ... 6
3 Air temperature ... 6
4 Relative humidity ... 9
5 Indoor air velocity (electric anemometer method) ... 12
6 Indoor fresh air volume ... 13
7 Noise (digital sound level meter method) ... 19
8 Illuminance (Illuminance meter method) ... 21
9 Daylighting factor (measurement method with ruler) ... 22
10 Atmospheric pressure (empty box barometer method) ... 23
11 Radiant heat ... 24
12 Thermal comfort PMV index ... 27
13 Electromagnetic radiation (wideband omnidirectional field strength meter method) ... 27
14 Ultraviolet radiation (ultraviolet spectrum analysis dose method) ... 29 15 Radon concentration in the air ... 30
16 Pool water temperature (thermometer method) ... 30
17 Pool water transparency (type method) ... 31
Appendix A (Normative) On-site testing point layout requirements ... 33 Appendix B (Informative) Tracer gas's environment background and toxicity level ... 37
Examination methods for public places - Part 1:
Physical parameters
1 Scope
This part of GB/T 18204 specifies the measurement method of physical factors in public places.
This part applies to the determination of physical factors in public places, other places, rooms and other indoor environments can be implemented with
reference to this part.
Note: In addition to the fresh air volume testing method in this part, if there are two or more testing methods for the same indicator, they can be selected according to technical conditions, but the first method is the arbitration method.
2 Normative references
The following documents are essential to the application of this document. For the dated documents, only the versions with the dates indicated are applicable to this document; for the undated documents, only the latest version (including all the amendments) is applicable to this standard.
GB/T 18049 Moderate thermal environments - Determination of the PMV
and PPD indices and specification of the conditions for thermal comfort GB/T 18883-2002 Indoor air quality standard
HJ/T 10.2 Guideline on management of radioactive environmental protection - Electromagnetic radiation monitoring - Instruments and methods
3 Air temperature
3.1 Glass liquid thermometer method
3.1.1 Principle
The glass liquid thermometer is composed of a thin-walled temperature bulb containing the liquid of the thermometer and a thin glass tube sealed and connected with the temperature bulb. The change of air temperature will cause Where:
?? - The zero point indicated by the thermometer;
b - The zero position of standard thermometer calibration.
3.1.4.2 Result expression: The measurement result of an area is given by the arithmetic average of the measured values of each measuring point in the area. 3.1.5 Measuring range
The air temperature is 0 ??C ~ 50 ??C.
3.2 Digital display thermometer method
3.2.1 Principle
Using PN junction thermistor, thermocouple, platinum resistance, etc. as the temperature sensor of the thermometer, the electrical signal generated by the sensor itself with temperature change is amplified and A/D converted, then the air temperature is directly displayed by the display.
3.2.2 Instruments
Digital thermometer: The minimum resolution is 0.1 ??C; the measurement
accuracy is ??0.5 ??C.
3.2.3 Measurement procedure
3.2.3.1 Perform periodic inspection and pre-use calibration of the instrument as required.
3.2.3.2 For the arrangement of measuring points, see A.2.
3.2.3.3 Operate according to the instrument manual.
3.2.3.4 After the reading displayed on the display is stable, the temperature value can be read.
3.2.4 Result calculation
See 3.1.4.2 for the result expression.
3.2.5 Measuring range
The air temperature is 0 ??C ~ 60 ??C.
The thermoelectric anemometer is composed of a probe and a measuring
instrument. The heating ring (wire) of the probe is exposed to a certain air velocity, which causes a change in the heating current or voltage of the probe. The temperature rise of the probe is negatively proportional to the air velocity, so the air velocity value can be displayed by pointer or figure.
5.2 Instruments
Pointer thermoelectric anemometer or digital display thermoelectric
anemometer: the lowest detection value is not more than 0.05 m/s.
5.3 Measurement procedure
5.3.1 For the arrangement of measuring points, see A.2.
5.3.2 Use the analog thermoelectric anemometer to adjust the zero point and full scale of the meter according to the manual; use the digital display thermoelectric anemometer to perform self-check or preheating.
5.3.3 Pull out the stylus probe gently; aim the red dot on the probe with the direction of the incoming air; read the air velocity value.
