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GB/T 18107-2017 English PDF (GBT18107-2017)

GB/T 18107-2017 English PDF (GBT18107-2017)

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GB/T 18107-2017: Hongmu

This Standard stipulates the terms and definitions, classification, requirements, test methods, determination and others of Hongmu. This Standard is applicable to the production, operation, trade, inspection and identification of Hongmu and its products.
GB/T 18107-2017
NATIONAL STANDARD OF THE
PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA
ICS 79.040
B 69
Replacing GB/T 18107-2000
Hongmu
??????
ISSUED ON: DECEMBER 29, 2017
IMPLEMENTED ON: JULY 1, 2018
Issued by: General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine;
Standardization Administration of the PEOPLE Republic of
China.
Table of Contents
Foreword ... 3
Introduction ... 7
1 Scope ... 8
2 Normative References ... 8
3 Terms and Definitions ... 8
4 Classification ... 10
5 Requirements ... 10
6 Test Methods ... 10
7 Determination ... 11
8 Others ... 11
Appendix A (normative) Main Characteristics of Various Categories of Hongmu ... 1
Appendix B (informative) A Table of Hongmu Categories ... 1
Appendix C (informative) Red Sandalwood Species and Wood Characteristics ... 5
Appendix D (informative) Rosewood Species and Wood Characteristics ... 9 Appendix E (informative) Scented Rosewood Species and Wood
Characteristics ... 27
Appendix F (informative) Black Rosewood Species and Wood Characteristics ... 31
Appendix G (informative) Violet Rosewood Species and Wood Characteristics ... 56
Appendix H (informative) Ebony Species and Wood Characteristics ... 81 Appendix I (informative) Striped Ebony Species and Wood Characteristics .. 89 Appendix J (informative) Wenge Species and Wood Characteristics ... 100 Foreword
This Standard was drafted in accordance with the rules in GB/T 1.1-2009. This Standard serves as a replacement of GB/T 18107-2000 Hongmu. Except from editorial modifications, the main technical changes are as follows:
---Scope is modified (see Chapter 1; Chapter 1 in Version 2000);
---?€?Reference Standard?€? is modified into ?€?Normative References?€?; the guide language is modified; LY/T 1788-2008 Standard Terminology Relating to Wood Properties is added (see Chapter 2; Chapter 2 in Version 2000);
---?€?Definition?€? is modified into ?€?Terms and Definitions?€?; the guide language is modified (see Chapter 3; Chapter 3 in Version 2000);
---Terms ?€?radial section?€?, ?€?tangential section?€? and ?€?sapwood?€?, and their definitions are added (see 3.3, 3.4 and 3.13);
---The definitions of ?€?Hongmu?€?, ?€?cross section?€?, ?€?growth ring?€?, ?€?diffuse-porous wood?€?, ?€?axial parenchyma?€?, ?€?heartwood?€? and ?€?air-dry density?€? are modified (see 3.1, 3.2, 3.5, 3.7, 3.8, 3.12, 3.14; 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.5, 3.7, 3.11, 3.12 in Version 2000);
---Terms ?€?semi-ring porous wood?€?, ?€?wood structure?€? and their definitions are deleted (see 3.6 and 3.13 in Version 2000);
---?€?Classification?€? is added (see Chapter 4);
---?€?Category?€? is modified into ?€?Requirements?€? (see Chapter 5; Chapter 4 in Version 2000);
---The title ?€?Prerequisites?€? in ?€?Category?€? is deleted (see 4.1.1, 4.2.1, 4.3.1, 4.4.1, 4.5.1, 4.6.1, 4.7.1, 4.8.1 in Version 2000);
---The requirements for ?€?average chord diameter of pore?€? in ?€?Category?€? are deleted (see 4.1.1.2, 4.2.1.2, 4.3.1.2, 4.4.1.2, 4.5.1.2, 4.6.1.2, 4.7.1.2, 4.8.1.2 in Version 2000);
---?€?heartwood has the wood color of red purple, as time goes by, it turns black purple?€? of ?€?red sandalwood?€? is modified into ?€?heartwood has the wood color of red purple to black purple?€? (see Appendix A; 4.1.1.4 in Version 2000);
---?€?heartwood has the wood color of reddish brown to fuchsia, and often with dark stripes?€? of ?€?rosewood?€? is modified into ?€?heartwood has the wood color of light reddish brown, reddish brown to purple reddish brown, often with dark stripes?€? (see Appendix A; 4.2.1.4 in Version 2000);
---The test method ?€?air-dry density?€? when sample requirements in GB/T 1933 are not satisfied is added (see 6.4.2);
---?€?macro and microstructure of hongmu?€?, and appendixes ?€?table of hongmu species sources?€?, ?€?macroscopic color photos of hongmu?€?, ?€?microstructure photos of hongmu?€? are deleted (see Chapter 6, Appendix I, Appendix J,
Appendix K in Version 2000);
---?€?Determination?€? is added (see Chapter 7);
---?€?Others?€? is modified (see Chapter 8; Chapter 7 in Version 2000);
---Informative appendix ?€?a table of hongmu categories?€? is added, which includes names, trade names, main places of origin, and regulatory or protection information of various tree species. Specifically speaking, Vietnam padauk (a different name of Burma padauk) and maidu (a different name of Burma padauk) of rosewood, blackwood (a different name of Burma blackwood) of black
rosewood, ponce?€?s kamagong of ebony are deleted; bolong-eta of ebony is adjusted to striped ebony; Cassia spp. of wenge is modified into Senna spp. (see Appendix B);
---Informative appendixes ?€?red sandalwood, rosewood, scented rosewood, black rosewood, violet rosewood, ebony, striped ebony and wenge species, and their wood characteristics ?€? are added, which includes the families, genera, foreign trade names of the various types of trees, trees and distributions,
macrostructural characteristics and photos, microstructural characteristics and photos, air-dry density and specimen materials (see Appendix C ~ Appendix J). This Standard was proposed by The State Forestry Administration of the PEOPLE Republic of China.