5.3.4 Perform periodic check and pre-use calibration of the instrument as required.
5.4 Result calculation
Result expression: The measurement result of an area is given by the arithmetic average of the measured values of each measuring point in the area.
5.5 Measuring range and measuring error
The measurement range is 0.1 m/s ~ 10 m/s; in the range of 0.1 m/s ~ 2 m/s, the measurement error is not more than ??10%.
6 Indoor fresh air volume
6.1 Tracer gas method
6.1.1 Principle
The tracer gas method is the tracer gas concentration decay method. The commonly used tracer gases are CO2 and SF6. A proper amount of tracer gas is introduced into the room to be tested. Due to the exchange of indoor and outdoor air, the concentration of the tracer gas decays exponentially. According to the value of the concentration change with time, calculate the indoor fresh air volume and the number of air changes.
Non-mechanically ventilated public places with less than 5 air changes per hour (places without centralized air conditioning systems).
6.2 Air duct method
6.2.1 Principle
When the mechanical ventilation system is in normal operation or under
specified working conditions, the fresh air volume of the cross-section is calculated by measuring the area of a certain cross-section of the fresh air duct and the average air velocity of the cross-section. If a system has multiple fresh air ducts, the air volume of each fresh air duct must be measured. The sum of all fresh air ducts is the total fresh air volume of the system. According to the number of people in the service area of the system, it can obtain the fresh air volume result.
6.2.2 Instruments
6.2.2.1 Standard Pitot tube: Kp = 0.99 ?? 0.01, or S-shaped Pitot tube Kp = 0.84 ?? 0.01.
6.2.2.2 Micromanometer: The accuracy is not less than 2%; the minimum
reading is not more than 1 Pa.
6.2.2.3 Thermoelectric anemometer: The minimum reading is not more than 0.1 m/s.
6.2.2.4 Liquid glass thermometer or resistance thermometer: The minimum reading is not more than 1 ??C.
6.2.3 Requirements for measuring points
6.2.3.1 The cross-section where the measuring point is located shall be selected in a straight duct section with stable airflow, avoiding elbows and parts with sharp changes in cross-section.
6.2.3.2 The location and number of measurement points for circular ducts: Divide the ducts into an appropriate number of equal-area concentric rings; select the measuring points at the intersection of the center line of each ring area and the two vertical diameter lines. The number of measuring points of circular air duct is as shown in Table 1. For air ducts with a diameter less than 0.3 m and a relatively uniform flow velocity distribution, a point at the center of the air duct can be used as the measuring point. For air ducts with symmetrical airflow distribution and relatively uniform airflow, the measuring points along only one direction can be used for measuring.
Digital sound level meters usually use capacitive acoustic-electric transducers to convert the measured sound signal into an electrical signal, which becomes a sound level value after a certain amount of internal processing. Use a sound level meter to measure a certain number of indoor environment A-weighted sound level values within a specified time; calculate the equivalent A sound level LAeq, which is the indoor noise value.
7.2 Instruments
Digital sound level meter: The measuring range (A sound level) is 30 dB ~ 120 dB, at an accuracy of ??1.0 dB.
7.3 Measurement procedure
7.3.1 For the arrangement of measuring points, see A.3.
7.3.2 Use a calibrator to calibrate the sound level meter before measurement. 7.3.3 The sound level meter can be hand-held or fixed on a tripod during measurement; the effect of sound reflection shall be minimized.
7.3.4 For steady-state noise, use the sound level meter to read the indicated value or average value for 1 min. For impulse noise, read the peak value and pulse hold value.
7.3.5 For periodic noise, use the slow gear of the sound level meter to read an instantaneous A sound level value every 5 s; measure a period.
7.3.6 For non-periodic non-steady-state noise, use the slow gear of the sound level meter to read an instantaneous A sound level value every 5 s; read several data continuously.
7.4 Calculation of results
7.4.1 If the indoor environment noise is steady-state noise, the indicated value or average value of the sound level meter is the equivalent A sound level LAeq. 7.4.2 If the indoor environment noise is impulse noise, the peak value measured by the sound level meter is the equivalent A sound level LAeq.