This Standard shall be under the jurisdiction of National Technical Committee 41 on Timber of Standardization Administration of China (SAC/TC 41).
The drafting organizations of this Standard: Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry; Guangxi University; Nanjing Forestry University; National Center for Quality Supervision and Inspection of Furniture and Indoor Environment; Shanghai Wood Industry Research Institute; Zhejiang Redwood Carved Furniture Product Quality Inspection Center; Fujian Classical Redwood Carved Furniture Product Quality Inspection Center; National Key Laboratory of Timber Species Identification and Wood Quarantine; National Furniture Quality Supervision and Inspection Center (Hebei); Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Forestry Research Institute; Yunnan Product Quality Supervision and Inspection Institute; China National Forest Products Industry Corporation; Hongmu Branch of China National Forest Products Industry Association; Experimental Center of Subtropical Forestry, Chinese Academy of Forestry; Beijing Hongwen Boya Traditional Hardwood Furniture Hongmu
1 Scope
This Standard stipulates the terms and definitions, classification, requirements, test methods, determination and others of Hongmu.
This Standard is applicable to the production, operation, trade, inspection and identification of Hongmu and its products.
2 Normative References
The following documents are indispensable to the application of this document. In terms of dated references, only the dated version applies to this document. In terms of undated references, the latest version (including all the amendments) applies to this document.
GB/T 1933 Method for Determination of the Density of Wood
LY/T 1788-2008 Standard Terminology Relating to Wood Properties
3 Terms and Definitions
What is defined in LY/T 1788-2008, and the following terms and definitions are applicable to this document.
3.1 Hongmu
Hongmu refers to heartwood of Pterocarpus, Dalbergia, Diospyros, Cliffords and Cassia species, and its structural characteristics, density and wood color (wood color darkened in the atmosphere) meet the requirements of this Standard.
3.2 Cross Section
Cross section refers to a section perpendicular to the main axis of trunk. 3.3 Radial Section
Radial section refers to a section along the axis of trunk parallel to the wood rays or perpendicular to the annual rings through the pith.
[LY/T 1788-2008, Definition 3.2.7]
3.4 Tangential Section
3.13 Sapwood
Sapwood refers to wood located near the bark on the external side of trunk; it is generally lighter in color than heartwood.
3.14 Air-dry Density
Air-dry density refers to the ratio of mass to volume when wood reaches equilibrium moisture content in a certain atmospheric state; it generally refers to the density value when the moisture content is 12%.
[LY/T 1788-2008, Definition 3.3.4]
4 Classification
Hongmu is classified into 8 types in total: red sandalwood, rosewood, scented rosewood, black rosewood, violet rosewood, ebony, striped ebony and wenge. It is shown in Appendix A.
5 Requirements
The main characteristics of red sandalwood, rosewood, scented rosewood, black rosewood, violet rosewood, ebony, striped ebony and wenge species shall comply with the stipulations in Appendix A.
6 Test Methods
6.1 Wood Structural Characteristics
6.1.1 Sampling
Take samples in accordance with the mode of mutually perpendicular cross section, radial section and tangential section. Generally speaking, the sampling size shall be not less than 20 mm ??? 20 mm ??? 20 mm. When this requirement cannot be satisfied, sampling size should be not less than 5 mm ??? 5 mm ??? 5 mm.
6.1.2 Macroscopic characteristics
Observe and record the color, odor, texture, structure, pattern and hardness characteristics of wood samples. Meanwhile, use the naked eye or a magnifying glass of about 10 times to observe the samples. On the cross section of the wood samples, observe and record characteristics like wood heartwood, sapwood, growth ring, pore, rays and axial parenchyma; on the tangential section, observe characteristics like ripple marks.