7.4.3 If the indoor environmental noise is periodic or other non-periodic non- steady-state noise, the equivalent A sound level LAeq is calculated as shown in formula (12).
Where:
LAeq - The equivalent A sound level of indoor environmental noise, in decibels (dB);
n - The total number of measured data in the specified time t;
LAi - The sound level A of the ith measurement, in decibels (dB).
7.4.4 Result expression: The measurement result of an area is given by the arithmetic mean value of the equivalent A sound level of each measuring point in the area.
8 Illuminance (Illuminance meter method)
8.1 Principle
The illuminance meter is made using the physical photoelectric phenomenon of photosensitive semiconductor components. When the external light hits the photodetector (photoelectric element), the photoelectric element converts the light energy into electric energy, then the illuminance value of the light is displayed by the reading unit (ammeter or digital liquid crystal panel). 8.2 Instruments
Illuminance meter: The lower limit of the range is not more than 1 lx, the upper limit is not less than 5000 lx; the error of the indication value is not more than ??8%.
8.3 Measurement procedure
8.3.1 See A.4 for the arrangement of measuring points.
8.3.2 Check and adjust the illuminance meter according to the requirements of the instruction manual.
8.3.3 The light receiver of the illuminance meter shall be clean and dust-free. 8.3.4 The light receiver of the illuminance meter shall be placed horizontally during measurement.
8.3.5 Place the light receiver at the position to be measured; select the range and read the illuminance value.
8.3.6 The operator's position and clothing shall not affect the measurement results.
8.3.7 Perform periodic verification and pre-use calibration of the instrument as required.
10 Atmospheric pressure (empty box barometer
method)
10.1 Principle
The atmospheric pressure is measured according to the characteristics of the compression or expansion of the metal empty box (close to the vacuum in the box) with the change of the pressure. It consists of three parts: induction, transmission and indication. The elastic metal empty box close to the vacuum is balanced with an elastic sheet. Following compression or expansion, the air pressure value can be directly indicated by passing the extension motion to the pointer through the transfer amplification.
10.2 Instruments
Ordinary empty box barometer: Sensitivity is 0.5 hPa, accuracy is ??2 hPa; plateau empty box barometer: sensitivity is 0.5 hPa, accuracy is ??3.3 hPa. 10.3 Measurement procedure
10.3.1 Perform periodic verification and pre-use calibration of the instrument as required.
10.3.2 After opening the cover of the barometer box cover, read the attached temperature first to an accuracy of 0.1 ??C; tap the surface of the box (overcome the mechanical friction in the barometer in the empty box); start reading after the pointer is swing and stand still. When reading, the line of sight needs to be perpendicular to the scale surface; the value shown on the tip of the reading pointer shall be accurate to 0.1 hPa.
10.4 Result calculation
The calculation of atmospheric pressure is as shown in formula (14).
Where:
P - Atmospheric pressure, the unit is Pascals (Pa);
P1 - Scale correction value, as given in the instrument manual, the unit is Pascals (Pa);
P2 - Temperature correction value, the unit is Pascals (Pa);
P3 - Supplementary correction value, as given in the verification certificate, ?? - Stephen Boltzmann's constant, 5.67 ?? 10-8 W/m2.
Note: Do not touch the metal part of the probe with your hands during the measurement, to ensure the accuracy of the test.
11.2 Black bulb thermometer
11.2.1 Principle
The radiant heat in the environment is absorbed by the black-painted copper ball, which increases the temperature in the copper bulb. The temperature in the copper bulb is measured by a thermometer, meanwhile the air temperature and air velocity are also measured. Since the temperature in the copper bulb is related to the ambient air temperature, air velocity and the intensity of radiant heat in the environment, the average radiation temperature of the environment can be calculated according to the temperature, air temperature and air velocity in the copper bulb.
11.2.2 Instruments
11.2.2.1 Black copper bulb: It is 150 mm in diameter, 0.5 mm in thickness, with matt black paint or ink on the surface; the upper hole is plugged with a cork which has a hole. The black surface of the copper bulb shall be painted evenly, but not excessively bright and reflective.