Appendix A
(normative)
Main Characteristics of Various Categories of Hongmu
The main characteristics of various categories of Hongmu are shown in Table A.1. Table A.1 -- Main Characteristics of Various Categories of Hongmu
Name of Wood
Trade Name
Main Characteristics Main
Places
of
Origin
Chinese
Name Latin Name
Wood Structural Characteristics
Heartwood
Color Odor
Heartwood Air-
dry Density
(12% moisture
content)
Type of
Growth
Ring
Axial Parenchyma Wood Rays Ripple Marks Structure
Red
Sandalwood
Diffuse-
porous
Wood
Concentric band-
state and wing-
state
Superposed;
homogeneous
single-row
(occasionally, 2
rows)
Visible Very fine to fine
Red purple to
black purple
With
fragrance
or slight
fragrance
Tropical
zone
Rosewood
Diffuse-
porous
Wood to
Semi-
ring
Porous
Wood
Intermittent wave-
shape concentric
band-state, wing-
state and poly-
wing-state
Superposed;
homogeneous
single-row
(occasionally, 2
rows)
Visible Fine
Light reddish
brown, reddish
brown to
purple reddish
brown, often
with dark
stripes
With
fragrance
or
extremely
slight
fragrance
Tropical
zone
wood rays,
obviously reticulate,
slightly sparse
vasicentric state
single-row;
partial ray cells
contain diamond
crystal and dark-
colored gum
Striped
Ebony
Diffuse-
porous
Wood
Concentric band-
state (width 1 cell),
partially intersected
with wood rays,
obviously reticulate,
slightly sparse
vasicentric state
Non-
superposed;
heterogeneous
single-row;
partial ray cells
contain diamond
crystal and dark-
colored gum
Invisible Fine
Black or
chestnut
brown, with
dark and light
stripes
Fragrance-
free
Tropical
zone
Wenge
Diffuse-
porous
Wood
Band-state or poly-
wing-state; axial
parenchyma band
has an equal width
as, or is slightly
narrower than fiber
tissue band
Superposed or
non-superposed;
homogeneous
single-row and
multiple-row (2 ~
3 cells)
Invisible
or slightly
visible
Fine to
Inter-
mediate
Dark brown or
chestnut
brown, often
with light
stripes, and
chicken-wing-
pattern on the
tangential
section
Fragrance-
free
Tropical
zone
Protection;
CITES
Convention
Appendix II
Regulation
4.1 ??€???????????€ D. cultrata Benth. Burma blackwood
Myanmar, India,
Vietnam, China
Yunnan
National
Plant List
Level-II
Protection;
CITES
Convention
Appendix II
Regulation
4.2 ???????????€ D. latifolia Roxb. Indian rosewood India, Indonesia
CITES
Convention
Appendix II
Regulation
4.3 ??????????????€ D. louvelii R.Vig. Bois de rose Madagascar, etc.
CITES
Convention
Appendix II
Regulation
4.4 ??????????????€ D. melanoxylon Guill. and Perr.
African
blackwood,
Grenadille
afrique
African countries, such
as: Tanzania,
Mozambique, Kenya
and Uganda
CITES
Convention
Appendix II
Regulation
4.5 ??????????????€ D. nigra (Vell.) Benth.
Brazilian
rosewood
South American
tropical countries, for
example, Brazil
CITES
Convention
Appendix I
Regulation
4.6 ??????????????€ D. spruceana (Benth.) Benth.
Jacaranda-do-
para
Amazonas, South
America
CITES
Convention
Appendix II
Regulation
4.7 ??????????????€ D. stevensonii Standl.
Honduras
rosewood
Central American
countries, for example,
Belize
CITES
Convention
Appendix II
Regulation
5.1 ???????????€ D. bariensis Pierre Neang nuon
Vietnam, Thailand,
Cambodia, Myanmar
and Laos
CITES
Convention
Appendix II
Appendix C
(informative)
Red Sandalwood Species and Wood Characteristics
??€????????€ Pterocarpus santalinus L.f. (Leguminosae; Pterocarpus)
Foreign trade name: Red sanders
Trees and distribution: arbor: height 8 m ~ 11 m; diameter at breast height may reach 0.4 m; bark manifests gray to dark brown, lobed. Main place of origin: India. Macrostructural characteristics: diffuse-porous wood. Sapwood manifests tan, which is clearly different from heartwood. Newly cut section of heartwood manifests jacinth, as time goes by, it turns dark purple or black purple; often with dark stripes. Growth ring is not obvious. Pores are invisible under the naked eye; the number of pores is few to relatively few. Axial parenchyma is obvious under the magnifying glass; manifests wing-state and band-state. Wood rays are visible under the magnifying glass. Ripple marks are not obvious. Sawdust water extract manifests yellow-green to light blue fluorescence. There is no or extremely slight fragrance. The structure is very fine to fine; the texture is staggered, and some are partially curled (known as ox hair pattern) (see Figure C.1).
a) Longitudinal Section of Solid Wood

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