11.2.2.2 Thermometer: A liquid glass thermometer or a digital thermometer can be used, with the smallest scale division of not greater than 0.2 ??C. The measuring accuracy is ??0.5 ??C; the measuring range is 0 ??C ~ 200 ??C. Refer to 3.1.3 or 3.2.3 for the use requirements of the thermometer.
11.2.3 Measurement procedures and precautions
11.2.3.1 Insert the thermometer probe into the small hole of the black bulb's cork hole and hang it at a height of 1 m above the point to be measured. 11.2.3.2 Take the reading after 15 minutes; then read it again after 3 minutes. If the two readings are the same, it is the black bulb temperature. If the second reading is higher than the first one, it shall be read again after 3 minutes, until the temperature is constant.
11.2.3.3 When measuring the temperature at the same place, the thermometer bulb must be thermal-shielded with heat, to prevent the influence of radiant heat. 11.2.3.4 Determine the average air velocity at the monitoring point according to the electric anemometer method or the digital anemometer method.
11.2.4 Result calculation
E?? - Light wave radiance (radiation of each wavelength), the unit is watts per square meter nanometer [W/(m2??nm)];
S(??) - The effective value of light wave;
???? - The ultraviolet bandwidth within the measurement range, in nanometers (nm).
14.5 Measurement record
The measurement record shall include the measurement date, measurement
time, meteorological conditions, measurement location and specific
measurement location, the type and parameters of the equipment under test, the model and parameters of the measurement equipment, the measurement
data, the information of the measurement personnel.
14.6 Precautions
During on-site measurement, a detailed record shall be made of the location and time of the operator. On-site measurement shall design a reasonable monitoring plan for the residence time, exposed location and posture of the personnel at each location; the measurement personnel shall pay attention to personal protection.
15 Radon concentration in the air
The concentration of radon in the indoor air of public places shall be tested in accordance with A.6 of GB/T 18883-2002.
16 Pool water temperature (thermometer method)
16.1 Principle
The change of water temperature can cause the temperature of the bulb of the glass liquid thermometer to change, thereby changing the liquid volume in the temperature bulb, or change the electrical signal generated by the thermistor sensor of the digital thermometer. The height of the liquid column in the indication tube of the glass liquid thermometer indicates the temperature of the pool water, whilst the digital thermometer directly displays the temperature of the pool water on the display.
16.2 Instruments
16.2.1 Glass liquid thermometer: Measurement accuracy ??1.0 ??C.
16.2.2 Digital display thermometer: Measurement accuracy ??1.0 ??C.
16.3 Measurement procedure
16.3.1 Immerse the thermometer directly 15 cm ~ 20 cm below the water
surface of the pool; make measurement after the reading becomes constant. 16.3.2 If the water temperature cannot be directly measured, it can be carried out in a water sample bottle. At least 1 L volume of water shall be collected from the water sample bottle. The water sample bottle shall be immersed in the water for 1 min ~ 2 min before the measurement. Measurement can only be made
after the bottle temperature is same as the water temperature.
16.3.3 Follow the steps in the instrument manual for specific operations. 16.3.4 Avoid direct heat or sunlight during measurement.
17 Pool water transparency (type method)
17.1 Principle
When natural swimming pool water contains suspended and colloidal
compounds, the transparency of the water is greatly reduced. The transparency of water is inversely proportional to the turbidity. The higher the content of suspended matter in the water, the lower the transparency. The difference in the distance between the type symbol and the water surface when the
underwater type symbol can be recognized reflects the transparency of the natural swimming pool water.
17.2 Instruments
17.2.1 Transparency tester: A glass tube which has a length of 33 cm and an inner diameter of 2.5 cm, engraved with a scale in centimeters (cm); there is a polished glass sheet at the bottom of the tube. Fill a rubber ring between the glass tube and the glass sheet and fix it with a metal clip. One side of the glass tube is connected to the bottom 1 cm ~ 2 cm of the glass tube, which can be used for water discharge.
17.2.2 Standard type symbol: Use the third row of symbols of standard eye chart (decimal notation 0.3, standard distance 100 cm).
17.3 Measurement procedure
17.3.1 The transparency tester is placed in a well...

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